Presentation on theme: "Motion and Design Training 4 th Grade Inquiry-Based Science Module Presenter: Stacy Chang, NBCT PowerPoint created by AMSTI trainers Revised."— Presentation transcript:
Motion and Design Training 4 th Grade Inquiry-Based Science Module Presenter: Stacy Chang, NBCT firstname.lastname@example.org PowerPoint created by AMSTI trainers Revised by Stacy Chang
The Learning Cycle “The 5 E’s” of an inquiry-based lesson Initiate ApplyClarify Question Evaluate
Science Notebook Components Question/Problem/Purpose Question/Problem/Purpose Hypothesis Hypothesis Procedure/Planning Procedure/Planning Results/Data/Observations Results/Data/Observations Conclusion/What Have You Learned? Conclusion/What Have You Learned? Next Step/New Question Next Step/New Question
AL Course of Study Science ACOS# 4 Describe effects of friction on moving objects. Identifying momentum and inertia as properties of moving objects. Identifying ways to increase or decrease friction.
Date Lesson 1A: Motion and Design KWL Question: What do you KNOW about Motion and Design? What do you WONDER about Motion and Design?
Motion and Design Students explore concepts related to the physics of motion and apply those concepts to technological design. It enables students to analyze the motion of vehicles they have built, investigate how forces affect a vehicle’s motion, and design vehicles that are propelled by stored energy.
Big Ideas Physics explains and predicts the motion of objects. Energy is the ability to make objects move. It is never created nor destroyed, but merely changes forms. The laws of physics are used in a cost- effective way to achieve efficient and purposeful designs.
Materials Manager – get tub/ bucket of materials Get each piece on sheet and color (Optional). Date Lesson 1B: Exploring the Pieces
Have fun! This is your time to “Free Explore” the building pieces. Date Lesson 1B: Exploring the Pieces
What did you discover during “free exploration” of the building pieces? How do the pieces fit together? “Tips on Using Building Pieces” (From time to time, the vendor changes the colors of the building pieces. Look at the SIZE and SHAPE of the pieces.)
Team Challenge: In 20 minutes or less, design and build a vehicle that will move at least 100 cm (39 in). How will you test whether your vehicle meet the requirements? o Keep in mind that this is our “getting started” lesson. You will have many opportunities throughout the unit to design, build, and test how vehicles move. DO NOT TAKE THIS APART. WE WILL USE THIS VEHICLE IN LESSON 2.
Team Challenge Race! Vehicle Name Distance Traveled (cm) Observations
Newton's First Law of Motion An object in motion tends to remain in motion, and an object at rest tends to remain at rest. If you were out in space and you gave a rock a push, its momentum would keep the rock moving at the same speed in the same direction until it bumped into something. On the other hand, if you put a rock in space and left it there not moving, its inertia would keep it right there, hanging in space, forever (or until something bumped into it or it came under gravitational or magnetic pull). On Earth, objects don't really remain in motion, because friction slows them down, and gravity pulls them toward the ground.spacerockmomentuminertia gravitationalmagneticEarthfrictiongravity
Question: How can we use drawings to record and build vehicles?
Think and Wonder How do engineers use drawings? You will also use a technical drawing to build another vehicle. Then you will read about a world- famous race car driver! 0
Let’s Look Back… What We Know about the Motion and Design of Vehicles Which statements relate to drawing or to design plans? 0
Engineers use science and math to plan, design, and construct products. They often sketch their ideas and plans before they build. They also make detailed records of their products after building them, either by drawing them or using computer graphics, so the products can be studied and improved. You will follow similar activities. 0 How do engineers use drawings?
Materials Manager, please get the following materials: Your vehicles from previous lesson Colored pencils Rulers Circle templates 0
Using graph paper: Draw your group’s vehicle from Lesson One. Be sure to date your drawing. Glue your drawing into your Science Notebook. Writing a description of your drawing in your Science Notebook. 0 Three-view Drawing
You now have a permanent record of your first design! Materials Manager: please pick up your tub/ bucket of building pieces. Your team now needs to: Take apart your vehicle Put all materials back in the bucket. 0
Analyzing your drawings and descriptions: If you were to build the same vehicle again, what features on the drawing would make it easy to build? 0
Let’s Build Again! Standard Vehicle: Figure 2-2. (This is also in your Student Investigations Book and TG.) Examine the technical drawing and decide which pieces you need to build the vehicle. If it will help you, you may color-code your drawing.
The Standard Vehicle Figure 2-2 (Front- fixed axle. Axle does not go through yellow center in the front).
You will be using this standard vehicle in your investigations for the next six lessons. 0
Final Activities: Let’s all display our vehicles. Do they all look alike? Why? 0
Final Activities, cont. Compare your first drawing with the technical drawing. How is your own drawing similar to or different from the technical drawing? On the technical drawing, what do you notice about the two views of the vehicle? How are they alike? How are they different? What parts of the technical drawing might make it easy for you to build this vehicle? What parts might make it difficult? How does color help in a drawing? Which drawing (your own or the technical one) might be easier to use if you needed to build 100 copies of a single model? Why? 0
Reading Selection: “The Race That Wasn’t Run” Think about how you felt when building your vehicle in Lesson 1. How might your feelings be like those of Bobby Rahal and his design team? 0
Lesson 3: Pulling a Vehicle: Looking at Force Question: What is force? How will it affect the motion of your vehicle? Hypothesis: I think force is _______________. If you add force to our vehicle, then_____________. Plan: Student Investigations Book p. 15-16. Observations: Record Sheet 3-A
Lesson 3 continued. Conclusion: Force is a push or a pull. The effect of the force on the motion of the vehicle depends on the size and direction of the force. In this investigation, the vehicle was pulled by the force of gravity, which acts on the weighted string and pulls the weight forward. Adding washers to our vehicles made our vehicles move faster. Reflection:
Lesson 3 Extension Ways to make our vehicle move quickly... Ways to make our vehicle move slowly...
Review: Newton's First Law of Motion An object in motion tends to remain in motion, and an object at rest tends to remain at rest. If you were out in space and you gave a rock a push, its momentum would keep the rock moving at the same speed in the same direction until it bumped into something. On the other hand, if you put a rock in space and left it there not moving, its inertia would keep it right there, hanging in space, forever (or until something bumped into it or it came under gravitational or magnetic pull). On Earth, objects don't really remain in motion, because friction slows them down, and gravity pulls them toward the ground.spacerockmomentuminertia gravitationalmagneticEarthfrictiongravity
Newton's Second Law of Motion Force equals mass times acceleration. To move a mass, you have to have force. You can tell how hard a moving object is going to hit by knowing how big it is (how much mass it has) and how fast it is speeding up (its acceleration).moving objectmass acceleration For instance, if the pitcher throws the ball to the catcher, how hard it hits the catcher's glove depends on how much mass the ball has and whether it is speeding up or slowing down when it gets to the glove. You can make something hit harder either by making it bigger or by throwing it faster.
Newton's Third Law of Motion For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Everything moves relative to everything else. If you push somebody, the push forces her backwards, but it also forces you backwards - that's the equal and opposite reaction. Sometimes the thing you're pushing against is so big that you don't notice the reaction (like if you are pushing off from the ground, the Earth is too big for you to see the reaction), but it is still there.
Think and Record Question: How will adding blocks to your vehicles change the way the vehicles move? Record your predictions in your Science Notebook. 0
Materials You Need: 1 pencil 1 copy of Record Sheet 4-A: Graphing Data 1 standard vehicle 1 string with paper clip hooks 16 small metal washers 2 blocks of wood 1 bookend 1 each red, blue, green pencils 0
Think and Record How could you change your vehicle so that it would hold two blocks of wood while it moves? Record your ideas in your Science Notebook. 0 MassWeight
To make it fair… In this lesson all of us will attach the blocks in the same manner. 0
To make it fair… Each team will use a timer to measure how long it takes your vehicles to move in each trial. Using consistent tools, you will be able to compare results. Materials Manager needs to get a timer from the distribution center. 0
Using your timer: Practice starting and stopping the timer. What do the large-and small-number displays on the time represent? 0
A student will move across the classroom. Time the motion of this student to the nearest second. Brainstorm examples of motion that we measure with time. Record your ideas in your Science Notebook. 0 Elapsed time…
1. Set up the falling-weight system as you did in Lesson 3. 2.Add two blocks to your vehicle. Squeeze the crossbars to make certain the blocks are held in place. 0 Student Instructions for Testing the Motion of Vehicles Carrying a Load
3.Make certain that one end of the string is attached to the vehicle and the other end is threaded through the opening in the bookend. Pull the vehicle back until the hook is at the top edge of your work space. Then have one group member hold the vehicle in place. 4. Place 10 small washers on the hook. Hang the weights over the edge of your work space (through the bookend). Make certain the hook is not stuck on the table edge. 5.Let go of the vehicle. If the vehicle does not move, tap it lightly. Can the 10 washers pull the vehicle? 6.If the vehicle still does not move at all, add more small washers, one at a time. Stop adding washers when the vehicle begins to move, even slightly, across the table. 0 Student Instructions for Testing the Motion of Vehicles Carrying a Load
7. Count your washers. Write the number on Record Sheet 4-A. Use this number of washers throughout this investigation. Do not change the number of washers. 8. Get your timer. Pull the vehicle back again until the hook is at the top edge of the table. When you are ready to begin, set the time to O. 9.As you let go of the vehicle, start the timer. (If the paper clip gets stuck on the edge of the table, start over.) Stop the timer when the falling weights touch the floor. Student Instructions for Testing the Motion of Vehicles Carrying a Load 10. Now look at the large numbers on your timer. Use your GREEN colored pencil. Color a circle at the bottom of the graph that matches the number of second it took your vehicle to move this distance. 0
11.Talk with your group about your vehicle’s motion. How did the blocks affect how the weighted string pulled your vehicle? 12. Reset the time to O. Repeat these steps four more times with the vehicle carrying two blocks of wood. Resent your time to I each time. After each trial, color a green circle on the graph to show your results. If you get the same time as an earlier trial, color a circle directly above the green circle from the other trial. 13. Now remove one block from your vehicle. Squeeze the crossbars so the block stays in place. Pull the vehicle back until the hook is at the top edge of the table. Reset your timer to O. 0 Student Instructions for Testing the Motion of Vehicles Carrying a Load
Remember: Stop the timer when the weights hit the floor. Testing the Motion of Vehicles Carrying a Load
Complete the investigation by following the student instructions on pgs. 20 – 22 of the Student Investigations Book. Be sure to use the colored pencils to fill in the appropriate circles on the line plot on Record Sheet 4-A. Keep the number of washers the same for each trial. Change only the load carried by the vehicle. 0
1.What did you observe when testing various loads (blocks)? 2.How did the vehicle move when it was loaded with two blocks? 3.How did the motion of the vehicle change when you removed one block? 4.How did it change when you removed both blocks? 5.What do you think would happen if you added a third or fourth blocks to the vehicle? 0 Looking at Results:
6.When the vehicle carried no blocks, what was left to influence its motion? (the weight of the vehicle) 7.What can you conclude about the effects of load (such as blocks) on a vehicle’s motion? 8.What situations at home or in school may be similar to what you tested in this lesson? 0 Looking at Results, cont.:
Refer to Record sheet 4-A: Graphing Data Now look at your dots. About how long did it take your vehicle to travel while carrying each of the following loads? Pick the number in the middle of your five trials, or the number that has the most dots of one color (median). Record the numbers on the bottom of your Record Sheet 4-A: Graphing Data. MeanModeMedian 0
Materials Manager: Return all materials to the distribution center. Make sure: To carefully wrap your string around the cardboard so it does not tangle. Return all washers to their cup. 0
Discuss Question: What happens when you add a load to your vehicle? Does it speed up or does it slow down? Conclusion/ Reflection: The larger the load, the slower the speed of the vehicle when a constant force is applied (gravity/washer). The larger load has more mass, therefore, more inertia, requiring a greater force to get it moving than if the load were small. Next Step/ New Questions:
Date Lesson 5: Designing Vehicles to Meet Requirements Question: How can you design vehicles to meet the following requirements? (Design Challenge) Hypothesis: Plan: Observations: (Write about your vehicle and draw it.) Conclusion/ Reflection: (Write a conclusion) Next Steps/ New Questions: