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© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. © 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this presentation may be copied, reproduced, or otherwise utilized without permission.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Sustainable Water Management Conference Denver, Colorado March 31, 2014 Presentation by William DeOreo, P.E.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Some Key Findings of the 2014 REUWS Update Study WRF Project #4309 William DeOreo, P.E.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Project Advisory Committee Mr. David Bracciano, Demand Management Coordinator, Tampa Bay Water Mr. Doug Bennett, Water Conservation Manager Southern Nevada Water Authority Mr. Robert Day, Director of Customer Service, San Jose Water Company Ms. Mary Ann Dickenson, Executive Director, Alliance for Water Efficiency Mr. Warren Liebold, Director of Conservation, New York City, and Ms. Maureen Hodgins, Water Research Foundation Research Manager
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Participating Level 1 Water Agencies The Denver, Colorado Water Department The City of Fort Collins, Colorado, Water Department The City of Scottsdale, Arizona Water Department The San Antonio, Texas, Water System The Clayton County, Georgia, Water Authority The Toho, Florida Water Authority The Region of Peel, Ontario, Canada The Region of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada The City of Tacoma, Washington, Water Department
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Participating Level 2 Agencies City of Aurora Colorado Water, Department City of Austin, Texas City of Chicago, Illinois City of Henderson, Nevada City of Mountain View, California City of San Diego, California City of Santa Barbara, California City of Santa Fe, New Mexico Cobb County Water System, Georgia Colorado Springs Utilities, Colorado Town of Cary, N.C. EPCOR, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Miami-Dade Water & Sewer, Florida Otay Water District, California Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Water Department Portland Water Bureau, Oregon Regional Water Authority, Connecticut
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Our Research Partners National Research Center —Dr. Thomas Miller, President —Erin Caldwell Hazen and Sawyer —Dr. Jack Kiefer Mr. William Gauley, P.E. President Gauley Associates Dr. Benedykt Dziegielewski, University of Southern Illinois Peter Mayer, P.E., Principal, Water Demand Management
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Objectives of Study Obtain new flow trace data on a national sample of single family homes Disaggregate flow trace data into end uses of water Compile water use data into a database Link water use to survey data Prepare statistical analyses and models Compare results to previous studies Explore conservation potential and benchmarks
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Some Key Findings Reduction in Domestic Use has occurred Big improvements in toilets and clothes washers —Only categories which show statistically significant reductions. Skewed Uses need special attention —Leakage (still number 5 category, just below CW) —Irrigation (small number of big users raise the mean) At least 20% potential for indoor conservation remains. Landscape use is quite varied, but follows similar patterns among groups.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Drop in Domestic Use Box Plot of Indoor GPD Median Use levels have dropped from 160 gpd in REUWS1 to 125 gpd in REUWS2 That is a 21% reduction in indoor use The number of persons per home has not changed significantly These reductions are due mainly to use of better efficiency toilets and clothes washers
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Significant Changes in Toilets and Clothes Washer use
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Shift in flush volumes Toilet flush distributions This graph shows distributions of individual toilet flushes logged during REUWS1 and REUWS2 1999 Data are in dark blue; show bulk of flush volumes around 4.5 gallon, with a second peak at 1.75 gallon. 2013 Data are in light blue, show major peak at 1.75 gallon and greatly diminished percentages at the 4 gallon level. In 10 years the flushes will probably be normally distributed around the 1.75 gallon bin.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Fewer Homes with mixtures of toilets Toilet Heterogeneity More homes are showing higher percentages of low volume flushes ~30% of homes have over 90% of flushes < 2.2 gal ~ 30% have less than 10% flushes < 2.2 gal ~40% have mixtures So, up to 70% of homes are still candidates for toilet retrofits.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Skewed Nature of Leakage Leakage is highly skewed by a few homes. Average leakage rate was 17 gpd, but median was 4 gpd. Top 21 homes, 3%, accounted for 30% of total leakage in group of 762 10% of the homes were leaking at ~105 gpd; 90% were leaking at 8 gpd. Keeping leakage at the median (~5 gpd) would save 12 gpd on average, or 4 kgal per year.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Hot Water by end use Hot Water Use Average homes used ~42 gpd of hot water This was ~30% of total use On average the homes use 753,000 BTU/Mo for heating water Maximum was 1.06 MBTU in Tacoma Minimum was 321,000 BTU in Scottsdale Showers are the #1 hot water user, followed by faucet use. Clothes washing is a relatively small hot water user.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Application ratios are biased by high users Skewed Irrigation Applications Most homeowners are UNDER irrigating. Nearly 80% of homes in the study were applying less than the theoretical irrigation requirement. Irrigation is a lot like leakage in that a few large users are accounting for the bulk of the excess irrigation. Analysis is based on aerial photos using a consistent set of procedures for estimating irrigated areas and plant types plus Local Net ET with allowanced for irrigation system efficiencies.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Order of Peaking: Diurnal Patterns Morning Peaks Toilets Showers Faucets Clothes Washers Evening Peaks Faucets Toilets Showers Bath tubs Clothes washers Dish washers Continuous Leaks Humidifiers
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Current Use vs Benchmarks Savings Potential Average Savings Potential = 31 gphd from switching to Water Sense devices Equates to 11 kgal per year indoor This is approximately 20% of current indoor use Does not include savings from leakage control. Leakage control would add another 4 kgal per year. Total savings are estimated at 15 kgal per year for indoor + leakage, or ~25% of current use.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. By Extracting from Historical Database: Benchmarks Class 1 homes: meet WaterSense standards. Current best available efficiency with off-the- shelf equipment Class 2 homes: Intermediate efficiency based on most homes meeting NEPA standards. Class 3 homes: older homes, pre-NEPA
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Household use v residents Not correct to scale up per-capita use on a linear basis Household use relationship follows a power curve Exponent is normally less than one Curve shown is for high efficiency homes (Class 1) Class 2 and 3 homes would have a different curve, but similar form. Non-linear Relationship
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Conclusions Keep up with the high efficiency toilets and clothes washers Consider things like upgrade-on-sale ordinances to accelerate adoption Focus on high users for conservation Consider water budgets to put a premium price on high consumption Attach a capital value to the water over and above the cost of service Deal with leakage in the 10%’ers: either install sensors, or use AMR to send alerts Use the high efficiency benchmark values for planning purposes, not the historical values, which are obsolete.
© 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Thank you Contact: William DeOreo, P.E. Aquacraft, Inc. 2709 Pine Street, Boulder CO, 80302 303-786-9691 email@example.com www.aquacraft.com
Some Key Findings of the 2014 REUWS Update Study Project 4309 Water Research Foundation ACE 2014, Boston MA.
Single Family Residential End Uses of Water Study Update Water Research Foundation Project /9/2014, Water Smart Innovations Conference, Las Vegas,
© 2012 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. © 2014 Water Research Foundation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this presentation may be copied,
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