Where is Water Used in PA? Thermoelectric (not shown) = 5,930 Water Use (million gallons per day)
Shifting Population Changes Local Water Use ~20,000 new wells each year Wells Drilled 1960-1994
Household Water Use in PA 1900 –5 million residents –5 gallons per person per day 1995 –12 million residents –62 gallons per person per day
Where is Water Used in the Home (69.3 gallons per person per day)
Why Conserve Water? Save money !! –Energy savings (from heating water) –Water savings (for those that pay for water) Conserve your supply for later use Rebates –Some utilities offer incentives for conservation Reduce the load to your septic or sewer system Make environmentally conscious decisions when possible
Achieving Water Conservation Changes in habits –Little or no cost –Quick effect –Usually temporary Water-saving appliances, fixtures –Can be expensive –Most are easily installed –Very effective –Permanent
Changes in Habits Often touted during droughts Examples Shorter showers Wait for full laundry loads Less frequent toilet flushing Reduce outdoor watering No car washing
Toilets Largest user of water in most homes Average use = 5.1 flushes per person per day Conventional = 4 to 5 gallons per flush (gpf) New toilets = 1.6 gpf 1.6 gpf toilets have been required since 1994
Clothes Washers Average use = 2.6 loads per week per person Conventional = 45 to 51 gallons per load (gpl) Front-loading = 27 gpl Disadvantages More expensive initially Bending to get clothes Longer wash time Advantages Significant energy savings Less detergent Less drying needed Larger load capacity Cleaner clothes Less wear and tear on clothes
Dish Washer 50% of homes have one Similar water use to hand-washing Average use = about 1 load per week per person Conventional = about 11 gallons per load Water efficient = 4 to 7 gpl
Other Water-Saving Toilets Mostly commercial or recreational uses Air-assisted Utilizes air compressor About 0.5 gallons per flush Noisy Composting No water use Requires careful maintenance Best for low-use situations Air-assisted Composting toilet and composter
Faucets Average use = 4 minutes per day per person Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute Low-volume = 1.5 gallons per minute (as low as 0.5 gpm for bathroom) Very inexpensive 2.5 gpm faucets required since 1994
Showerheads Average use = 8 minutes per day per person Conventional = 3 to 6 gallons per minute Low-volume = 2 to 2.5 gallons per minute Some have manual shut-off for extra savings Very inexpensive Savings depend on habits also 2.5 gpm showerhead required since 1994
Effect of Water Conservation Normal use = 68 gallons per day per person Conservation use = 38 gallons per day per person Water Use (gallons per day)
Estimated Annual Water and Energy Savings (family of four) Water SavingsEnergy Savings Appliance(gallons)(kilowatt hours) Low-flush toilet18,000 0 Low-volume showerhead 4,000 500 Low-volume faucet 9,000 500 Front-loading washer13,0001,300 Water-efficient dishwasher 600 150 Total44,6002,450 Annual Dollar Savings Water44,600 gallons @ $0.005 per gallon ~ $225 Energy2,450 Kwh @ $0.08 per kWh ~ $200
Outdoor Water Conservation Outdoor use usually small in PA (< 10%) High percentage is evaporated (consumptive use) First target of drought restrictions Examples Rain barrels to collect roof water Drip or soaker hoses for irrigation Nighttime watering No car washing, filling pools, etc.
Water Resources Planning Act (Passed December 2002) Objectives –Estimate how much water we have –Determine how much we use –Estimate how much we will need Creates a State Water Plan Registration of all large water users –Those using >10,000 gallons per day Water conservation education and assistance Identification of critical water resources planning areas Precursor to water resources based planning?
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