Presentation on theme: "Preventive Maintenance"— Presentation transcript:
1Preventive Maintenance School Bus Driver TrainingUnit EPreventive MaintenanceIt is highly recommended that the instructor customize this presentation according to local policies and guidelines. Take pictures of buses used in your fleet, customize the procedures according to your local procedures, use your own pre-trip inspections forms etc. What is presented here is only an example.School bus operators have significant responsibility in the preventive maintenance program, especially in the proactive component of preventive maintenance. Remember: with an effective preventive maintenance system, service begins with the pre-trip inspection. With an ineffective preventive maintenance system, breakdowns and complaints control the service. From an operator’s standpoint, preventive maintenance includes the following items:Pre-trip inspectionOperational inspectionPost-trip inspectionAs indicated in this Unit, as an operator, you should NOT be making repairs yourself; this is the role of your maintenance team. Report, don’t diagnose. However, since you are on the road with your vehicle for several hours each day, you are in the best position to observe how it performs under all conditions. Learn to recognize defects both during the pre-trip inspection and while on the road, and immediately report problems to your supervisor or the bus maintenance department. Problems cannot be repaired if they are not reported.This Unit covers each of these items as part of your normal daily preventive maintenance tasks. Responsibility for these tasks may vary due to differences in buses and/or local policy. If you are ever unsure of the preventive maintenance duties assigned to you, ask your supervisor.
2ObjectivesAt the end of this session school bus operators will be able to:Identify and describe basic procedures involved in normal daily pre-trip, on-the-road, and post-trip inspectionsDetect impending vehicle defects and know how to report them in a meaningful mannerRecognize common driving errors or abuses that cause excessive component wearEmploy proper driving habits to prolong the life of the busThe school bus operator is NOT to be a mechanic. The school bus operator is to be a reporter – to observe potential problems and report to a mechanic.
3Importance of Preventive Maintenance Minimizes bus failures and costsMaximizes SAFETY, comfort, and level of service
4School Bus Driver’s Role? Pre-trip InspectionOperational InspectionDetect problems, don’t fix themPractice good driving habitsPost-trip InspectionCommunicationProblems cannot be repaired if they are not reported
5Pre-trip InspectionPurpose: Identify problems that could cause a crash or breakdownDevelop a routineVehicle overviewEngine compartment inspectionInside bus inspectionOutside bus inspection (walk around)Brake testThe pre-trip inspection may find problems that could cause a break-down or crash. Also, federal regulations require that (1) the driver be satisfied that the bus is in safe operating condition; (2) review the last driver vehicle inspection report; and (3) sign the report, only if defects or deficiencies were noted by the driver who prepared the report, to acknowledge that the driver has reviewed it and that there is a certification that the required repairs have been performed.To ensure a thorough pre-trip inspection is completed is to develop a routine. A safety equipment check will be part of the driver recertification skills exam. They will want to see you check the following items:Lighting Systems: 8-way lighting systems, headlights, turn signals, stop lights, hazard warning system, tail lights, ID and side marker lights.Safety Equipment: fire extinguisher, first aid kit, pry bar, portable emergency warning devices.Vehicle Equipment: Tires, emergency exits, condition and mounting of seats.Brake Checks: service brakes (air/hydraulic), emergency brake.Note that failure to correctly perform your air brake check during the examination will result in an automatic failure.The pre-trip inspection described in this Unit will cover ALL of these items.Most school districts and employers have their own pre-trip inspection forms and procedures. FOLLOW YOUR LOCAL GUIDELINES AND POLICIES. USE THEIR FORMS.INSTRUCTORS SHOULD CUSTOMIZE THIS SECTION TO INCORPORATE LOCAL CHECKLISTS, POLICIES, PROCEDURES, VEHICLES, ETC.
6What Do You Need? Checklist Rags/paper towels Cleaners Work gloves At least 15 minutesFOLLOW YOUR LOCAL GUIDELINES AND POLICIES. USE THEIR FORMS.
7Remember…Federal regulations require that before driving your bus that you:Be satisfied that it is in safe operating condition;Review the last driver vehicle inspection report; andSign the report, only if defects or deficiencies were noted by the driver who prepared the report, to acknowledge that the driver has reviewed it and that there is a certification that the required repairs have been performed.
8Basic Pre-trip Inspection Vehicle OverviewEngine Compartment InspectionInside Bus InspectionOutside Bus Inspection (Walk around)Check Brake System
91. 1. Vehicle OverviewRefer to Figure E-1 in Publication 117
101. 1. Vehicle Overview Check for leaks Check for previous problems Check for obstructions
112. Engine Compartment Inspection Check with your local procedures – some contractors and school districts do not require drivers to perform under-the-hood checks.
12Engine Compartment Inspection Recommended start: engine cool, fluids stableEnsure the parking brake is on and/or wheels chocked.Oil levelCoolant level and hosesPower steering level and hosesWindshield washer fluid levelBattery fluid level, connections and tie downsAutomatic transmission fluid levelWiring insulation
13Under the Hood Belts: tightness and excessive wear Leaks Alternator Water pumpAir compressorLeaksFuelCoolantOilPower steering fluidHydraulic fluidBrake fluidWindshield washerBattery fluidAutomatic transmission fluidExcept for windshield washer fluid and fuel, the fluids in your bus shouldn’t get used up or go anywhere.
14Check Oil Check daily before you start your trip Most vehicles will have the oil cap clearly markedThe oil on the stick will indicate if the oil level is lowFill with oil to the designated full line if it is lowNever leave the garage if your oil level is lowThere are different types of school buses and the locations the oil filler cap and dip stick may be in different locations. Consult with a supervisor or shop maintenance personnel for assistance in locating these items.The following slides provide one example.
18Locations the Oil Filler Cap and Dip Stick Locations Vary There are different types of school buses and the locations the oil filler cap and dip stick may be in different locations. Consult with a supervisor or shop maintenance personnel for assistance in locating these items.
31Check and Adjust Mirrors CleanAdjustedMaximize viewing areaCheck mirrors to make sure they are clean and adjusted so that you can see all areas around the bus from the driver’s seat and you can obtain the maximum viewing area consistent with the vision requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 111, “Rearview Mirrors”. Refer to 49 CFR The interior rearview mirror must provide a good view of passengers and the area directly behind the bus. The right and left side mirrors must provide a clear view past the right and left rear of the bus. The right and left front fender-mounted rear mirrors (convex mirrors) must provide a clear view from the forward-most point of the front fenders past the rear of the bus. The left front fender-mounted crossover mirror (convex) must provide a view of the blind area directly in front of the bus.
32Adjust Left and Right Flat Mirrors These mirrors are mounted at the left and right front corners of the bus at the side or front of the windshield. They are used to monitor traffic, check clearances and students on the sides and to the rear of the bus. There is a blind spot immediately below and in front of each mirror and directly in back of the rear bumper. The blind spot behind the bus could extend up to 400 feet depending on the width of the bus. Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you can see:200 feet or 4 bus lengths behind the bus.Along the sides of the bus.The rear tires touching the ground.
33Adjust Convex MirrorsThe convex mirrors are located below the outside flat mirrors. They are used to monitor the left and right sides at a wide angle. They provide a view of traffic, clearances, and students at the side of the bus. These mirrors present a view of people and objects that does not accurately reflect their size and distance from the bus. Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you can see:The entire side of the bus up to the mirror mounts.Front of the rear tires touching the ground.At least one traffic lane on either side of the bus.
36Adjust Left and Right Cross View Mirrors These mirrors are mounted on both left and right front corners of the bus. They are used to see the “danger zone” area directly in front of the bus that is not visible by direct vision, and to view the “danger zone” areas to the left side and right side of the bus, including the service door and front wheel areas. The mirror presents a view of people and objects that does not accurately reflect their size and distance from the bus. The driver must ensure that these mirrors are properly adjusted. Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you can see:The entire area in front of the bus from the front bumper at ground level to a point where direct vision is possible. Direct vision and mirror view vision should overlap.The right and left front tires touching the ground.The area from the front of the bus to the service door.These mirrors, along with the convex and flat mirrors, should be viewed in a logical sequence to ensure that a child or object is not in any area of the danger zone.
39Adjust Inside Rearview Mirror This mirror is mounted directly above the windshield on the driver’s side area of the bus and is used to monitor passenger activity inside the bus, NOT to see behind the bus. It may only provide limited visibility directly in back of the bus if the bus is equipped with a glass-bottomed rear emergency door. There is a blind spot area directly behind the driver’s seat as well as a large blind spot area that begins at the rear bumper and could extend up to 400 feet or more behind the bus. You must use the exterior side mirrors to monitor traffic that approaches and enters this area. Ensure that the mirrors are properly adjusted so you can see:The top of the rear window in the top of the mirror.All of the students, including the heads of the students right behind you.
44On-Board School Bus Safety Equipment Spare electrical fuses (if applicable)Portable emergency warning devicesFirst aid kitBody fluid clean up kitProperly charged and rated fire extinguisherPry barEmergency phone numbersCrash reporting packetSeat belt cutter (optional)While the seat belt cutter is optional, it is a good practice to carry one and know how it is usedRefer to state regulations in Title 67, Chapter 171 for additional regulatory information regarding safety equipment:
45On-Board School Bus Safety Equipment Ensure that if you use any safety equipment you replace it or notify a supervisor to have it replacedBe sure that all equipment is stored safely and securely
46Check Emergency Equipment Portable Emergency Warning DevicesBody fluid clean up kitFirst aid kitFully charged fire extinguisher
48Remaining Items Inside the Vehicle Check that seat belts operate properlyCheck defrost and heater fansCheck that windows are cleanGeneral cleanlinessWhen complete, turn on all your lights!
49Outside Bus Inspection (Walk around) Tires Wheels and RimsWalk aroundCheck all lightsHeadlightsEight-waysSide marker lightsBrake and backup lightsStrobe (if applicable)Check under busAfter you are done under the hood and inside, we recommend you proceed around the vehicle in a counter clockwise manner checking not only the components but also check for body damage and anything out of the ordinary
50Tires, Wheels, and RimsIrregular tire wear can be spotted early when tires are checked dailyBlow outs are not only frightening but can also result in loss of vehicle controlBlow outs can result in accidents, inconvenience, lost time, & increased cost
51Always Check the Tread Depth Front tires: 4/32 inchRear tires: 2/32 inchEdge of coin to top of head 4/32”
52Check Tires Worn tires create balance and alignment issues as well. If lug nuts are exposed ensure they are tight and secure.
53Right Front and Side Mirror Front wheel Front suspension Crossing arm controlBrakeFront AxleSteering systemWindshieldLights and reflectorsWith each of these items, review information provided in Publication 117
54Red Flashing LightsAmber Flashing LightsMirrorsMirrorsTurn Signal LightsTurn Signal LightsCrossing Control ArmHeadlights
55Right Front and Side Clearance Lights Side Windows Mirrors Fuel Cap Tires, Wheels, Lug NutsService DoorRear Emergency Door
56Left Front and Side Same as right front Left side stop arm and wing guardFender and crossover mirrorsFuel tank(s)Battery checkOther visible parts
57Left Front and Side Clearance Lights Windshield and Wipers Mirrors Side WindowsTires, Wheels, Lug NutsEngine CompartmentSide Stop ArmBattery
625. Check Brake System Parking brake Service brakes Hydraulic brake testAir brakes** Refer to Sections 5 and 10 of the CDL Manual
63Automatic Brake Adjusters Should not have to be manually adjustedManual adjustment masks a mechanical problem, it does not fix it!Report ASAs that are out of adjustment to your mechanic
64Finish your Pre-trip Turn off lights Secure loose items Fill out paperwork
65What if I find something wrong during the pre-trip inspection? REPORT AND DOCUMENT!If you discover a mechanical problem during the pre-trip inspection contact a supervisor or maintenance shop personnel to ensure repairs are made prior to operating the school bus
66Example Symptoms Problem? What do you do? Dripping trail or puddle under engineLiquid is thick, wet, yellow-greenIncreasing engine temperatureProblem?What do you do?Don’t operate the bus, and don’t try to fix it. Report it to your maintenance department! Describe the symptoms, don’t diagnose.
67Example Symptoms Problem? What do you do? Dripping trail or puddle under engineLiquid is thick, dark brown to blackNoisy engineIncreasing engine temperatureProblem?What do you do?Don’t operate the bus, and don’t try to fix it. Report it to your maintenance department! Describe the symptoms, don’t diagnose.
68Operational Preventive Maintenance Also known as on-the road or in-service preventive maintenanceDetecting unusual vehicle behaviorGood driving habits for maintenanceUse your senses!!
69Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior Continuously check gaugesCheck parking brakeCheck service brakesAir brakesHydraulic brakesCheck transmissionCheck steeringCheck suspensionCheck engineCheck tiresEmphasize that mechanical problems with the bus can be detected using most of a school bus operator’s senses.What is an example of mechanical trouble that can be detected by hearing?A: An engine knock.What is an example of mechanical trouble that can be detected by seeing?A: A loose wire or a coolant leak.What is an example of mechanical trouble that can be detected by smelling?A: Burning insulation or the engine leaking oil onto a hot manifold.What is an example of mechanical trouble that can be detected by feeling?A: A shimmy in the steering or a problem with the brake pedal.What should you be looking for?A: Anything loose, weakening, broken, or leaking; anything that looks/seems different from usual; problems that increase noticeably with time.
70Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior Be familiar with your busUse ALL senses: Sight, Sound, Smell, TouchNormal gauge readingsFeel of rideSoundsPre-existing problems?
71Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior Anything loose, weakening, broken, leaking?Anything look/seem different than usual?Problems that are increasing noticeably with time?Trace to the sourceCheck for related problems
72Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Basic Bus OperationsEngage starterTire checksIdlingProper Use of ClutchNot a brake!Don’t rideAdjustDon’t engage the starter any more than secondsDon’t forget your tires! Refer to the pre-trip inspection portion.Don’t idle excessively – diesel buses get warm by driving it. In fact, In 2008, Act 124 (Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act) was passed, which reduces unnecessary idling of the main propulsion engine in diesel-powered motor vehicles, including trucks and buses. Essentially, Act 124 prohibits the owners and drivers of any diesel-powered motor vehicles with a gross weight of 10,001 pounds or more engaged in commerce from allowing the engine of the vehicle to idle for more than five minutes in any continuous 60-minute period. However, 35 P.S. Section 4603(c)(10) allows a school bus to idle a total of 15 minutes in a continuous 60-minute period to provide heat or air conditioning to students. This Section also allows school buses transporting students with special needs to idle for an unlimited amount of time when it is necessary to maintain a safe temperature.Keep in mind that while Act 124 preempts and supersedes local anti-idling ordinances or rules, more stringent idling restrictions imposed by counties of the first and second class (Allegheny and Philadelphia Counties), continue in full force and effect provided they are not amended, suspended or rendered invalid. Here are a few good tips:As a general rule, buses should be moving whenever the engine is on.The engine should be turned off as soon as possible after arriving at loading or unloading areas.The school bus should not be restarted until it is ready to depart.Limit idling time during early morning warm up to what the manufacturer recommends (generally no more than five minutes).This is also discussed in Unit G.On most equipment, clearance or freeplay should be ~1 to 1.5” in the clutch
73Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Proper Use of BrakesUse engine to slow busAvoid quick stopsKnow when to disengage clutchProtect Rear AxleDon’t spin tiresCareful on different surfaces
74Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Manual transmissionStart in low gearDownshift up and down hillsStop completely before shifting into first or reverseAutomatic transmissionUse gearshift appropriatelyDon’t use accelerator to hold a vehicle
75Post-trip InspectionPost-trip inspections are required by federal regulations (49 CFR Section )At a minimum, your report must include:Service brakesParking (hand) brakeSteering mechanismLighting devices and reflectorsTiresHornWindshield wipersRear vision mirrorsCoupling devicesWheels and rimsEmergency equipmentCheck with your local system to obtain and use their forms in the training.
76Post-trip Inspection Check fuel level, fill After parking, let engine idleCheck interiorDamaged seatsLeftover students or backpacksCheck exteriorReport
77Passenger Compartment Check Some school bus seat backs are high and can hide students and items.
78Post-trip Interior Check Reminder Some districts or companies use electronic systems to ensure the driver completes an interior walk through of the school bus, while others use a sign hung in the back window to ensure no students are left in the bus.
79Reporting Problems: Communication is Critical Report problems immediatelyReport problems accuratelyDon’t operate an unsafe vehicleVerbal communication can help resolve problems but it isn’t a substitute for written documentationRemember:LocationTimingSoundsOther descriptive characteristics
83Responsibility Anything unusual is a potential problem Danger to youDanger to your studentsDanger to other motoristsAnyone who knows about a problem is responsible for addressing it:Write it downPass it onFix it
84Responsibility Take action on maintenance decisions Never ignore a defectFix it temporarily/permanentlyMonitor problemPull vehicle from serviceSubstitute vehicleIf on the road, may need to shut down