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School Bus Driver Training Unit E Preventive Maintenance.

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Presentation on theme: "School Bus Driver Training Unit E Preventive Maintenance."— Presentation transcript:

1 School Bus Driver Training Unit E Preventive Maintenance

2 Objectives At the end of this session school bus operators will be able to: Identify and describe basic procedures involved in normal daily pre-trip, on-the-road, and post-trip inspections Detect impending vehicle defects and know how to report them in a meaningful manner Recognize common driving errors or abuses that cause excessive component wear Employ proper driving habits to prolong the life of the bus

3 Importance of Preventive Maintenance Minimizes bus failures and costs Maximizes SAFETY, comfort, and level of service

4 School Bus Driver’s Role? Pre-trip Inspection Operational Inspection Detect problems, don’t fix them Practice good driving habits Post-trip Inspection Communication Problems cannot be repaired if they are not reported

5 Pre-trip Inspection Purpose: Identify problems that could cause a crash or breakdown Develop a routine 1. Vehicle overview 2. Engine compartment inspection 3. Inside bus inspection 4. Outside bus inspection (walk around) 5. Brake test

6 What Do You Need? Checklist Rags/paper towels Cleaners Work gloves At least 15 minutes

7 Remember… Federal regulations require that before driving your bus that you: Be satisfied that it is in safe operating condition; Review the last driver vehicle inspection report; and Sign the report, only if defects or deficiencies were noted by the driver who prepared the report, to acknowledge that the driver has reviewed it and that there is a certification that the required repairs have been performed.

8 Basic Pre-trip Inspection Vehicle Overview Engine Compartment Inspection Inside Bus Inspection Outside Bus Inspection (Walk around) Check Brake System

9 1. 1. Vehicle Overview Refer to Figure E-1 in Publication 117

10 1. 1. Vehicle Overview Check for leaks Check for previous problems Check for obstructions

11 2.Engine Compartment Inspection

12 Engine Compartment Inspection Recommended start: engine cool, fluids stable Ensure the parking brake is on and/or wheels chocked. Oil level Coolant level and hoses Power steering level and hoses Windshield washer fluid level Battery fluid level, connections and tie downs Automatic transmission fluid level Wiring insulation

13 Under the Hood Belts: tightness and excessive wear Alternator Water pump Air compressor Leaks Fuel Coolant Oil Power steering fluid Hydraulic fluid Brake fluid Windshield washer Battery fluid Automatic transmission fluid

14 Check Oil  Check daily before you start your trip  Most vehicles will have the oil cap clearly marked  The oil on the stick will indicate if the oil level is low  Fill with oil to the designated full line if it is low  Never leave the garage if your oil level is low

15 Remove Oil Dipstick and Check Fluid Level

16 Wipe fluid off, re-insert dipstick and look again to determine oil level

17 Check Oil Level Daily

18 Locations the Oil Filler Cap and Dip Stick Locations Vary

19 Check Belts

20 Check Washer Fluid Level

21 Check Other Fluid Levels as Appropriate

22 Check Battery

23 3.3.Inspect Inside of Bus Driver Compartment Passenger Entry Passenger Compartment

24 Start Engine for Inside Bus Inspection Parking brake on! Put engine in neutral Turn off heaters Start engine Use your ears for unusual engine noise For diesels, make sure injector pump is engaged

25 Driver Compartment Check all gauges Oil pressure Ammeter/voltmeter Coolant temperature No warning lights should be on Vacuum gauge (if applicable) Fuel gauge Air gauge

26 Check that All Gauges Function Correctly

27 Driver Compartment Check all controls Steering wheel Clutch Accelerator Brakes (and brake pressure) Horn All lights and signals Wipers operate properly Washer fluid operates properly

28 Check Controls

29 Driver Compartment Check all lights Headlights Dimmer switch Turn signals Four-way flashers Clearance, identification, marker lights Eight-ways Strobe (if applicable)

30 Check Lights

31 Check and Adjust Mirrors Clean Adjusted Maximize viewing area

32 Adjust Left and Right Flat Mirrors

33 Adjust Convex Mirrors

34 Look at Both!

35 Why?

36 Adjust Left and Right Cross View Mirrors

37 Left Cross View Mirror

38 Right Cross View Mirror

39 Adjust Inside Rearview Mirror

40 Passenger Entry Service doors Stairwell Handrail

41 Passenger Compartment Interior walk through Emergency door Other emergency exits Bus emergency equipment

42 Interior Walk Through

43 Rear Emergency Door and Other Emergency Exits

44 On-Board School Bus Safety Equipment  Spare electrical fuses (if applicable)  Portable emergency warning devices  First aid kit  Body fluid clean up kit  Properly charged and rated fire extinguisher  Pry bar  Emergency phone numbers  Crash reporting packet  Seat belt cutter (optional)

45 On-Board School Bus Safety Equipment  Ensure that if you use any safety equipment you replace it or notify a supervisor to have it replaced  Be sure that all equipment is stored safely and securely

46 Check Emergency Equipment Body fluid clean up kit First aid kit Portable Emergency Warning Devices Fully charged fire extinguisher

47 Properly Secure Equipment

48 Remaining Items Inside the Vehicle Check that seat belts operate properly Check defrost and heater fans Check that windows are clean General cleanliness When complete, turn on all your lights!

49 Outside Bus Inspection (Walk around) Tires Wheels and Rims Walk around Check all lights Headlights Eight-ways Side marker lights Brake and backup lights Strobe (if applicable) Check under bus

50 Tires, Wheels, and Rims

51 Always Check the Tread Depth Edge of coin to top of head 4/32” Front tires: 4/32 inch Rear tires: 2/32 inch

52 Check Tires

53 Right Front and Side Mirror Front wheel Front suspension Crossing arm control Brake Front Axle Steering system Windshield Lights and reflectors

54 Mirrors Turn Signal Lights Crossing Control Arm Red Flashing Lights Amber Flashing Lights Headlights Mirrors Turn Signal Lights

55 Rear Emergency Door Side Windows Service Door Mirrors Fuel CapTires, Wheels, Lug Nuts Clearance Lights Right Front and Side

56 Left Front and Side Same as right front Left side stop arm and wing guard Fender and crossover mirrors Fuel tank(s) Battery check Other visible parts

57 Mirrors Engine Compartment Windshield and Wipers Clearance Lights Side Stop Arm Battery Tires, Wheels, Lug Nuts Side Windows Left Front and Side

58 Check that Fuel Cap is On and Secure

59 Left and Right Rear Lights and reflectors License plate Splash guards Rear emergency door Suspension and brakes Exhaust

60 Brake Lights Turn Signals (Hazard Warning Lights) Tail Lights Red Flashing Lights Amber Flashing Lights Back-up Lights Brake Lights Turn Signals (Hazard Warning Lights) Tail Lights Red Marker Lights Tailpipe

61 Check Rear Emergency Door

62 5. Check Brake System Parking brake Service brakes Hydraulic brake test Air brakes* * Refer to Sections 5 and 10 of the CDL Manual

63 Automatic Brake Adjusters Should not have to be manually adjusted Manual adjustment masks a mechanical problem, it does not fix it! Report ASAs that are out of adjustment to your mechanic

64 Finish your Pre-trip Turn off lights Secure loose items Fill out paperwork

65 What if I find something wrong during the pre-trip inspection? REPORT AND DOCUMENT!

66 Example  Symptoms Dripping trail or puddle under engine Liquid is thick, wet, yellow-green Increasing engine temperature  Problem?  What do you do?

67 Example  Symptoms Dripping trail or puddle under engine Liquid is thick, dark brown to black Noisy engine Increasing engine temperature  Problem?  What do you do?

68 Operational Preventive Maintenance Also known as on-the road or in-service preventive maintenance Detecting unusual vehicle behavior Good driving habits for maintenance Use your senses!!

69 Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior  Continuously check gauges  Check parking brake  Check service brakes  Air brakes  Hydraulic brakes  Check transmission  Check steering  Check suspension  Check engine  Check tires

70 Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior  Be familiar with your bus  Use ALL senses: Sight, Sound, Smell, Touch  Normal gauge readings  Feel of ride  Sounds  Pre-existing problems?

71 Detecting Abnormal Vehicle Behavior  Anything loose, weakening, broken, leaking?  Anything look/seem different than usual?  Problems that are increasing noticeably with time?  Trace to the source  Check for related problems

72 Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Basic Bus Operations Engage starter Tire checks Idling Proper Use of Clutch Not a brake! Don’t ride Adjust

73 Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Proper Use of Brakes Use engine to slow bus Avoid quick stops Know when to disengage clutch Protect Rear Axle Don’t spin tires Careful on different surfaces

74 Good Driving Habits for Maintenance Manual transmission Start in low gear Downshift up and down hills Stop completely before shifting into first or reverse Automatic transmission Use gearshift appropriately Don’t use accelerator to hold a vehicle

75 Post-trip Inspection Post-trip inspections are required by federal regulations (49 CFR Section ) At a minimum, your report must include: Service brakes Parking (hand) brake Steering mechanism Lighting devices and reflectors Tires Horn Windshield wipers Rear vision mirrors Coupling devices Wheels and rims Emergency equipment

76 Post-trip Inspection Check fuel level, fill After parking, let engine idle Check interior Damaged seats Leftover students or backpacks Check exterior Report

77 Passenger Compartment Check Some school bus seat backs are high and can hide students and items.

78 Post-trip Interior Check Reminder

79 Reporting Problems: Communication is Critical  Report problems immediately  Report problems accurately  Don’t operate an unsafe vehicle  Verbal communication can help resolve problems but it isn’t a substitute for written documentation  Remember:  Location  Timing  Sounds  Other descriptive characteristics

80 Communication Accuracy  Location: Left/right Front/rear Inside/outside Upper/lower/underneath

81 Communication Accuracy  Timing: Sometimes, always, often, occasionally Certain times More, less Slowly, suddenly, fast  Sounds: Loud, soft, faint, noisy Bell, buzzer, bang, snap, sputter, clank, rumble, groan, squeak, whine, rip, scrape, road, race, clunk, ping, hiss

82 Communication Accuracy  Describing problem: Grabbing, sticking Broken, loose, worn, crushed, pinched, torn, not aligned, jammed, stuck, fayed, leaking, dripping, spilling, weak, rusted, cracked, missing Hot, warm, cold, cool, frosty Burning, sweet, smoky, cloudy, bitter, Color, clear Oily, wet, sticky, slick, thick

83 Responsibility Anything unusual is a potential problem Danger to you Danger to your students Danger to other motorists Anyone who knows about a problem is responsible for addressing it: Write it down Pass it on Fix it

84 Responsibility Take action on maintenance decisions Never ignore a defect Fix it temporarily/permanently Monitor problem Pull vehicle from service Substitute vehicle If on the road, may need to shut down


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