# IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

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IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes
IE 337 Lecture 12: Forming 2 IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes Lecture 13: Metal Forming Operations 2 Chapter 20 S.V. Atre

Issues To Address Sheet Metal Processes Homework 4 (Due Tuesday)
Cutting Bending Homework 4 (Due Tuesday)

Three Major Sheet Metal Processes
Cutting Shearing to separate large sheets, or cut part perimeters, or make holes in sheets Bending Straining sheet around a straight axis Drawing Forming of sheet into convex or concave shapes

Cutting: Blanking & Punching
(a) Blanking and (b) Punching

heat exchangers and reactors
Extending the concept Microscale heat exchangers and reactors Paul et al, OSU Micrograph courtesy of PNNL

Cutting Parameters Clearance between punch and die Stock thickness
Type of metal & strength Length of cut

Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting
Distance between the punch and die Clearance allowance values range between 4% and 8% of stock thickness If too small, fracture lines pass each other, causing a poor cut and larger force If too large, metal is pinched between cutting edges and excessive burr results

Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting
Recommended clearance can be calculated by: c = at Where: c = clearance; a = allowance; and t = stock thickness Allowance a is determined according to type of metal

Allowance a for Three Sheet Metals
Metal group a 1100S and 5052S aluminum alloys, all tempers 0.045 2024ST and 6061ST aluminum alloys; brass, soft cold rolled steel, soft stainless steel 0.060 Cold rolled steel, half hard; stainless steel, half hard and full hard 0.075 Table 20.1, Page 444

Die and Blank Size Relationships
Die size determines blank size Db; Punch size determines hole size Dh.; c = clearance

Punch & Die Sizes for Blanking/Punching
For a round blank of diameter Db: Blanking punch diameter = Db ‑ 2c Blanking die diameter = Db where c = clearance For a round hole of diameter Dh: Hole punch diameter = Dh Hole die diameter = Dh + 2c

Example A compound die will be used to blank and punch a large washer out of aluminum alloy sheet stock 3.2 mm thick. The outside diameter of the washer = 65 mm and the inside diameter = 30 mm. Determine: (a) the punch and die sizes for the blanking operation, and (b) the punch and die sizes for the punching operation.

Example: Solution From Table 20.1, a = Thus, c = at = 0.045(3.2) = mm (a) Blanking punch diameter = Db - 2c = (0.144) = mm Blanking die diameter = Db = 65 mm (b) Punching punch diameter = Dh = 30 mm Punching die diameter = Dh + 2c = (0.144) = mm

Cutting F = ?

Cutting Forces Important for determining press size (tonnage)
F = S t L Where: S = shear strength of metal, MPa t = stock thickness, mm, and L = length of cut edge, mm Since shear strength is not always available, it may be estimated from the tensile strength (TS): S = 0.7 TS

Example The outside diameter of an Al washer = 65 mm and the inside diameter = 30 mm. Determine the minimum tonnage press to perform the blanking and punching operation on the washer if the aluminum sheet metal of thickness 3.2 mm has a tensile strength = 290 MPa.

Example: Solution F = 0.7(TS)tL t =3.2 mm
L = 65p + 30p = 95p = mm F = 0.7(290)(3.2)(298.5) = 193,874 N

Bending - 1 Straining sheet metal around a straight axis to take a permanent bend

both compression and tensile elongation of the metal occur in bending
Metal on inside of neutral plane is compressed, while metal on outside of neutral plane is stretched both compression and tensile elongation of the metal occur in bending

Types of Sheetmetal Bending
V‑bending - performed with a V‑shaped die Bottom-bending Workpiece is in complete contact with punch on one side, and the with the die on the other side Angle is set by the form of the tooling (punch & die) Air-bending A form of three-point bending Angle is continuously variable* - set by a stop Edge bending - performed with a wiping die

V - Bending For low production rates Performed on a press brake
V-dies are simple and inexpensive

Edge - Bending For high production rates Pressure pad required
Dies are more complicated and costly

Stretching during Bending
If bend radius is small relative to stock thickness, metal tends to stretch during bending Important to estimate amount of stretching, so that final part length = specified dimension

Bend Allowance Formula
where: BA = bend allowance; A = bend angle; degrees R= bend radius; t = stock thickness; and Kba is factor to estimate stretching Rule of Thumb: Compare bend radius to thickness R < 2t Kba = 0.33 R  2t Kba = 0.50

Springback in Bending Springback in bending shows itself as a decrease in bend angle and an increase in bend radius: (1) during bending, the work is forced to take the radius Rb and included angle Ab' of the bending tool (punch in V‑bending), (2) after punch is removed, the work springs back to radius R and angle A'

Springback in Bending Springback = increase in included angle of bent part relative to included angle of forming tool after tool is removed Reason for springback: When bending pressure is removed, elastic energy remains in bent part, causing it to recover partially toward its original shape

Bending Force Maximum bending force estimated as follows: Where:
F = bending force; TS = tensile strength of sheet metal; w = part width in direction of bend axis; t = stock thickness; and D = die opening dimension. For V - bending, Kbf = 1.33; For edge bending, Kbf = 0.33

Die opening dimension D: (a) V‑die, (b) wiping die

This Time Shearing and bending operations
Punch and die calculations for blanking Estimating cutting & bending forces Estimating bend allowance Springback

Assignment HW 4 (Due Tuesday): CH 18 & 20 Problems: press brake 18.2
18.15 20.4 20.9 20.12 CH 6, 18 & 20 Questions To be posted by the end of the day press brake

Next Time Glass and Ceramics Processing Chapter 12 & 17
IE 337 Lecture 12: Forming 2 Next Time Glass and Ceramics Processing Chapter 12 & 17 S.V. Atre