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Summary of Twisted Racetrack / Clamp Analysis K. D. Freudenberg

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Twisted Racetrack FEA Mechanica Model “real” clamp added to the model Geometry restrictions unique to the twisted racetrack coil prevent the use of 1/8” shim plates at “severe” turn/twist areas. Pseudo clamps left off at these locations East West

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I=42-kA/electrical turnWinding is broken into regions (between blue lines) on which the magnetic pressure loads are applied, pressures correspond to I=42-kA/electrical turn. Max EM Running Loads: Radial: 1819 lb/in. Lateral: 3946 lb/in. Pseudo clamps are restrained in their respective normal directions to simulate real clamp behavior. Contact surfaces are used between the clamp winding and the tee. Thermal growth is imposed on the winding by utilizing the cte property and by applying a known strain over a given temperature change. Example: strain = -800με, arbitrary temp difference = 72 F. Therefore, Winging cte = -800με /72 F = = 1.11E-5 /F Tee cte = 0 The latest data indicates essentially no cure shrinkage of the winding. Therefore, the -800με used in this analysis should be tailored down to - 400με to account only for the cool- down shrinkage between the tee and winding ( ). Restraints and loads

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Clamp modeling Contact Surfaces are used between the clamp and the winding. Contact Surfaces Fixed to tee Backside of washer is fixed to tee bolt -Modulus of washers is tailored to represent the spring constant of the belleville washers. Example: k = 26,000 lb/in, A washer = 0.81in 2, Depth washer = 0.15 in 2. Therefore: E= k*depth/A = 4814 psi - The cte of the washer is used to impose a preload on the clamp and winding. Assume 0.1 in/in strain Therefore: cte = 0.1 / -72 F = /F and preload for “hard” springs is 2600 lbs, and 1000 for “soft” springs - All washers have the same spring constant but have different modulus values. -The clamp is fixed to the tee by a stud at the top of the clamp and a representative bolt head on the lower end. Wave spring in clamp pocket

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Clamp Design Iterations Multiple case have been run to determine what the correct design parameters should be for the clamps and corresponding Belleville washers. Cases 1–7 have one “real clamp” on board at west location and the rest are pseudo clamps.

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Displacement Comparison

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How are Displacements from Tee Measured Gap ≈ K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 650 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 250 lbs K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 975 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 125 lbs Gap ≈ Gap ≈ Gap ≈ 0.022

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Clamp Stresses K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 650 lbs Peak Stress = 81,000 psi K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 250 lbs Peak Stress = 46,000 psi K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 125 lbs Peak Stress = 26,000 psi K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 975 lbs Peak Stress = 130,000 psi

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Winding Modulus Comparison Deformation Points: The modulus of the winding is a big player in determining the deflection of the coil. The deformation decreases with the lower modulus coil. Case B Case A

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Case B Points: Stress in tee is higher for the less stiff winding. Winding stress decreases as winding modulus is lowered. Clamp Stress is relatively the same. Clamp is dominated by preloaded springs Winding Modulus Comparison Stress

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Case 2 (Revisited ) Case 2 produced the best fit in terms of gap deflection, winding stress and clamp stress. Rerunning the case with the new cure shrinkage data produces the following results. Overall DeformationOverall Stress Obviously, the new data, if genuine, is encouraging. Case 2: K = 5,000 lb/in Preload = 125 lbs

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Considering the 4 Operating States (Case 2, No Cure Shrinkage) 1.Immediately after cool down % relative strain between winding and tee due to thermal expansion. 2.Beginning of Pulse. Magnetic loading applied with thermal expansion. 3.End of pulse. Magnetic loading applied without thermal expansion, heating of coil has resulted in a relative % strain difference between the winding and tee. (strain value is only coincidentally equal to the cool down strain difference). 4.Post Pulse. No magnetic loading, no thermal expansion (at rest state, coil will then cool back to state 1)

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Is Mechanica Accurate, Can It Be Trusted For Non-Linear Contact Analysis ? No Preload on clamp pads in Ansys version Clamp is locked in Ansys model here Mechanica A comparison study has been worked in Ansys for modular coil 2.

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Comparison Between Mechanica and Ansys (Von Mises Stress) The high stress is in the pin connecting the clamp which the Ansys model does not have. Mechanica Is Mechanica Accurate? Yes, It agrees well with Ansys

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Summary Iterations show that Belleville washers should be designed with a stiffness of 5, ,000 lb/in and a preload of 100 – 125 lbs. This corresponds to case 2 and case 6. Clamp Stresses depends mostly on preload. Soft windings stick to the tee better, but do raise stress in the tee. Using no clamps, results in larger displacements and gaps, but this effect is less for the stiff winding pack. Mechanica and Ansys give the same answers for non- linear contact analysis.

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Future Work Modify Winding Stiffness based on results of ongoing tension and compression tests at PPPL. Provide a table for predicted strain values at experimental strain gage locations for the four loading states. Perform a detailed analysis of the actual clamp design (with all features) based on the max deflections measured in this analysis. “Actual” clamp design Strain Gauge Locations (ends and middle of winding form) ? Coil Leads

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Extra Slides (description) Overall deformation and stress of several cases looked at but not necessarily in the table. (slides 18-19) Washer deflection as a function of preload. (slide 20) Washer schematic illustrating behavior of washer through analysis. (slide 21) Overall deflection if no clamps are on board. (slides 22-23) Clamps have been placed at various sections (straight curved, right next to each other. (slide 24) How do the real clamps compare to the pseudo clamps along a straight section. (slide 25)

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Overall Coil Displacement Case 2 Notice the similarities between the coils in areas away form the clamp. K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 650 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 250 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 975 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 125 lbs

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Overall Coil Stress Case 1Case 4 Case 2Case 5 K = 26,000 lb/in Preload = 650 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 250 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 975 lbs K = 10,000 lb/in Preload = 125 lbs

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Washer Displacement as a Function of Applied Preload The displacement measured in washers A and B is a direct result of the preload applied, the coil loading has little impact on displacement for the chosen preloads. The displacement for the wave spring “is” very dependent on coil loading as lower preload forces result in larger deflections.

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Washer Schematic Washer InitiallyAdd Preload Subtract winding affect di dp ds D flat > di + dp – ds For the lateral Washers, the winding affect is not greater than dp which is why the measured displacement (ds) is less than the added preload (dp). In fact, looking at the relatively small difference between the measured deflection and the preload deflection, one can assert that the preload is almost entirely responsible for the measured deflection and the winding produces a very small portion of the deflection. For the wave Springs, the measured displacement is greater than the added preload

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No clamps: Pressure and Temperature applied Winding E = 9.5E6 psi Model is fixed at one leg. Separation on west side of modular coils occurs on the inner coil only. (Outer coil gap is essentially zero.)

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No clamps: Displacement Measured from clamp coordinate system Large Gap occurs here on the inner coil (approx.025”), largest gap occurs on opposite East side. (not shown)

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Clamp on Straight Section Clamp on Curved Section Notice how the clamp stress appears to be independent of clamp location and is mostly a function of spring preload.

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Displacement Comparison Notice How the relative gap between the winding and the tee is relatively the same in both pictures. The color band difference on the scale bar is only ” Clamp on Straight Section No Clamp

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