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Sam Madden With a cast of many….

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Presentation on theme: "Sam Madden With a cast of many…."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sam Madden With a cast of many….

2 BIG MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Data

3 Example: Medical Costs MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY MGH Cancer Center “Super-Database ” Question: What are the factors driving costs for lung cancer patients? Some results: No correlation of cost with Stage of presentation Survival Strong correlation of cost with oncologist! Largest cancer database in the world (173,301 patients) Based on national tumor registry Cross linked with death registry Includes billing, reports, labs, imagery, genome SNPs - Dr. James Michaelson, PhD, MGH, Harvard Medical School

4 Super Duper Indexes MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Beyond scalable platforms Challenge: Making Data Accessible Main Memory DBsColumn Oriented DBsMap Reduce What does the data look like? How do I correlate it with other data sets? How do I present it to users/execs? Where are these anomalies and outliers coming from?

5 MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Introducing Datahub Challenge:Making Data Accessible + = Octocat, the Github mascot DB Technology

6 Introducing Datahub MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Data Commons Selective Sharing and Access Control Easy to Find, Combine, Clean Data Sets Secure, Hosted Data Storage (“Database Service”) Ability to Browse, Visualize, and Query Data in situ

7 Lots of other places to find data! For example: MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Datahub: “five-star” integrated, browse-able, & query-able repository of linked data Aka … Just a bunch of zip files ★ make your stuff available on the Web under an open license ★★ make it available as structured data ★★★ use non-proprietary formats (e.g., CSV instead of Excel) ★★★★ use URIs to denote things, so that people can point at your stuff ★★★★★ link your data to other data to provide context Versus open, linked data (Tim Berners Lee Taxonomy)

8 Datahub Interface MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Anant Bhardwaj

9 Datahub Interface MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

10 Datahub Interface MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

11 “Wrangling” Features MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Wrangler: Interactive Visual Specification of Data Transformation Scripts Sean Kandel, Andreas Paepcke, Joseph Hellerstein, Jeffrey Heer

12 Data Wrangling MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

13 Post-Wrangling MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

14 More Datahub Interface MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Versions Browsing and Visualization

15 MIT Living Lab Goal: allow MIT community to access, selectively share, and use data about itself, using DataHub. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A Dogfood Eating Exercise

16 MIT Living Lab Goal: allow MIT community to access, selectively share, and use data about itself, using DataHub. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY MIT Data Hub Organizational Data Organizational Data Personal Data Public Data MIT data: ID card swipes, network packets, expense reports, medical data, payroll, parking garages, buses and cars, course catalogs, registrar, benefits, on-campus events/seminars, Infrastructure: energy, HVAC, maintenance, etc. Academic/Research: publications, presentations, research data… Personal Data: location/GPS, calendar, video/pictures, exercise/physio data, application usage, meetings… Relevant Linked Data: local transit / transport data, crime data, nearby restaurants, events etc.

17 What Will Data Hub Enable at MIT? Campus “Quantification” –is going to class correlated with better grades? –which dining facilities are most popular amongst different groups? Transportation planning: –bus utilization and on demand routing –parking lot utilization –carpool finding, etc Health + Medical: –campus wide public health, e.g., flu tracking, –observing who is missing class, depressed –Health signals: exercise and eating habits; partners; –outpatient care Research: – expert finding; –data sharing between groups MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

18 Challenges: It’s Not All Fuzzy Stuff Platform Challenges: How to efficiently store thousands or millions of databases? How to anonymize data, control access, etc? How to keep data private and allowing querying over it? Challenges in Improving Interaction with Databases: Data Cleaning and Integration Interactive Data Presentation Understanding Why Results are the Way They Are How to Leverage Experts in an Organization MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Monomi MapD Scorpion We also don’t want our research to be like this guy 

19  Confidential data leaks  2012: hackers extracted 6.5 million hashed passwords from the DB of LinkedIn Application DB Server SQL User 1 User 2 User 3 Private Data Problem System administrator Threat: passive DB server attacks Hackers Sensitive content Datahub

20 How to protect data confidentiality? DB Server Client Sensitive content  Encrypt data server may not be able to process queries!  Compute on encrypted data!  Without giving server encryption key! [request] [result] General approach has been proposed several times…

21 1. Process SQL queries on encrypted data Hide DB from sys. admins., outsource DB to the cloud 2. Modest overhead Monomi / CryptDB 3. No changes to DBMS (e.g., Postgres, MySQL) and no changes to applications Application DB Server SQL User 1 User 2 User 3 Threat 1: passive DB server attacks Sensitive content w/ Raluca Popa, Stephen Tu, Hari Balakrishnan, Frans Kaashoek, Nickolai Zeldovich

22 col1/rankcol2/name table1/emp SELECT * FROM emp WHERE salary = 100 x934bc1 x5a8c34 x84a21c SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE col3 = x5a8c34 Proxy ? x5a8c34 ? x4be219 x95c623 x2ea887 x17cea7 col3/salary Application Randomized encryption Deterministic encryption SQL Queries on Encrypted Data Example

23 col1/rankcol2/name table1 (emp) x934bc1 x5a8c34 x84a21c x638e54 x922eb4 x1eab81 SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE col3 ≥ x638e54 Proxy x638e54 x922eb4 x638e54 col3/salary Application Deterministic encryption SELECT * FROM emp WHERE salary ≥ 100 OPE (order) encryption

24 Monomi: Protecting Data in Datahub Extensions to CryptDB to efficiently support OLAP queries Show how to run all of TPC-H, rather than just 4 of 22 queries – Key insight: split queries, run as much as possible on untrusted DBMS, compute remainder on trusted client

25 Monomi vs Plaintext TPC-H SF10, Postgres Takeaway: median overhead 1.24x, See Stephen Explain How it Really Works Right after this Talk! Monomi Runtime vs Plaintext

26 Many Open Problems Understanding performance more broadly How to reason about security of non-randomized schemes? Auditing, information flow, etc. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

27 DataHub Research Challenges Platform Challenges: How to efficiently store thousands or millions of databases? How to anonymize data, control access, etc? How to keep data private and allowing querying over it? Challenges in Improving Interaction with Databases: Data Cleaning and Integration Interactive Data Presentation Understanding Why Results are the Way They Are How to Leverage Experts in an Organization MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Monomi MapD Scorpion

28 Interactive Large-Scale Visualization using a GPU Database

29 The Need for Interactive Analytics DataHub needs to support browsing massive data sets Browsing is best supported through visualization  ad-hoc analytics, with millisecond response times

30 MapD: GPU Accelerated SQL Database Key insight: GPUs have enough memory that a cluster of them can store substantial amounts of data Not an accelerator, but a full blown query processor! Massive parallelism enables interactive browsing interfaces – 4x GPUs can provide > 1 TB/sec of bandwidth – 12 Tflops compute – Order of magnitude speedups over CPUs, when data is on GPU “Shared nothing” arrangement

31 Demo

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36 Next Steps Scale out to many nodes, automate layout algorithms Add various advanced analytics (e.g., machine learning algorithms) Generalize visualization beyond maps

37 DataHub Research Challenges Platform Challenges: How to efficiently store thousands or millions of databases? How to anonymize data, control access, etc? How to keep data private and allowing querying over it? Challenges in Improving Interaction with Databases: Data Cleaning and Integration Interactive Data Presentation Understanding Why Results are the Way They Are How to Leverage Experts in an Organization MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Monomi MapD Scorpion

38 Visual Provenance: Scorpion Visualization of data is most common form of big data analysis Common problem: outliers Would be nice to have a tool that identifies why outliers exist

39 Definition of Why Given an outlier group, find a predicate over the inputs that makes the output no longer an outlier. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY i = Input Data Output Visualization p Outlier Group p = predicate

40 Definition of Why Given an outlier group, find a predicate over the inputs that makes the output no longer an outlier. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY i = Input Data Output Visualization p p = predicate

41 Definition of Why Given an outlier group, find a predicate over the inputs that makes the output no longer an outlier. MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY i = Input Data Output Visualization p Removing the predicate makes US no longer an outlier What are common properties of those records? {Bill Gates, Steve Ballmer} p: Company = MSFT

42 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY

43 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY AVG(rows) = 2.7

44 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY AVG(rows) = 2.9

45 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY AVG(rows) = 2.2

46 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY AVG(rows) = 3.3

47 Why is this hard? Exponential search space over records, attributes In general, each candidate predicate requires re-running aggregation Desire for simple, understandable predicates and a general purpose visualization framework MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY AVG(rows) = 3.1 … See Eugene Explain How it Really Works this Afternoon!

48 Next Steps MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A general purpose visualization language for expressing visualizations with provenance support References to underlying data set

49 MIT COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY Big Data is a cry for help from non DB people Lots of exciting work on scalable systems DB community should be doing a much better job of helping users use data We risk losing mindshare Datahub aims to make data easy to find, visualize, and query, securely and efficiently Many fascinating, hard problems! (Monomi, MapD, Scorpion) Conclusion


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