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1/63 Saludos desde Campina Grande!! Rama Estudiantil, Rosario - 2009 Electrónica de Potencia y Eficiencia Energética Edison Roberto Cabral da Silva.

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Presentation on theme: "1/63 Saludos desde Campina Grande!! Rama Estudiantil, Rosario - 2009 Electrónica de Potencia y Eficiencia Energética Edison Roberto Cabral da Silva."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/63 Saludos desde Campina Grande!! Rama Estudiantil, Rosario Electrónica de Potencia y Eficiencia Energética Edison Roberto Cabral da Silva

2 2/63 Electrónica de Potencia y Eficiencia Energética  Introducción  Energia en el mondo  Electrónica de potencia y energia  Electrónica de potencia y economia de energia  Conclusiones Resúmen

3 3/63 Energy: earthlights from space

4 4/63 Net Electrical Energy in the world Adapted from data of the US Department of Energy

5 5/63 Net Electrical Energy in the world

6 6/63 Renewable Energy Sources Available renewable energy. The volume of the cubes represent the amount of available hydro, thermal, wind and solar energy. The small red cube shows the proportional global energy consumption. Values are in TW =1012 Watt. The amount of available renewable energy dwarfs the global consumption.1012 Source: Wilkipedia

7 7/63 Transmission Hydro AC AC Use of energy 120 – 765 kV AC

8 8/63 Industry Motor drive Fans, etc Distribution Motor drive Computers Use of Energy 3 – 34 kV 400 V

9 9/63 Forest Fires/ Salt Spray Wind/ Lightning/ Ice Balloons/Hunters Birds/Animals Power Plant (~1000 MW) Transmission Line (~100 mi) Secondary Line (~100’) Distribution Substation Distribution Transformer Customers Distribution Line (~10 mi) Breakdowns/ Strikes Maintenance Downtime Fuel Problems Dig-ins Trees Animals Wind/ Lightning/ Ice Equipment Failures Collisions Trees/ Birds/ Animals Problems with Conventional Utility With permission of Ram Adapa

10 10/63 Conventional distribution can lead to this!!!!

11 11/63 How to avoid that? Power qualityPower quality Distributed generationDistributed generation Energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency

12 12/63 Effects of grid and load on PCC Power Quality Disturbances The ideal case: pure sinusoidal waveform with constant magnitude PQ disturbances cause distortion on this waveform or its RMS values The characteristics of the distortion determine the disturbance type

13 13/63 Power Quality Disturbances - Short-duration variations (sags, swells and interruptions): Sag: Swell: Interruption: With permission of Wilsun Sun - Voltage fluctuations (flicker): Magnitude RMS plot - Transients: a) impulsive transients M D b) oscillatory transients - Voltage imbalance

14 14/63 Bose Use of usual rectifier topologies Displacement angle Voltage notches Power Quality Disturbances

15 15/63 Improving Power Quality

16 16/63 FACTS = acronym for Flexible Alternating Current Systems the FACTS concept is based on the incorporation of power electronic devices and methods into the high-voltage side of the network, to make it electronically controllable FACTS uses advances taking place in the area of high- voltage and high-current power electronics, aiming at increasing the control of power flows in the high-voltage side of the network during both steady-state and transient conditions What is FACTS?

17 17/63 FACTS - principles High Voltage AC Transmission With permission of Ram Adapa

18 18/63 Gate Turn Off: GTO, IGCT, IGBT Voltage Source Converter: “A Building Block for New Transmission”

19 19/63 FACTS Equipment With permission of Ram Adapa Transmission Applications of VSC

20 20/63 AC/AC three-phase converters The VSC at the sending end performs the role of rectifier and the VSC at the receiving end performs the role of inverter

21 21/63 FACTS Equipment Based on VSCs bus m bus k ShuntSerie s IcIIcI EvREvR IvRIvR +VDC-+VDC- VmVm VkVk mama mama EcIEcI V vR V cR  vR  cR Unified control system UPFC Back-to- back HVDC-VSC bus m bus k VvRVvR + V DC - IvIIvI IvRIvR VmVm VkVk mama mama vRvR VvIVvI vIvI EvREvR EvIEvI With permission of Enrique Acha

22 22/63 FACTS Equipment With permission of Ram Adapa Transmission Applications of VSC

23 23/63 Equipmento FACTS: STATCOM STATCOM With permission of Ram Adapa Source: Toshiba Electric Example: 320MVA 138kV UPFC (GTO Based)

24 24/63 What is Custom Power Technology? Power electronics based. Enable utilities to provide sensitive customers enhanced quality of power supply. Custom Power Technology is a new class of utility-side power quality disturbance management solutions:

25 25/63 Bose Power factor control (AC/DC) Custom power technology

26 26/63 Experimental results: input current (larger: 1 A/div) and mains voltage (smaller: 50V/div). Hor.: 10ms/div. Single-phase Power Factor Control

27 27/63 Active Power Filters (APF) Topologies Shunt configurationShunt configuration Series configurationSeries configuration The Unified Power Quality Conditioner

28 28/63 Combined Transmission Hydro AC DC AC AC 120 – 765 kV

29 29/63 HVDC Transmission HVDC can transfer more power than an AC system !! HVDC de 3000 MW Equivalent AC system

30 30/63 Transmission Wind turbine Hydro AC DC AC AC Distributed generation 120 – 765 kV

31 31/63 A Power System of Future? Distributed Generation

32 32/63 CV CV CV CV HVAC transmission Equipament: FACTS LV Distribution Equipament: CPE (active filter, PF controllers, etc) How important is power electronics? Adapted from slide of Keyue Smedley

33 33/63 UAU, LA ELETRóNICA DE POTÊNCIA ESTÁ EN TODAS LAS PARTES!!! NO HAS VISTO A NADIE, TODAVIA!!!

34 34/63 A Power System of the Future?

35 35/63 Zero Energy Home

36 36/63 Zero Energy Home

37 37/63 Zero Energy Home

38 38/63 Economy from 20 to 50% of liquid fuel (diesel, gasolina, ethanol, etc) and emission between 40 and 90% -- depending on the gas – of less poluents into the atmosphere. Hybrid vehicle Power electronics and energy saving

39 39/63 Bose Photovoltic Energy Scenario APPLICATIONS: SPACE POWER ROOF TOP INSTALLATIONS OFF-GRID REMOTE APPLICATIONS SAFE, RELIABLE, AND ENVIRONMENTALLY CLEAN NO NEED OF REPAIR OR MAINTAINANCE BUT PV PANELS ARE EXPENSIVE POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY:16% BACK-UP POWER REQUIREMENT

40 40/63 Auburn University solar house

41 41/63 Modular photovoltaic array #1

42 42/63 Googleplex solar system Courtesy: Google

43 43/63 Solúcar solar thermal plant Source: Solúcar Energia

44 44/63 Solúcar solar tower Source: Solúcar Energia

45 45/63 Bose Wind Energy Scenario IS THE MOST ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTALLY CLEAN AND SAFE “GREEN” POWER AVAILABILITY OF 370 TW – TAPPING ONLY 5% CAN SUPPLY ELECTRICITY NEED OF THE WHOLE WORLD COMPETETIVE COST WITH FOSSIL FUEL POWER KEY ENERGY SOURCE FOR FUTURE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

46 46/63 Doubly-fed induction turbine

47 47/63 A Power System of the Future?

48 48/63 Bose Fuel Cell Power Scenario HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN COMBINE TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY AND WATER SAFE, STATIC, HIGH EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY CLEAN GENERATE HYDROGEN BY ELECTROLYSIS OR BY REFORMER (FROM GASOLINE, METHANOL) BUT BULKY AND VERY EXPENSIVE AT PRESENT STATE OF TECHNOLOGY SLOW RESPONSE AND NEED OF SAFETY ACTION POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS: FUEL CELL CAR, PORTABLE POWER, BUILDING COGENERATION, DISTRIBUTED POWER FOR UTILITY, UPS SYSTEM SIGNIFICANT FUTURE PROMISE Single cell: 0.6 V (dc), 0.7 A/cm kW for residences Multiple cells for higher power Connect in series: VS = nVFC, in parallel: IS = nIFC

49 49/63 A Power System of the Future?

50 50/63 Linear generator in buoy Source: Oregon State Univ.

51 51/63 Archimedes Waveswing Source: AWS Ocean Energy

52 52/63 Power electronics and energy saving Can we still improve our life confort ?

53 53/63 Bose Power electronics and energy saving

54 54/63 AC/AC Indirect System - Drive systems

55 55/63 AC/AC three-phase converters bus k VvRVvR VkVk M a,R vRvR V AC, R C load M a,I VvIVvI vIvI V AC, I The VSC at the sending end performs the role of rectifier and the VSC at the receiving end performs the role of inverter

56 56/63 -IMPROVEMENT OF DEVICE QUALITY -ADEQUATE CHOICE OF THE CONVERTER -REDUCTION OF THD WITHOUT FREQUENCY INCREASE -REDUCTION OF THDITH FREQUENCY INCREASE -REDUCTION OF THD WITH FREQUENCY INCREASE - ADDITIONAL ACTIONS Power electronics and energy saving

57 57/63 REDUCTION OF THD WITHOUT FREQUENCY INCREASE Improved waveforms; Reduced THD; Good response speed; and Good control speed. Multi-level inverters THD reduction EMI decrease Losses increase Size increase Power increase

58 58/63 Clamping diodes -NPC Multi-level inverters Floating capacitors Cascade with separate DC sources

59 59/63 Multi-level inverters Gilberto da Cunha & Paulo José Torri. In COBEP07 p.532

60 60/63 Improved waveforms; High reliability; High response speed; and High control speed. Higher switching frequency Size reduction EMI increase Losses increase REDUCTION OF THD WITH FREQUENCY INCREASE

61 61/63 Three-phase inverters DC/AC Converter (Inverter) M a,I VvIVvI vIvI

62 62/63 HARD AND SOFT SWITCHING OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Improved waveforms; High reliability; High response speed; and High control speed. Higher switching frequency Size reduction EMI increase Losses increase Reduced switch count Soft switching Clamping techniques THEN

63 63/63 Reduces switching losses Softens EMI problem Reduces snubber size or energy recovery Reduces dv/dt effect on machine insulation Eliminates machine bearing current Minimizes accoustic noise Eliminates machine terminal overvoltage with long cable Soft switching Power electronics and energy saving

64 64/63 Bose HARD AND SOFT SWITCHING OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

65 65/63 Examples of quasi-square-wave voltage inverters

66 66/63 Total losses: E = 500V, T = 25  C, Rg=1.8 , fs= 50kHz, pf =1.

67 67/63 Reduced count

68 68/63 1 Phase in 3 Level Inverter – NRC REDUCED COUNT 3 Level Inverter - NPC Total losses (kW) f S = 10 kHz f m = 50 Hz E = 500 V m = 0,9  = 0,5 Reduced switch count - Less switches; - Cheaper

69 69/63 Clamping technique

70 70/63 3-level inverter (experimental results):clamping with the current peak

71 71/63 Integration

72 72/63 INTEGRATION

73 73/63 Device Integration MOSFET INTEGRATION NPC IGCT PEBB

74 74/63 Three-leg inverter represents the most common commercial inverter manufactured In many applications there is a need of supplying two motors Standard Three-Leg Inverter Three-Phase Induction Machine Single-Phase Induction Machine Integration of the motor and of its frequency converter Monolithic System INTEGRATION

75 75/63 Motor Drive Systems Standard Three-Leg Inverter Three-Phase Induction Motor Single-Phase Induction Motor Independent Control Configuration A Configuration B

76 76/63 Current in the Switches Configuration AConfiguration B The legs of the proposed configurations need be redesign, due to the presence of the single-phase motor current (extra current - i l ). Three legs need to be redesigned for larger currents Just two legs need to be redesigned for larger currents

77 77/63 Experimental Results In spite of the three-phase machine currents present distortions, as expected, the dq currents are balanced. Independent control

78 78/63 INTEGRATION Integration of converters

79 79/63 - Additional components - Additional control complexity - Additional losses - Additional volume HARD AND SOFT SWITCHING OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Reduced switch count Soft switching Integration - Less switches; - SS benefits. - Additional control complexity THEN

80 80/63 IGBT IGCT: electro-mechanical Integration INTEGRATION

81 81/63 Bose INTEGRATION With permission of Hector Zalaya Integration converter/load

82 82/63 Bose ADDITIONAL ACTIONS Storage, Fight against waste mentality, Government planning New concepts, Green teaching

83 83/63 - HVDC-Light system The VSC at the sending end performs the role of rectifier and the VSC at the receiving end performs the role of inverter bus k VvRVvR VkVk M a,R vRvR V AC, R bus m VmVm M a,I VvIVvI vIvI V AC, I R DC CC NEW CONCEPTS - DC ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS

84 84/63 GREEN TEACHING POWER QUALITY - FACTS - CUSTOM POWER EQUIPMENT RENEWABLE ENERGY (PV, WIND, FUEL CELLS) - CONVERTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR PV, WIND AND FUEL CELLS - COMPLIANCE WITH POWER QUALITY DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNIQUES

85 85/63 SLEEPING?

86 86/63 WAKE UP! CHANGE YOUR MIND!

87 87/63

88 88/63 PERO CAMBIA COMPLETAMENTE, NO SOLAMENTE UNA PARTE DE USTED...

89 89/63

90 90/63 LA GINÁSTICA TERMINÓ: PREGUNTAS?


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