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ME 457 Special Lecture: Introduction to Virtual Product Development Steve Rohde steve@quantumsignal.com Spring 2003

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Outline Math Models Virtual Math-Based Process Product Development Processes Benefits Examples History

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling “Modeling and simulation are emerging as key technologies to support manufacturing in the 21st century, and no other technology offers more potential... for improving products, perfecting processes, reducing design-to-manufacturing cycle time, and reducing product realization costs.” Finding of Integrated Manufacturing Roadmapping Initiative, May 21, 1999. Sponsored by NIST, DOE, NSF, & DARPA The Significance of Modeling & Simulation

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Examples of Models Clay, styrofoam or fiberglass models Plastic models Building/city models Artists models Clothing models Electric circuit analogies Analog computer models Math models

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Mathematics - the scientific study of quantities, including their relationships, operations, and measurement, expressed by numbers and symbols. - Academic Press Dictionary of Science Technology What is a Math Model? Math Models - mathematical representations of physical or abstract entities which capture their form / their functional behavior / or other aspects of their behavior.

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Examples of Math Models Economic/world models Enterprise models Marketing models Financial models Computer system models Chemical reaction models Human anatomy/physiology models Physics models Biometric models Product engineering models Manufacturing engineering models

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Examples of Math Model Use in GM

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Virtual reality Virtual - "of, relating to, or possessing a power of acting without the agency of matter” - Webster's Third New International Dictionary Virtual reality – creation of an environment which seems “real” in important respects; usually computer- based. Movies “Total Recall” “Brainstorm”

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Virtual Reality

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Data Integrated Marketing Definition Form Fit Function Process Sales & Service The “ Virtual Vehicle” Paradigm Virtual clinics Virtual studio Virtual mock-up Virtual test lab Virtual proving grounds Virtual tool-room Virtual factory Extensive use of math-models to guide decisions : “Collaborative” Internally Suppliers Customers

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Math-based Processes Process - a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about an end or result. - The American Heritage Dictionary Math-based process - a process based upon or enabled by the use of mathematical models. A math-based process is usually implemented using a computer.

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling A Product Development Process The set of all activities required to define, design, and engineer a product including its manufacturing and assembly processes.

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling The “Good Old Days...”

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The Modern Automotive Vehicle

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Major Automotive Vehicle Subsystems Powertrain Accessories Brakes Steering Suspension Body

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Automotive Vehicle Subsystem Interactions Powertrain Powertrain Body Body Brakes Accessories Suspension Steering Steering Heat, Noise, Vibration, Engine Vibration Torque Engine Speed Coolant Temp. Accessory Torque Load Battery Voltage Coolant Flow & Heat Loss Torque Delivered to Driven Wheels Driven Wheel Rotational Speeds Heat, Noise, Driver Visibility, Airflow Hydraulic/Pneumatic Pressure Hydraulic Flow, Electrical Voltage Vacuum Electrical Voltage Vacuum Load Electrical Current Heating & Cooling Loads Hydraulic/Pneumatic Flow Hydraulic Pressure, Electrical Current Braking Torque Wheel Rotational Speed Steering Angle Steering Forces Suspension Geometry Suspension Forces Vibration Noise Body Attitude & Position Aerodynamic Drag Accelerator Pedal Shift Lever Clutch Pedal Accessory Controls Brake Pedal Steering Wheel Road Body Linear & Angular Motion, Heat Flow in/out Vehicle Configuration Loading Windows up/down Fuel Consumption Emissions

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Automotive Vehicle Subsystem Interactions Powertrain Powertrain Body Body Brakes Accessories Suspension Steering Steering Heat, Noise, Vibration, Engine Vibration Torque Engine Speed Coolant Temp. Accessory Torque Load Battery Voltage Coolant Flow & Heat Loss Torque Delivered to Driven Wheels Driven Wheel Rotational Speeds Heat, Noise, Driver Visibility, Airflow Hydraulic/Pneumatic Pressure Hydraulic Flow, Electrical Voltage Vacuum Electrical Voltage Vacuum Load Electrical Current Heating & Cooling Loads Hydraulic/Pneumatic Flow Hydraulic Pressure, Electrical Current Braking Torque Wheel Rotational Speed Steering Angle Steering Forces Suspension Geometry Suspension Forces Vibration Noise Body Attitude & Position Aerodynamic Drag Accelerator Pedal Shift Lever Clutch Pedal Accessory Controls Brake Pedal Steering Wheel Road Body Linear & Angular Motion, Heat Flow in/out Vehicle Configuration Loading Windows up/down Fuel Consumption Emissions Computer(s) & Intelligence

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Math-Based Engineering Process Hour 2-3

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Traditional Product Development Process Build Fix Iteration For Complex Products: Cycle Time Too Long Facility Intensive Cost High Convergence Not Assured Form Function Test

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Math-Based Design Process Math-based design: The process of designing and refining vehicles and components on sophisticated computer systems. Once approved, the designs are sent electronically to machines that cut tools and dies for the vehicle, minimizing the chance of errors. Computers can also simulate the performance of components and modules, as well as assembly line systems. --The Detroit News December 21, 1998

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling 1. Increased reliability and maintainability of product 2. Program cost decreased 50% 3. Increased quality and quantity of results 4. Fewer drawing changes after initial release 5. Improved competitive position *from “Use of Computer Programs in Aircraft Design” by Melvin Stone, Douglas Aircraft Co., SAE 1964 referring to DC-9 stucture Bottomline Investment: $300K Savings: $2.5M Time Reduction: >50% 1964 DC-9 Program Savings via Math*

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Why move to math now?

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Advanced Technology Vehicles

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Benefits of Math-Based Technology 50% productivity improvement in last several years Over $10 9 savings VDP time reductions >18 months CAE today is 7-10 times faster than hardware verification CAE costs are a fraction of test verification costs CAE will become the principle design verification & direction methodology! Identified CAE as a critical element in product development Welcome the merger of the combined capabilities of visualization and supercomputers for Digital Prototyping total solution

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling The Math Advantage Hardware test learnings are limited to what can be made visible Example: For a durability test to be useful it must run to failure

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling In math “tests” we can see both causes and effects & track things that we can’t measure! Example: We can “see” the flow of energy & the final shape during a crash test The Math Advantage

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Some Relative Costs 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 1960196219641966196819701972197419761978198019821984198619881990199219941996 $0.14 $9 $1030 $2702 $30000 2001 ~ $0.02 Engineer's salary Computing Cost Cost of Buick LeSabre

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How do we implement math based design?

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Answer: Using Systems Engineering! Systems Engineering: “Top down” vs. “Bottoms up” Requirements driven Is a phased, iterative process Interactions between systems & components are explicitly addressed Uses math-models extensively ……

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Define Functions Customer Need Form Understand Synthesize (Design) The Top-Down Design Concept

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Automotive Vehicle Functions

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Vehicle Functional & Physical Decompositions Safety Safety Information Management Information Management Enjoyment Enjoyment Energy Management Energy Management Transportation Transportation VEHICLE FUNCTIONS VEHICLE FUNCTIONS Chassis Chassis Powertrain Powertrain Body Body HVAC HVAC Electrical Electrical Interior Interior Comfort Comfort Info & Cntls. VEHICLE VEHICLE What the Vehicle Does How It Does It Vehicle Subsystems

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Vehicle Functional to Physical Mappings: Example Safety Safety Information Management Information Management Enjoyment Enjoyment Energy Management Energy Management Transportation Transportation VEHICLE FUNCTIONS VEHICLE FUNCTIONS Chassis Chassis Powertrain Powertrain Body Body HVAC HVAC Electrical Electrical Interior Interior Comfort Comfort Info & Cntls. What the Vehicle Does How It Does It Form Follows Function VEHICLE VEHICLE Vehicle Subsystems

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Automotive Vehicle Subsystem Interactions Powertrain Powertrain Body Body Brakes Accessories Suspension Steering Steering Heat, Noise, Vibration, Engine Vibration Torque Engine Speed Coolant Temp. Accessory Torque Load Battery Voltage Coolant Flow & Heat Loss Torque Delivered to Driven Wheels Driven Wheel Rotational Speeds Heat, Noise, Driver Visibility, Airflow Hydraulic/Pneumatic Pressure Hydraulic Flow, Electrical Voltage Vacuum Electrical Voltage Vacuum Load Electrical Current Heating & Cooling Loads Hydraulic/Pneumatic Flow Hydraulic Pressure, Electrical Current Braking Torque Wheel Rotational Speed Steering Angle Steering Forces Suspension Geometry Suspension Forces Vibration Noise Body Attitude & Position Aerodynamic drag

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Systems Engineering Based VDP

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling The Cost Of Change* * John Krouse, 1993

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling The use of mathematical representations (models) to: –Design/configure (synthesis) –Understand & validate behavior (analysis) Math-Based Synthesis & Analysis

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Analysis Given a Design ANALYSIS What is the response?Given a Design c k F x m Frequency Response c 1,k 1 c 2,k 2 Given the Design Goal Subject to Constraints: Response Function Packaging Cost Manufacturing What is the Best Design ? Synthesis SYNTHESIS Frequency Response Damping, c Stiffness, k c *,k * ? Manufacturing Constraints Packaging Constraints Analysis vs. Synthesis

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Synthesis & Analysis in the VDP

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling 100% 50% 0 PHASE 0 PHASE 1 SYNTHESIS MODE ANALYSIS MODE FREEDOM INFORMATION Synthesis & Analysis at Various Phases of the VDP Time $ Spent $ Committed

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Use of Math: Medical Analogy

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ME457 Mechatronic Modeling Virtual Product Development: GMT360

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