# H EAT E NERGY F LOWS IN B UILDINGS Building energy fundamentals.

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H EAT E NERGY F LOWS IN B UILDINGS Building energy fundamentals

S ENSIBLE VS. L ATENT H EAT F LOW Sensible Heat Flow – Results in a change in air temp Latent Heat Flow – Results in a change in moisture content. Release or storage of heat associated with change in phase of a substance, without a change in substance temp. Total Heat Flow – sum of latent and sensible heat flows Heat Energy Flows in Buildings

S ENSIBLE VS. L ATENT H EAT F LOW Sensible vs. latent heat: it takes over 5x as much heat to turn water into steam at the same temp than it does to heat liquid water from freezing to boiling temps.

S ENSIBLE VS. L ATENT H EAT Whenever an object is at a temp different from its surrounds, heat flows from hot to cold In similar fashion moisture flows from areas of greater concentration to areas of lower concentration Buildings lose sensible heat to the environment (or gain) in 3 principle ways

C ONDUCTION, C ONVECTION, R ADIATION Conduction: transfer of heat between substances which are in direct contact with each other Convection: movement of gases/liquids caused be heat transfer. As a gas or liquid is heated it warms, expands and rises because it is less dense Radiation: electromagnetic waves travelling through space. When these waves hit an object they transfer their heat to it

Conduction takes placed through envelope assemblies Convection is the result of wind or pressure drive air movement Radiant heat is primarily from the sun

T HERMAL E FFECTS Principals are the same, but heat flow under changing conditions is more complex than under static conditions Heat storage within materials is of greater concern during dynamic conditions Under static conditions, heat flow is primarily a function of temp difference and thermal resistance

T HERMAL E FFECTS Under dynamic conditions, those two factors are still important, but the heat storage in the building envelope is a compounding issue Heat storage is a function of the density of the material and specific heat; product of these two is the thermal capacity (thermal mass)

T HERMAL P ROPERTIES Every material used for the envelope has properties that determine their energy performance

T HERMAL C ONDUCTIVITY ( K ) Material’s ability to conduct heat The faster heat flows through a material the more conductive it is q=Resultant heat flow (watts) k=thermal conductivity (W/mK) A=surface area (m 2 )  T=temp diff between warm and cold sides(K) L= thickness or length of material (m)

T HERMAL C ONDUCTANCE Conductivity per unit area In basic building materials heat flow is generally measured by conductance (C), not conductivity Is an object property which relies on the materials and the size

U- FACTOR In layered assemblies, conductance is combined into a single number called the U-factor or U-value Lower U factor means worse conduction, which means better insulation Does not include latent heat (moisture related) Used only to describe air flow from the outside of the envelope to airflow on the inside of the envelope (ie not for basement walls)

T HERMAL R ESISTANCE (R- VALUE =1/U) How effective a material is as an insulator R is measured in the hours needed for 1BTU to flow through 1ft 2 of a given thickness of material when the temp diff is 1  f Object property, not material A 2x6 pine stud has three times the R-value as a 2x2 pine stud Higher R value indicates better insulating properties

B UILDING E NERGY L OADS How much energy your building needs Can be provided by electricity, fuel, or passive means Lots of terms that can get confusing, next slide has a chart to help with these terms

E NERGY L OADS Thermal Loads – heating and cooling energy needed to keep people comfortable Heating loads – energy required to heat the building when to cold Cooling loads – energy required to cool the building when to hot Not just about temp, include moisture control (latent heat)

L OADS Heating and cooling loads are met by the HVAC system Uses energy to add/remove heat and condition the space Equipment loads – HVAC etc, met by energy or fuel Plug loads – electricity for computers and appliances Lighting loads – electricity used for lighting

T HERMAL L OADS Understanding the heating and cooling loads helps to provide the right sized HVAC system for a space Reduce the loads as much as possible, and meet them as efficiently as possible

E XTERNAL Heat transfer through the building envelope from the sun and outside environment Building envelope includes the roof, walls, floors, windows. Anything that separates inside from outside

E XTERNAL Common ways heat flows into or out of the building Heat conduction from the envelope to outside air or ground Sunlight shining through windows to heat int. Sunlight warming up ext. of building Losing inside air to outside, or vice versa, through leaks

How much energy from the sun’s radiation, outside air temp, latent heat in the airs moisture that reaches the inside to affect the comfort depends a lot on the envelope Materials, design and how well it is sealed Understanding where heat energy is gained/lost is important for successful passive design strategies

I NTERNAL T HERMAL L OADS Come from heat generated from people, lighting, and equipment (core loads, internal gains) Thermal loads from lighting and equipment is generally equal to their use When a light fixture converts a watt-hour of electricity into photons, those photons bounce around until they are absorbed which turns light energy into heat energy All electrical energy not turned into photons is turned directly into heat energy due to inefficiency

I NTERNAL T HERMAL L OADS Similarly, electrical energy used to move mechanical parts is transformed into heat via friction Energy used to power this equipment is turned into heat energy via electrical resistance Thermal loads from people depend on the number of and what activity they are doing Office buildings are generally dominated by internal loads Single family residences are typically dominated by external loads

I NTERNAL T HERMAL L OADS

H EATING AND C OOLING L OADS How much energy you need to heat and cool the building and control moisture within Gains that are more than envelope and ventilation losses would cause a net cooling load (the building is too hot) Losses that are more than the internal gains would cause a net heating loads (the building is too cold). The heating setpoint is often different than the cooling setpoint, so the distribution of heating and cooling loads is climate dependent

E QUIPMENT AND L IGHTING L OADS Lighting loads – energy used to power electric lights, make up nearly 1/3 of commercial building energy use (10-15% in residential) Look for more efficient lighting Reduce lighting loads Reduce cooling loads for the same visible brightness

P LUG L OADS Electricity used for other equipment 20-30% of energy in commercial 15-20% in residential (these numbers are growing) Equipment Rated Power (watts) Desktop computer 120 Notebook computer 45 17” LCD Display 75 Desktop laser printer 120 Office laser printer 250 Office copier 750 Refrigerator 750 Dishwasher 1,200 Television 100 Commercial refrigerator 1,000 Commercial fryer 10,000 Clothes washer 350 Clothes dryer 2,000

M EASURING E NERGY U SE Energy Use Intensity - Energy intensiveness is simply energy demand per unit area of the building's floorplan, usually in square meters or square feet

EUI BASED ON B UILDING T YPE

EUI BASED ON F LOORSPACE

S ITE E NERGY VS. S OURCE E NERGY Energy intensiveness only considers the amount of electricity and heat that is used on-site ("secondary" or "site" energy) Does not consider the fuel consumed to generate that heat or electricity. This "primary" or "source" energy can be generated on-site or at a power plant far away.

S OURCE E NERGY When measure energy used to provide thermal or visual comfort, site energy is the most useful measurement When measuring total energy usage, source energy is more accurate Low on-site energy can cause more use upstream Ex, 2kW of natural gas burned on site is better than 1 kW of electricity used on site. 1kW of site electricity from the average US electrical grid is equal to 3.3kW of source energy due to inefficiencies Energy Efficiency

S OURCE -S ITE R ATIOS

E NERGY E ND U SE Commercial and residential use energy differently Commercial are dominated by internal thermal loads (more people and equipment) Residential are dominated by external loads, larger percentage of energy use is for heating and cooling to meet those

S ANKEY D IAGRAMS

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