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Mediation with digital artefacts – building information modeling in design collaboration Iscar2014, Sydney 29.9.-3.10.2014 Sami Paavola, & Reijo Miettinen.

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Presentation on theme: "Mediation with digital artefacts – building information modeling in design collaboration Iscar2014, Sydney 29.9.-3.10.2014 Sami Paavola, & Reijo Miettinen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mediation with digital artefacts – building information modeling in design collaboration Iscar2014, Sydney 29.9.-3.10.2014 Sami Paavola, & Reijo Miettinen Center for Research on Activity, Development, and Learning (CRADLE), Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki E-mail:

2 2 Building information modelling (BIM) and a change in construction industry? BIM: new technologies that combine 3-dimensional models and parametric data of the building and its parts that can be shared and used throughout the building lifecycle with many stakeholders (Eastman et al 2011) A long history of technological development; each design dicipline has their own software programmes – data sharing standards developed during many years Only in recent years used more broadly in construction projects CAD, paper drawings -> BIM: sharing (3D) data High promises on BIM, even ”BIM utopias” to increase efficiency and productivity in construction; changes ways of collaboration in construction projects

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4 4 How to conceptualize BIM as a novel kind of a digital artifact – the nature of BIM as a mediating artifact? How BIM is changing the work and interaction of designers and engineers? Data of designers’ collaboration in the lifecycle construction projects in Eastern Finland at 2011- 2012 Research questions and data

5 5 Boundary object (Gal et al 2008), (digital) infrastructure (Henfridsson & Bygstad 2014), digital object, or digitalized artifacts (Yoo et al 2010), digital work ecologies (Yoo et al 2010) Actor-network theory (Harty & Whyte 2012), discussions on sociomateriality (Whyte & Harty 2012), … Activity theory: mediated activity / mediation with increasingly complex, multifunctional tools Use of artificial means, mediated activity: signs and tools (Vygotsky 1978) Artifacts, artifact-mediated action (Wartofsky 1980; Cole 1996) Instruments, psychological and technical tools (Engeström 1987); tool constellation or instrumentality (Engeström 2007); instrumentation/instrumentalization (Rabardel & Bourmaud 2003) Multifunctional instrumentality? Set of instrumentalities? Concepts and notions used to make sense of BIM as a mediating artefact

6 BIM as an evolving, multifunctional, configurational and constantly re-negotiated instrumentality 1) BIM-related new software for different purposes are constantly developed and provided by system providers (evolving, multifunctional) 2) Construction firms developed their own set of technologies and related expertise (configurational technology) 3) BIM tools are combined with traditional tools (CAD software, paper drawings, special software on building behavior, etc.) (hybrid) 4) The composition and uses of instruments are negotiated separately in each interorganizational project by the participants (constantly re-negotiated) 6

7 Table 1. BIM-related software used in a Finnish construction project in 2011 SoftwareProviderMain usersMain uses and outcomes 1. ArchiCADM.A.D., FinlandArchitectsArchitect model 2. Tekla StructuresTekla, part of Trimble Company, USA Structural engineersStructural model 3. Tekla BIM sightTekla, part of Trimble Company, USA Structural engineers Architects Creating a combined models and checking compatibility of the native models (1 and 2) 4. MagiCADProgman Oy., FinlandHVAC engineersHVAC-models (electricity, plumming, ventilation) 5. DialuxDial Gmbh, GermanyHVAC engineersLight design 6. NavisWorksAutodesk, USAHVAC engineersCombining HVAC models and checking compatibility of native models 7. Solibri Model CheckerSolibri, FinlandBIM expertCreating combined models of all native models and clash detection lists 8. Solibri Model ViewerSolibri, FinlandAll designersViewing the clashes 9. RiuskaGranlund Inc., FinlandHVAC engineersEnergy simulations 7

8 Developing collaborative ways of using BIM models 1) Official clash detection organized by a BIM expert representing the contractor  All design partners updated their own design models with certain time intervals. These were put together by the BIM expert into a combined model with a specific BIM software which produced clash detection lists.  Designers regarded most of these clashes irrelevant 2) Intensive face-to-face design meetings with all design partners checking the current stage of the design plans and their compatibility.  Looked at the fit between different design models and discussed problematic places in their design. A combined BIM model was used.  Problems which designers have themselves picked up 8

9 9 BIM models: tool or object? BIM is both means of collaboration and an intermediary outcome (reworkable models) in the process of planning the building Ways of organizing the work with ”intermediary artifacts/objects” (see Vinck & Jeantet 1995; Vinck 2011) Boundary objects Epistemic objects Technical objects Intermediary, reworkable artifacts/objec ts Nature of the object ConcreteAbstractConcrete Role over time (Relatively) stableIn fluxStaticModifiable and versioned Function in activity Allow interoperability and communication Generates new open questions and issues A means for accomplishing something Tangible intermediate means for working towards an end result Table 2. A comparison of ”object” notions adapted from Ewenstein & Whyte 2009, 10

10 Conclusion BIM transcends traditional distinctions like sign and tool, or tool and object During the design process BIM is multifunctional instrumentality or set of instrumentalities, simultaneously design tool, means of collaboration, set of reworkable models (intermediary artifacts), and data repository for multiple uses (such as energy simulations, and cost calculations) Reconfiguration of uses of technology for each multiorganizational project (see Fleck 1994: configurational technology for an individual organization) is increasingly important 10

11 11 References (1) Cole, M. (1996). Cultural Psychology. A Once and Future Discipline. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston. K. (2011) BIM Hand-book (2nd Edition) A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit. Engeström, Y. (2007) Enriching the theory of expansive learning: Lessons from journeys toward coconfiguration. Mind, Culture, and Activity 14(1-2), 23–39. Ewenstein, B. & Whyte, J. (2009). Knowledge Practices in Design: The Role of Visual Representations as `Epistemic Objects'. Organization Studies 30 (1), 7-30. Fleck, J. (1994). Learning by trying: the implementation of configurational technology. Research Policy 23, 637-652. Gal, U. & Lyytinen, K. and Yoo, Y. (2008). The dynamics of IT Boundary objects, information infrastructures, and organizational identities: the introduction of 3D modelling technologies into architecture, engineering, and construction industry. European Journal of Infromation Systems 17, 290-304. Harty, C. & Whyte, J. (2010) Emerging Hybrid Practices in Construction Design Work: Role of Mixed Media. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 136(4), 468-476. Henfridsson, O., & Bygstad, B. (2014). The generative mechanisms of digital infrastructure evolution. MIS Quarterly 37(3), 907-931. Miettinen, R. & Paavola, S. (2014) Beyond the BIM utopia: Approaches to the development and implementation of building information modeling. Automation in Construction 43, 84-91.

12 12 References (2) Rabardel, P. and Bourmaud, G. (2003). From computer to instrument system: a developmental perspective. Interacting with Computers 15, 665-691. Vinck, D. (2011). Taking intermediary objects and equipping work into account in the study of engineering practices. Engineering Studies 3(1), 25-44. Vinck D., & Jeantet A., (1995) Mediating and commissioning objects in the sociotechnical process of product design: a conceptual approach (pp 111-129). In D. MacLean, P. Saviotti and D. Vinck (eds). Management and New Technology : Design, Networks and Strategies. COST Social Science serie. Bruxelles. Commission of European Union. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wartofsky, M. (1979). Models: Representation and Scientific Understanding. Dordrecht: Reidel. Whyte, J. & Harty, C. (2012). Socio-material practices of design coordination: Objects as plastic and partisan. In P. M. Leonardi, B. A. Nardi, & J. Kallinikos (Eds.) Materiality and Organizing. Social Interaction in a Technological World (pp. 196- 213). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Yoo, Y., Lyytinen, K., Boland, R., Berente, N., Gaskin, J. Schutz, D. and N. Srinivasan (2010) The next vawe of digital innovation: opportunities and challenges. Report of the workshop ”Digital Challenges in Innovation Research.” Read 12.10.2013

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