Presentation on theme: "Design and Environment Chapter 7 (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Design and Environment Chapter 7 (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
In this chapter, you will learn to: Identify the fundamentals of proper lighting. Select appropriate colors for foodservice spaces. Identify the fundamentals of noise and sound control. Identify the fundamentals of temperature and humidity control. Identify the fundamentals of managing heating and air- conditioning systems. Identify the fundamentals of maintaining ventilation and indoor air quality. Learning Objectives (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Lighting In foodservice, lighting is the single most important environmental consideration, although lighting rules are probably the most difficult to define. Correct lighting enhances the mood of a dining area, the appeal of the food, and the efficiency of a kitchen. Even within a dining space, light levels vary. Some spaces may require lighting transition zones, to shift people comfortably between two types of lighting, giving their eyes a moment to adjust to the change. (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Measuring Light LumensIlluminationFoot-candles One lumen is the amount of light generated when 1 foot-candle of light shines from a single uniform source. Short for luminous flux Sometimes called illuminance The effect achieved as light strikes a surface. One foot-candle is the light level of 1 lumen on 1 square foot of space. The color rendering index (CRI) is another measurement of light. The CRI, on a scale of 0 to 100, indicates the effect of a light source on the color appearance of objects. Measure illumination (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Lighting Technology Light-emitting diodes LED’s Incandescent lamps, and electric discharge lamps. Fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) common in foodservice use are types of electric discharge lamps Typical Light Bulb A filament encased in a sealed glass bulb. Electricity flows into the filament through base of bulb. Glass is usually coated to diffuse the light. Fluorescent Mercury vapor Halide or halogen High- and low-pressure sodium Incandescent lamp Electric discharge lamp Gaseous discharge lamp (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Controlling Light Levels Use of solar tubes to bring natural light from roof Custom-fit reflectors between bulbs and fixtures can aim and reflect more light Minimize glare from fluorescents with a lens or louver Use occupancy sensors, timing switches, photocells and ‘sweep systems’ to ensure that lights only turn on when needed (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The Use of Color In public spaces, lighting system and color scheme must work together to enhance the environment. Colors can look completely different under different types or intensities of light. Color can make a space appear larger or smaller Color can convey a theme Color can convey a style Color can convey a geographic region Color can convey a way of life Color can convey a climate (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Use of Artwork The walls aren’t going to be bare – make a statement with your décor! Go for a mural as the focal point of a room. It can be: A signature that communicates the concept A way to personalize a large dining space, adding color and motion A way to open up a small dining area by adding extra dimension to the wall space Exhibit local artists’ work. You may discover the next Van Gogh, and this: Allows you to change out the work regularly Affords an opportunity for local publicity (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kitchen Lighting and Color In kitchen lighting, trends and ambience take a backseat to efficiency. The goals: Reduce workers’ eyestrain by minimizing glare Bright enough to be a safe working environment Design considerations: Square footage of the area Ceiling height Contrast and colors of foods processed at workstations Wall colors Safety shields on light fixtures Satin finishes to counteract the reflective properties of stainless steel surfaces (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The Nature of Noise Noise level should never be ‘accidental’ – it is an important component of environment and mood. Opposite problems: Too much noise? Just too quiet? Both are concerns to be addressed. In restaurant settings, sound system can contribute to a lively atmosphere. Some eateries crank up the music for that very reason. (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The Nature of Noise Kitchens and dining areas pose numerous challenges for noise reduction. Unfortunately, these usually are not obvious until the space is occupied – and someone starts complaining. Characteristics of Noise FrequencyIntensity (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The Nature of Noise Smart Sound Alternatives Ceilings are a natural spot for sound control treatment. Spray-on acoustic surfaces, acoustical tile, fiberglass panels padded with fabric, wooden slats, or perforated metal facings are options. Walls can be covered with padding, fabric, or carpet. Use of partitions can help. Designing a multi-level dining space helps somewhat. Draperies and furnishings are appropriate in some types of foodservice businesses, chosen for sound-absorption qualities. Floor coverings have a major impact on noise. If floor is carpeted, high-pile is expensive but absorbs sound best. (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Use of Music Select music based on demographic mix of guests and your overall concept. Avoid common employee complaint – ‘We hear the same songs over and over!’ – by subscribing to a direct satellite music feed. Annual licensing fees are included in the cost of the subscription. You otherwise have to pay for a music license in order to play most songs. Select amplifier to work with your space and size (by watts, number of channels) and complement your number of speakers (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kitchen Noise Control Consider these kitchen noise abatement options: Install acoustical tile ceilings Use plastic or Fiberglas dish carts, bus containers instead of metal ones Properly install and maintain exhaust fans Install compressors in a separate mechanical room outside the kitchen Undercoat all work surfaces Put the dish room in an enclosed area (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Heating and Air Conditioning Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is responsible for comfort control of these factors: Indoor temperatureHumidity Air movementAir Quality Room surface temperature As a foodservice business, your responsibilities are: To provide sufficient ventilation for basic indoor air quality – controlling odors, grease, and smoke To provide a comfortable environment for diners (and staff) To minimize energy use and operating costs (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Heating and Air Conditioning An HVAC system typically includes these components: Furnace (to produce hot air) Boiler (to produce hot air) Air conditioner (to produce cold air) Chiller (to produce cold air) Fans (to circulate and remove air) Ductwork (to move air) Filters (to clean air) (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Heating and Air Conditioning Conditioned air. Has been cooled or heated mechanically (by HVAC) and released into a building’s interior. Desiccant air. Desiccants are drying agents, which may be part of an HVAC system to reduce humidity. Exhaust air. Must be removed (“exhausted”) from cooking sources (ranges, fryers) or enclosed spaces (dish rooms, restrooms). Speed or volume of air removal is measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm). Makeup air. Supplied to an area to replace outgoing exhaust air. Return air. Removed from an interior space, then returned to the HVAC system for recirculation or reuse. Supply air. Delivered (“supplied”) to an area by the HVAC system for heating, cooling, etc. Transfer air. Flows from one part of a building to another, as from dining area to kitchen. HVAC Terminology for Types of Air (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ventilation and Air Quality Four Ways to Improve Indoor Air Quality Bring in a sufficient amount of outdoor air. Manage the flow of air within your interior spaces. Use high-quality filtration systems. Keep the HVAC equipment clean and in good working order. Design of any space should include analysis of its pressure footprint, to adjust positive and negative air pressure zones. (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
HVAC System Maintenance It is best for a professional HVAC service company to put your business on a regular inspection and maintenance schedule. Experts say the most common HVAC problems are: Loose belts Dirty air filters Poorly-lubricated bearings (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation It’s the law – all commercial kitchen equipment that produces any type of smoke, fire, or grease must be ventilated. Hoods, fire protection systems have the most stringent legal requirements of any foodservice equipment, from: Local health department (health, sanitation) Fire inspector (fire safety) Environmental agencies (pollution controls) Two basic types of exhaust hoods: Type I collects, removes flue gases, smoke, and some of the grease generated by the cooking process. Two subtypes: “listed” and “unlisted.” (Listed hoods meet UL 710 Standard.) Type II vents steam, vapor, odors, and heat for dish rooms, steam tables. Not intended for removal of smoke or grease- laden air. Two subtypes: “condensate hoods” and “heat/fume hoods.” (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Ventless Hoods When space limitations, building configuration, or prohibition of structural changes prevent use of a standard exhaust system, a ventless exhaust system might be permitted – but gas-powered equipment might not be allowed beneath it. Ventless is also an option when leasing space, because you can take it with you when you leave – not possible with standard ductwork! (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Air Pollution Control Many technological improvements to foodservice equipment have been made specifically to reduce pollution. SoCal restaurant study results: Especially those that do a lot of frying can produce nine times more air pollutants than a city bus. To reduce smoke, grease and reactive organic gases (ROGs): Filter air through activated charcoal layers Use potassium permanganate; oxidizes and solidifies molecules, then retains them Either method can remove 85 to 90% of odor molecules from air Use an air pollution control unit, with electrostatic precipitation (ESP). (c) 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.