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© 2008 Trane An Inside Look at ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard Mick Schwedler, PE Manager Trane Applications Engineering Chair, SSPC 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
© 2008 Trane Help you gain a working knowledge of ASHRAE Standard 90.1
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Topics for Today’s Discussion s Brief history s Implementation u Codes u U.S. military requirements u LEED ® green building rating program s Contents u Title, purpose, scope u Aspects of building addressed by provisions
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Brief history Milestones Plan for reprints Scope of 2007 revision
© 2008 Trane Historical Timeline minor revisions updates, reorganization major rewrite updated first issued updated Updates
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Publication Plan s Last published in late 2007 s Future reprints at 3-year intervals u Coordinated with model building codes u Previous version plus all published addenda since last reprint u planned for BOD approval in June 2010
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Changes from 2004 s Incorporates 42 addenda published since was released
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Scope of 2007 Update new in Marks a noteworthy change from application TIP application TIP Marks an application tip, not a standard requirement
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Implementation Model codes U.S. government Outside U.S. LEED ® program
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and Model Codes ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is adopted by: u American National Standards Institute ( ) u National Fire Protection Association u International Code Council (International Energy Conservation Code)
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and Energy Codes s IECC–Chapter 8 adopts by reference s IECC–Chapter 7 describes an alternate path for compliance u Includes many provisions of u ASHRAE is proposing code changes to increase stringency International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and State Energy Codes Asked DOE for extension Meet or exceed , 2001, or being considered (state bldgs) (voluntary) (state bldgs) (July 1, 2005) (state bldgs) (optional)
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 adoption by U.S. Department of Defense “2-1 MANDATORY ENERGY AND WATER CONSERVATION CRITERIA. Family housing (residential) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the latest Energy Star standards, per other appropriate service-specific criteria and guidance. Other facilities shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the latest edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1.” —Excerpt from Unified Facilities Criteria _UFC pdf
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 adoption Outside the U.S. United States ASHRAE Standard Thailand Major changes based on building envelope studies Canada Similar or higher efficiency levels Brazil Law (2004), Energy Efficiency Standards China Modifying for high local ambient wet bulbs
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and LEED ® -NC Version 2.2 s EAp2: Minimum energy performance u Mandatory provisions of and u Prescriptive requirements or 14% better than s EAc1: Optimize energy performance u Awards points for improving performance rating of the design building vs. baseline building at least 14% better than
© 2008 Trane LEED NC 2009 : EAp2 Minimum energy performance s Option 1: performance compliance path u Mandatory provision (5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4) u Baseline building complies with Appendix G Building PRM u 10% better than for new construction, 5% better for existing building s Option 2: prescriptive compliance path u ASHRAE AEDG l small office buildings 2004 l small retail buildings 2006 l small warehouses and self-storage buildings 2008 s Option 3: prescriptive compliance path u Advanced Buildings Core Performance Guide
© 2008 Trane EAC1 – Modeling Up to 19 points New BuildingsExisting Building RenovationsPoints 12%8%1 14%10%2 16%12%3 18%14%4 20%16%5 22%18%6 24%20%7 26%22%8 28%24%9 30%26%10 32%28%11 34%30%12 36%32%13 38%34%14 40%36%15 42%38%16 44%40%17 46%42%18 48%44%19
© 2005 American Standard All rights reserved ASHRAE Standard Contents Purpose Scope Aspects of building addressed by provisions
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Purpose “… Provide minimum requirements for the energy- efficient design of buildings except low-rise residential buildings”
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Scope s New buildings and their systems s New portions of buildings and their systems s New systems and equipment in existing buildings
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Exclusions s Low-rise residential buildings u ASHRAE Standard 90.2 covers low-rise (3 stories or less), one-family, and two- family residential buildings s Buildings that do not use electricity or fossil fuel s Equipment and portions of building systems that use energy to support industrial, manufacturing, or commercial processes
© 2005 American Standard All rights reserved ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Sections Section 1: Purpose Section 2: Scope Section 3: Definitions, Abbreviations, and Acronyms Section 4: Administration and Enforcement Section 5: Building Envelope Section 6: HVAC Section 7: Service Water Heating Section 8: Power Section 9: Lighting Section 10: Electric Motors Section 11: Energy Cost Budget (ECB) Method Section 12: Normative References Appendices
© 2005 American Standard All rights reserved ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Section 5: Building Envelope
© 2008 Trane section 5: building envelope Basis of Requirements s Climate zone s Space conditioning category u Nonresidential conditioned u Residential conditioned u Semiheated s Construction class © 2005 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2008 Trane Look up climate zones by location … Miami, San Juan= 1A Seattle= 4C Reykjavik= 7 Look up climate zones by location … Miami, San Juan= 1A Seattle= 4C Reykjavik= 7 A moist C marine B dry s Groups climates into 8 zones s Subcategorizes zones by humidity level appendix B: building envelope Climate Criteria 1 very hot 8 subartic 7 very cold 6 cold 5 cool 4 mixed 3 warm 2 hot
© 2008 Trane U.S. Climate Classifications (Briggs et al., 2002)
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 More International Data For South America … AscuncionMontivideo BelemPorto Alegre BrasiliaPunta Arenas Buenos AriesRecife/Curado CaracasRio de Janeiro ConcepcionSan Juan Cordoba de Marcona FortalezaSantiago La PazSao Paulo LimaTalara For South America … AscuncionMontivideo BelemPorto Alegre BrasiliaPunta Arenas Buenos AriesRecife/Curado CaracasRio de Janeiro ConcepcionSan Juan Cordoba de Marcona FortalezaSantiago La PazSao Paulo LimaTalara
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 More International Data For Puerto Rico … All Zone 1A Except, Barranquitas 2 SSW - 2B Cayey 1 E- 2B For Puerto Rico … All Zone 1A Except, Barranquitas 2 SSW - 2B Cayey 1 E- 2B
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Compliance Paths: Envelope proposed building design 90.1-compliant building general & mandatory provisions Prescriptive Building Envelope Option (§5.5) Building Envelope Trade-Off Option (§5.6, performance) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB, §11)
© 2008 Trane Mandatory Provisions s Labeling of insulation R-value s Rating of doors and fenestration s Air leakage u Building envelope u Fenestration and doors u Loading docks u Vestibules (with exceptions)
© 2008 Trane section 5: building envelope Typical Assemblies s One-page summary of requirements for each climate zone s Precalculated heat transfer values simplify application © 2005 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2008 Trane section 5: building envelope Demonstrating Compliance s Opaque elements u Maximum U-factor for entire assembly, or u Minimum rated R-values of insulation s Fenestration … u Maximum U-factor u Maximum solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) … based on orientation and percentage
© 2008 Trane prescriptive compliance Envelope Fenestration s Skylight area as percentage of gross roof area s Vertical fenestration glazing area as percentage of gross wall area s U-factor depends on construction type s Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) depends on orientation
© 2008 Trane prescriptive compliance Opaque Envelope Elements No calculations required … Either: u Specify insulation R-value or u Look up common U-factors
© 2008 Trane overall U-factors Roof Construction Classes s Insulation entirely above deck s Metal building roofs s Attic and other roofs
© 2008 Trane overall U-factors Above-Grade Walls s Mass walls s Metal building walls s Metal-framed walls s Wood-framed and other walls
© 2008 Trane Envelope Addenda s as: Modifies opaque envelope requirements s at: Modifies fenestration (glass) requirements Change
example *Excerpt from Table 5.5-2, Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 2 (A,B), of ASHRAE Standard Example of §5.5’s compliance criteria for roofs, based on climate zone and construction type Building Envelope Requirements* © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved
example *Excerpt from Table 5.5-5, Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 5 of ASHRAE Standard Example of §5.5’s compliance criteria for roofs, based on climate zone and construction type Building Envelope Requirements* © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved
example *Excerpt from Table 5.5-1, Building Envelope Requirements for Climate Zone 1 (A,B), of ASHRAE Standard Example of §5.5’s compliance criteria for roofs, based on climate zone and construction type Building Envelope Requirements* © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2008 Trane section 5: building envelope Demonstrating Compliance s In lieu of prescriptive options…. u Building Envelope Trade-Off Option, or u Energy Cost Budget method s Still in conjunction with mandatory requirements Building Envelope Trade-Off Option— EnvStd 5.0 software automates Envelope Performance Factor calculations
© 2008 Trane section 5: building envelope Summary s Criteria based on space type s One table summarizes envelope requirements per climate zone s Precalculated U-factors for common construction types s Computerized “building envelope trade-off” procedure © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2005 American Standard All rights reserved ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Section 6: HVAC Section 7: Service Water Heating
© 2008 Trane Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Compliance Paths: HVAC proposed HVAC design 90.1-compliant HVAC system prescriptive requirements (§6.5) Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB, §11) (small buildings only) mandatory provisions (§6.4)
© 2008 Trane HVAC compliance with Std 90.1 Simplified Approach s Minimal effort s Equally stringent requirements s Fits on two pages s Limited to … u Buildings with 1 or 2 stories u Buildings less than 25,000 square feet u Single-zone systems u Air-cooled or evaporatively cooled
© 2008 Trane HVAC compliance with Std 90.1 Simplified Approach s Economizer as necessary s Heat: Heat pump, fuel-fired furnace, electric resistance, or baseboard system with boiler s Outdoor air: ≤ 3,000 cfm, < 70% of SA, unless energy recovery is used s Manual-changeover or dual-setpoint thermostat s Controls for heat pumps with auxiliary heat s No reheat for humidity control continued
© 2008 Trane HVAC compliance with Std 90.1 Simplified Approach s Night setback controls (except hotel/motel guest rooms) s Insulation for piping and ductwork s Balancing of ducted systems s Interlocked thermostats for separate heating and cooling equipment s Exhaust > 300 cfm: Gravity or motorized dampers s System > 10,000 cfm: Optimum start concluded
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Mandatory Provisions Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) proposed HVAC design 90.1-compliant HVAC system prescriptive requirements (§6.5) Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB, §11) (small buildings only) mandatory provisions (§6.4)
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Mandatory Provisions s Equipment efficiencies s Load calculations s Controls s Construction and insulation s Completion requirements Drawings, manuals, balancing, and commissioning
© 2008 Trane s Air conditioners and condensing units s Heat pumps s Chillers s PTACs s Furnaces s Boilers s Heat-rejection equipment mandatory HVAC provisions Equipment Efficiencies
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Equipment Efficiencies raised s an: Boiler efficiencies 18 trillion Btu of gas or oil annually as stock turns s F: Three-phase air-cooled AC and heat pumps 2.3 quads by 2035 s g: Air-cooled AC and heat pumps 1.05 quads by Change
© 2008 Trane examples of Equipment Efficiencies § : “… Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements …” Equipment typeMinimum efficiency Self-contained, water-cooled11.0 EER w/electric resistance heat10.3 IPLV (20–100 tons) Water-source heat pump12.0 EER (cooling) (1.5–5.25 tons) 4.2 COP (heating) Centrifugal chiller, 6.10 COP0.576 kW/ton water-cooled ( 300 tons) 6.40 IPLV0.549 IPLV (at ARI rating conditions)
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Load Calculations s Must calculate heating and cooling system design loads s Must base calculations on generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks © 2005 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Zone Thermostatic Controls s Required for each zone Perimeter can be treated differently s ≥5º F deadband Dual setpoint or deadband (can be software for DDC)
© 2008 Trane zone thermostatic controls Perimeter Zones 60 ft building plan view: thermal zoning example < 50 ft Core and each long exposure must be zoned separately Z1 Z5 Z2 Z3 Z4 Treating these exposures as a single zone is okay
© 2008 Trane Off-hour Controls s Exception was deleted for HVAC systems serving hotel/motel guest rooms Change
© 2008 Trane mandatory for systems ≥ 15,000 Btu/h Automatic Shutdown s Automatic 7-day/week time clock with 10-hour battery backup u Exception: 2-day/week thermostat for residential applications s Occupancy sensor s Manually operated timer (maximum duration: 2 hours) s Security system interlock
© 2008 Trane mandatory for systems ≥ 15,000 Btu/h Setback Controls s Climate zones 2-8: Lower heating setpoint to 55°F or less s Climate zones 1b, 2b, 3b (hot/dry): Automatically restart, temporarily operate u Raise cooling setpoint to 90°F or higher Or u Prevent high space humidity levels
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Other Off-Hour Controls s Provide optimum start if system supply- air capacity > 10,000 cfm s Zone isolation: u 25,000 ft² maximum zone size on one floor u Isolation devices to shut off outdoor and exhaust airflow u Central systems capable of stable operation
Zone Isolation Example central VAV fan system roof “normally-closed” VAV boxes VAV boxes with DDC controls return air (typical) motorized damper combination fire/smoke damper supply duct to zones (typical) © 2005 American Standard All rights reserved
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE 62.1 Reference s Changed from to u Ventilation rates changed u Now based on summation of rates per person and per area Change
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Ventilation System Controls Provide motorized dampers: u In stair and elevator shafts u On gravity hoods, vents, and ventilators Exceptions: l Buildings < 3 stories high Or, any building in climate zones 1,2,3 (hot climates) l Ventilation systems serving unconditioned spaces
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Ventilation System Controls Provide shutoff-damper control for outdoor-air supply and exhaust systems u Automatically shut when systems or spaces are not in use u Automatically shut during building warm-up, cool-down, and setback Exceptions: u Buildings < 3 stories high, or any building in climate zones 1,2,3 u Outdoor-air intake or exhaust < 300 cfm
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Damper Leakage Rate *Dampers < 24 inches in either dimension may have leakage of 40 cfm/ft² Maximum leakage at 1.0 in. wg, cfm/ft² of damper area Climate zoneMotorizedNon-motorized 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 4 cfm/ft²Not allowed All others10 cfm/ft²20 cfm/ft²*
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Ventilation: High Occupancy Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) required for Spaces > 500 ft 2 and design occupancy > 40 people/1000 ft²: Change (was 3000 cfm and 100 people/1000 ft 2 )
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Heat Pumps: Auxiliary Heat For heat pumps with internal electric heaters, controls must lock out electric heat when load can be met by heat pump alone Exception: Heat pumps regulated by NAECA if HSPF rating meets Table 6.8.1B and includes electric resistance heating
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Humidification Controls s Humidifier preheat Shut off humidifier preheat when humidification is not required s Humidification and dehumidification Prevent simultaneous operation Exception: Spaces that require specific humidity levels (computer rooms, museums, hospitals) if approved by authority having jurisdiction
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Ventilation: High Occupancy If outdoor air > 3,000 cfm and design occupancy > 100 people/1000 ft²: Automatically reduce outdoor air intake below design requirements when spaces are partially occupied s Exceptions: u Systems with exhaust-air energy recovery complying with Section u Systems with < 1,200 cfm outdoor air
© 2007 American Standard All rights reserved Complying with the mandatory HVAC provisions in ASHRAE Standard requires unit- and system-level controls
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Construction & Insulation Insulation must be suited to environment u Duct, plenum insulation l Climate zone l Location u Piping insulation l Heating, domestic hot water, or cooling l Temperature l Pipe size
Duct Insulation Example © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved Figure 6-G from 90.1 User’s Manual
© 2008 Trane Construction and Insulation Must leak-test ductwork if design static pressure > 3 in. wg
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Completion Requirements Documentation within 90 days of system acceptance: u Drawings of actual installation u Submittal data u Operation and maintenance manuals u Service agency information u Control sequences and schematics
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Completion Requirements System balancing u Written report conditioned spaces > 5000 ft² u For airside system fan power > 1 hp and hydronic pumps >10 hp: 1.Minimize throttling losses 2.Trim impeller or adjust design speed continued
© 2008 Trane mandatory HVAC provisions Completion Requirements Commissioning (Appendix E) u Control elements calibrated, adjusted, and in working order u Designer must provide detailed instructions (per Appendix E) for projects > 50,000 ft² Exceptions: Warehouses, semi-heated spaces concluded
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Mandatory Provisions Recap s Must be met whether using prescriptive or performance (ECB method) path s Mandates include: u Equipment efficiency u Controls u Construction and insulation u Completion requirements (drawings, manuals) u Balancing and commissioning
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Prescriptive Requirements Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) proposed HVAC design 90.1-compliant HVAC system prescriptive requirements (§6.5) Simplified Approach Option (§6.3) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB, §11) (small buildings only) mandatory provisions (§6.4)
© 2008 Trane section 6: HVAC Prescriptive Requirements s Economizers s Simultaneous heating and cooling s Air system design and control s Hydronic system design and control s Heat rejection equipment s Energy recovery s Exhaust hoods s Radiant heating s Hot gas bypass limitation
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Economizers s Climate and system size determine need for an economizer s May be either airside or waterside s Numerous (9) exceptions, including an efficiency tradeoff s Control must be integrated with mechanical cooling s Operation must not increase heating energy consumption
© 2008 Trane Cooling capacity for which an economizer is required climate and system size determinants Economizers Climate zone 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a Economizer unnecessary (Puerto Rico, Miami, St. Louis, Charlotte) 2b, 5a, 6a, 7, 8 ≥ 135,000 Btu/h (Yuma, Chicago, Edmonton) 3b, 3c, 4b, 4c, 5b, 5c, 6b ≥ 65,000 Btu/h (Denver, Lubbock, Vancouver)
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Air Economizers s Prohibited control types u Fixed enthalpy in climate zones 1b, 2b, 3b, 3c, 4b, 4c, 5b, 5c, 6b, 7, 8 u Differential dry bulb in climate zones 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a s High-limit shutoff control settings s Able to relieve excess outdoor air
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Water Economizers s Capacity: 100% of system cooling load at 50°F DB/45°F WB (45°F DB/40°F WB for dehumidification) s Maximum pressure drop < 15 ft (or bypassed) when not in use Figure 6-O from 90.1 User’s Manual waterside economizer
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Simultaneous Heating– Cooling Zone controls u No reheating u No recooling u No mixing or simultaneously supplying mechanically (or economizer) cooled and mechanically heated air u Exceptions based on zone airflow
© 2008 Trane simultaneous heating–cooling Zone-Control Exceptions Zone airflow does not exceed whichever is largest: u ASHRAE Standard 62’s zone requirements for outdoor air u 0.4 cfm/ft² u 30% of supply air u 300 cfm u ASHRAE Standard 62’s multiple-space requirements
© 2008 Trane simultaneous heating–cooling Zone-Control Exceptions s Zones with special pressurization requirements s Zones with code-required minimum circulation rates s Site-recovered or site-solar energy provides ≥ 75% of reheat energy concluded
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Simultaneous Heating– Cooling Hydronic system controls u Three-pipe: Not allowed u Two-pipe changeover: Controls must prevent changeover unless … l Outdoor dry bulb changes by ≥ 15°F l System operates in one mode at least 4 hours l Difference between cooling and heating temperatures is ≤ 30°F
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Simultaneous Heating– Cooling Hydronic (water loop) heat pump systems u Deadband ≥ 20°F (Exception: Optimized loop control) u Climate zones 3-8: l Bypass for closed-circuit fluid cooler l Isolate open towers from heat-pump loop
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Simultaneous Heating– Cooling Dehumidification Prevent: u Reheating u Mixing of hot and cold air streams u Heating and cooling the same air stream
© 2008 Trane simultaneous heating–cooling Dehumidification Exceptions s Reducing supply airflow to 50%, or minimum ventilation rate s Systems < 6.67 tons that can unload at least 50% s Systems smaller than 3.3 tons s Systems with specific humidity requirements (museums, surgical suites) s 75% of reheat/recool energy is site- recovered or site-solar
© 2008 Trane sidestream chiller arrangement Waterside Heat Recovery production (supply) distribution (demand) heat-recovery chiller bypass line application TIP application TIP
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Simultaneous Heating– Cooling Humidification: u If the hydronic cooling system requires an economizer … u And if humidity of > 35°F DP must be maintained … u Then the economizer must be waterside
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Air System Design & Control Fan system power limitation: u Applies to systems > 5 hp OptionConstant volumeVariable volume 1) Nameplate hp hp ≤ CFMs x hp ≤ CFMs x ) System bhp bhp ≤CFMs x A bhp ≤CFMs x A Change
© 2008 Trane Fan Power Limitation Pressure Drop Adjustment s A = Σ (PD x CFM design / 4131) s PD specified for u Ducts u Filters u Gas-phase air cleaners u Heat recovery devices u Sound attenuation sections u Other devices Change
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Air System Design & Control VAV fan control u Motors ≥ 10 hp require one of the following: l Variable-speed drive l Vaneaxial fan with variable-pitch blades l Design wattage ≤ 30% at 50% air volume u DDC systems must include setpoint reset (fan-pressure optimization) (was 15 hp) Change
© 2008 Trane Fan-Pressure Optimization communicating BAS duct pressure VAV damper position
© 2008 Trane Damper position (% open) of critical VAV box 75% 65% Increase static pressure setpoint Reduce static pressure setpoint No action fan-pressure optimization Control Logic application TIP application TIP
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Hydronic System Design & Control These provisions apply if pump system power > 10 hp: u Must be variable flow unless … l Pump power ≤ 75 hp l ≤ 3 Control valves u Limit demand of individual variable-flow pumps to 30% of design wattage at 50% flow (e.g., use VSD) l Pump head > 100 ft l Motor > 50 hp
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Hydronic System Design & Control s Pump isolation (S eries chillers “1 chiller”) s Chilled and hot water reset > 300,000 Btu/h unless: u Improper operation results u System is variable flow s Two-position shutoff valve for heat pump system > 10 hp
bypass line (decoupler) primary pumps secondary pumps Chilled water system design: Primary–secondary © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved application TIP application TIP
PP (typical) Chilled water system design: Variable primary flow © 2007 American Standard All rights reserved bypass line variable-flow pumps application TIP application TIP
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Heat-Rejection Equipment Fan speed control u Motors ≥7.5 hp must be able to operate at 2/3 of full speed or less u Exceptions: l Condenser fans serving multiple circuits or flooded condensers l Installations in climate zones 1 and 2 l Up to 1/3 of the fans on a multiple-fan application (if lead fans meet speed control requirement)
© 2008 Trane chiller–tower optimization Use of Fan Speeds condenser water setpoint, °F chiller plant power, kW tons: 54°F WB 1160 tons: 59°F WB 1550 tons: 65°F WB Shaded areas = Optimal setpoint application TIP application TIP
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Airside Energy Recovery s Required if: u Supply air capacity ≥ 5,000 cfm u Minimum outdoor air ≥ 70% s Recovery system effectiveness ≥ 50% s Exceptions (9) u Labs, toxic exhaust, etc. u Largest exhaust < 75% outdoor airflow
© 2008 Trane energy-recovery technologies Total-Energy Recovery s Total-energy, rotary heat exchangers, a.k.a. u Enthalpy wheels u Heat wheels u Energy wheels u Desiccant wheels s Membrane, fixed-plate heat exchangers
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Waterside Energy Recovery s Must recover condenser heat for service water heating (SWH) if: u Facility operates “24/7” and u Heat rejection > 6,000,000 Btu/h and u SWH load > 1,000,000 Btu/h s Where required, meet the smaller of: u Recover 60% of rejected condenser heat or u Preheat water to 85°F
© 2008 Trane waterside energy recovery Preferential Loading production (supply) distribution (demand) heat-recovery chiller in a sidestream piping arrangement bypass line application TIP application TIP
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Exhaust Hoods s Kitchen hoods > 5,000 cfm: Provide makeup air ≥ 50% of exhaust air volume s Fume hoods if total capacity > 15,000 cfm: u Capability to reduce exhaust and makeup-air volumes to ≤ 50% or u Direct makeup-air supply ≥ 75% of exhaust rate at specified conditions or u Heat recovery to precondition makeup air
© 2008 Trane prescriptive HVAC requirements Radiant Heating s Required for unenclosed spaces s Exception: Loading docks with air curtains
© 2008 Trane Maximum HGBP capacity, % of total capacity Rated capacity of system ≤ 240,000 Btu/h50% > 240,000 Btu/h25% prescriptive HVAC requirements Hot Gas Bypass Limitation s Applied in systems with stepped or continuous unloading s Limitation also pertains to chillers s Exception: Packaged unitary systems ≤ 90,000 Btu/h (7.5 tons)
© 2008 Trane section 7: Service Water Heating s Mandatory provisions: u Equipment efficiency u Piping insulation u SWH system controls (temperature, pump operation) u Pool heaters and covers s Prescriptive requirements: u Space and water heating u Service water heating
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Section 9: Lighting
© 2008 Trane section 9: lighting Scope s Lighting control u Interior spaces u Exterior building features and grounds lighting s Lighting power u Interior spaces u Exterior building features and grounds lighting u Building type and use
© 2008 Trane existing buildings: Lighting Alterations s Replacement lighting systems must meet lighting power density requirements s New control devices must comply with mandatory provisions s Exception: Replacing < 50% of luminaires
© 2008 Trane mandatory provisions Interior Lighting Control s At least one control in each space s Automatic shutoff for buildings > 5,000 ft² u Time-of-day schedule u Occupancy sensor u Signal from another system to indicate when space is unoccupied
© 2008 Trane interior lighting power allowance Building Area Method lighting power allowance (W) = LPD × area (ft²) where LPD = lighting power density (W/ft²)
© 2008 Trane building area method for interior Lighting Power Densities Interior LPD, W/ft² Hospital Library Manufacturing Museum Office Retail School Space type
© 2008 Trane space-by-space method for interior Lighting Power Densities Space type Interior LPD, W/ft² Office, enclosed Office, open plan Conference Training Lobby Lounge Dining Food prep May trade power between spaces
© 2008 Trane space-by-space method Additional Lighting Power May increase interior lighting power allowance for: u Decorative luminaires, ≤ 1.0 W/ft² in space where used u Luminaires designed for visual display terminals, ≤ 0.35 W/ft² u Retail accent lighting for specific display, ≤ 1.6 W/ft² or 3.9 W/ft² for fine merchandise
© 2008 Trane Lighting Addenda s ai: retail display lighting. Gives lighting designers flexibility Change
© 2008 Trane mandatory provisions Exterior Lighting Control Must have some means of automatic shutoff during daylight hours
© 2008 Trane Parking lots and drives0.15 W/ft² Building main entries30 W/lin ft of door width Canopies1.25 W/ft² Outdoor sales open areas0.5 W/ft² s Lighting-power-density allowances for tradable surfaces, plus additional 5% s May only exchange power among tradable surfaces mandatory provisions Exterior Lighting Power Tradable exterior surfaceMaximum LPD
© 2008 Trane mandatory provisions Exterior Lighting Power Building facades0.2 W/ft² or 5.0 W/lin ft Automated teller machines270 W per location Fast-food drive-up windows400 W per drive-thru Parking near 24-hr retail entries800 W per main entry ApplicationMaximum LPD NON-tradable exterior surfaces
© 2008 Trane section 10: other equipment Electric Motors Mandatory provisions: u Performance compliant with 1992 Energy Policy Act u Minimum nominal full-load efficiencies for general purpose motors
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Section 11: Energy Cost Budget (ECB) Method
© 2008 Trane section 11 Energy Cost Budget Method proposed building design 90.1-compliant building general & mandatory provisions Prescriptive Building Envelope Option (§5.5) Building Envelope Trade-Off Option (§5.6, performance) Energy Cost Budget Method (ECB, §11) (new buildings only)
© 2008 Trane section 11: Energy Cost Budget Method s Used for code or standard compliance s Sets maximum annual energy cost allowable for proposed design u Design Energy Cost ≤ Energy Cost Budget u ECB represents an equivalent 90.1-compliant building s Must still satisfy mandatory provisions Computer simulation aids tradeoffs between building functions
© 2008 Trane section 11: energy cost budget method Simulation Requirements s 1,400 hours per year s Hourly variations (occupancy, lighting, thermostat setpoints, etc.) s Thermal mass effects s Ten or more thermal zones s Equipment (part-load performance, capacity and efficiency correction curves) s Economizers s Budget building design characteristics
© 2008 Trane performance rating method Appendix G s Modification of ECB Method (§11) s “Provided … to quantify performance that substantially exceeds the requirements of Standard 90.1” s Used for Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1 calculation in LEED-NC version 2.2 s Does NOT offer an alternative compliance path for minimum standard compliance
© 2008 Trane appendix G: performance rating method Simulation Requirements s 8,760 hours per year s Hourly variations (occupancy, lighting, thermostat setpoints, etc.) s Thermal mass effects s Ten or more thermal zones s Equipment (part-load performance, capacity and efficiency correction curves) s Economizers s Budget building design characteristics
© 2008 Trane Appendix G Changes to s Improved identification of baseline buildings s Improved identification of baseline systems s Increased information for energy modelers
© 2008 Trane using appendix G for LEED-NC’s EA Credit 1 Percent improvement: Both models include all end-use loads (receptacles, process loads, etc.) baseline bldg performance proposed bldg performance 100 × baseline bldg performance —
© 2008 Trane EAC1 – Modeling Up to 19 points New BuildingsExisting Building RenovationsPoints 12%8%1 14%10%2 16%12%3 18%14%4 20%16%5 22%18%6 24%20%7 26%22%8 28%24%9 30%26%10 32%28%11 34%30%12 36%32%13 38%34%14 40%36%15 42%38%16 44%40%17 46%42%18 48%44%19
© 2008 Trane ASHRAE Standard Who’s Affected? s Owners s Occupants s Consulting engineers s Architects s System designers s Installers s Operators
© 2008 Trane Future of 90.1 s published in late 2007 s u Increased attention to energy reduction u “A 2010 standard that results in 30% total energy cost savings improvement compared to Standard ” ( Work Plan) u Planned for BOD approval in June 2010
© 2008 Trane SSPC 90.1 Accomplishments 06/2007 through 11/17/2009 s 83 Addenda processed u 44 finished u 17 Awaiting BOD approval u 6 in comment resolution u 15 began public review 11/6/2009 s ~8 more – web mtgs s publications l User’s Manual l Supplement (1Q-2009) incorporates 20 addenda s 2010 User’s Manual RFP s Interpretations l 25 official (2 pending) l ~30 unofficial s EISA guidance and appeal s Appeals l 2 defended l 2 on addendum (z) upheld
© 2008 Trane 90.1 Progress Indicator Information s Energy Saving Addenda finished, but not included yet u E – Airside energy recovery u O – Transformer efficiency u AK – Pump pressure optimization u BG – W2W heat pumps u BH – Supply air temperature reset u AA & BP - Lighting control u BQ – Lighting retail allowance u BW – PTACs u Portions of others s (Some) Energy Saving Addenda in Public Review and not included yet u AL – Skylights, Large spaces u AM – Fenestration Infiltration u AQ – TPS u BB – Envelope u BF – Continuous Air Barrier u BI – Pipe Insulation u BN – Fenestration Orientation u BS – Receptacles u BT – Chiller Adjustment u BU – Computer Rooms u BX – VAV Heating Temperatures u BY – Lighting Power Densities u CA – VAV Fan Power u CD – Exterior Lighting control u CE – Multi-level lighting control As of Oct 2, 2009 ●11.5% savings compared to ●Assumes same ventilation rate (no savings)
© 2008 Trane Members$74 Others$93 ASHRAE Standard Availability u Read online u Order from bookstore (electronic or paper) u Check for addenda (continuous maintenance) u Download compliance forms Members$88 Others$110 geview/browse.cgi?book=
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