Presentation on theme: "DATA Centers cs3353. Data Center A centralized location where computer related resources (and data) are stored. The users do not require physical access."— Presentation transcript:
DATA Centers cs3353
Data Center A centralized location where computer related resources (and data) are stored. The users do not require physical access in order to use the resources.
Physical Layout A room –Interior room A section of a building (a floor) –Interior building space A building, underground structure, etc.
Physical Access Ease of access to roads Ease of access to the interior –Large oversized double doors –Loading dock –Ramps –Service elevator
Data Center Requirements Fire protection Weight rated floor Access to power Access to HVAC Access controls –Limited access entry points.
Physical Security Crime prevention through environmental design: –Fences, walls & gates –Natural barriers and open spaces –Lighting –Surveillance –Alarms
Physical Security The computer room should have limited access: on a need to be there basis only. –Keycards and old fashioned keys and locks. –Guests should not be given access without an escort. –Proximity badges –Biometric Passes
Physical Security –A room may require two people to have access at any one time, so no one can be alone in the computer room.
Physical Security: Surveillance Cameras (Closed Circuit Video) Motion Detectors Keeping track of entry and exit of each individual
Power Your power capacity must provide for –Computer equipment –HVAC –Lighting –Security –Fire prevention As technology advances, it takes less space to use equal amounts of power. Power cords, fuse boxes, switches must meet fire safety standards. (NEBs Standards)
NEBS Networking Equipment Building System –Floor loading –Temperature & Humidity –Fire prevention –Airborne contamination –Noise level –EMF
Power Main Categories UPS Surge Protection Line conditioning
Power: UPS Consist of ATS (automatic transfer switch) Fire codes require an off switch for UPS. Batteries May include generators for prolonged outages.
Power: ATS Automatic Transfer Switch Detects when utility power is outside of an acceptable range, then activates the UPS and generators. Detects when utility power resumes, and switches from UPS to utility power.
Power: UPS UPS must provide power for –Computing systems and other essential hardware. –HVAC –Security –Lighting –Separate backup power for any fire suppression needing power.
Power: UPS UPS may require special requirements for: –cooling, –ventilation –power –Its own special room Make sure the power is available for this room too! Access is for maintenance and inspection only!
Power: UPS UPS can be made up of a room full of batteries. –these can be a dangerous fire hazard. –Fumes from battery acid are flammable and poisonous.
Power Outage Statistics show that power outages tend to last for very short periods or very long periods. Most power outages last less than 5 seconds. If an outage lasts more than 10 minutes, it is likely to last all day.
Power Outage A UPS should have enough stored power to last about 10 min + the required time to safely shutdown. A generator would be required to handle power outages lasting more than 10 to 15 minutes. UPS needs maintenance. Rechargeable lead acid batteries will last about 5 years.
Power: Surge Protection Required to protect against jumps in voltage from your power source. Can happen when there is a sudden large draw of power. Most likely to happen during power outages. A spike in voltage can damage electronics.
Power: Surge Protection Data center should be grounded for lightning strikes using lightning rods.
Power: Line Conditioning A power conditioner keeps the power supply at a constant voltage and frequency. Deals with sags, spikes, surges, and outages. –Surges last longer than spikes. A step above surge protection.
Power: Fire Suppression Fire suppression power requirements must be separate from everything else including computer system UPS.
Fire Suppression Halon Alternatives are used to reduce the oxygen content. (There must be enough remaining oxygen for humans to breathe)
Fire Suppression CO2 – cheap but causes greater condensation compared to other alternative suppressants. If fire suppression is activated: Power down systems. Evacuate personnel Shut off all power and system UPS Contact the suppression experts Maintain a fire-evacuation plan
Power Switches Fuse boxes, and any other power switch control should be easily accessible and not hidden behind equipment.
HVAC Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning
HVAC Fans for forcing air flow Filters for reducing the amount of contaminants in the air. Humidity control – –dry air leads to more static electricity. –Damp air leads to corrosion –40%-60% RH Water chillers, pumps, compressors
HVAC: Air Flow Management The hot aisle-cold aisle alternating system
HVAC Room should have good ventilation. Equipment should be spaced apart to prevent heat pockets from forming. The Amundsen-Scott facility does not require heating as long as the equipment in the data center is running. Water sensors should be placed under AC units, and raised floor.
HVAC Multiple thermostats may be required for larger rooms. Alarm to alert when temperature/humidity is outside a safe operation range.
Redundancy Power HVAC Hardware –Server –Disk –Backup
Racks Selection Floor Layout Contents
Racks Racks help manage space efficiently. Racks are needed so that equipment is not literally stacked on top of each other. (build up of heat) Racks also provide cable management. Racks help manage HVAC
Rack Selection Two Posts – usually for lighter communications hardware. Four Posts – for heavier hardware.
Rack Selection Height – should not be too tall that access is difficult or gets too close to the roof. Heat rises and equipment at the top will be subject to higher temperatures.
Rack Selection Width –Computer hardware standard is 19 inches. –Networking hardware NEBS standard is 21 inches. Network Equipment Building Standards.
Rack Selection Depth Must be deep enough for your equipment to fit plus enough space for vertical and horizontal cabling. Cables and equipment should not protrude into aisle space. (check fire codes)
Rack Selection Extra deep racks tend to create unused space. –Over packed racks lead to cabling complications and heat build up around equipment.
Rack Selection Some racks have built in fans. Bottom mounted fans may require perforated raised floors. Bottom mounted equipment can restrict air flow. Doors on racks restrict air flow when closed.
Rack Placement Allow racks to be far enough apart for easy access to equipment and cabling. Racks placed too close will build up excessive heat and cause access problems.
Racks: PDU vs Power Strip PDU - power distribution unit connects different sockets into different circuits.
Non-rack equipment Not all equipment is rack mounted. Be sure to have enough space for non-rack mounted hardware.
Cables Power Data –Networking cables –Hardware connection cables
Room Cabling Heavy power cables are best suited for under the raised floor. Cable tracks hang from the ceiling. They are designed to handle both power and data cables. Lighter data cables can be above the drop down ceiling.
Cables Keep power cables and data cables as far apart as practical. –EMF from power cables can adversely effect data cable performance.
Room Cabling In some instances, the floor may collect water and not be ideal for power cords. A leaking roof is also problematic. Water sensors should be installed under a raised floor near the AC units.
Cable Management Use twist ties to keep cables in place. Put labels on both cable ends. Color coded strips are ideal. –Consider what will happen if you unplug the wrong piece of equipment.
Cable Management Data and power cables should be color coded. –Thick black and gray cables are usually power cables. –Networking cables are often red, yellow, blue, etc.
Cables Collect cables in different lengths. Try to use cables of the correct length to avoid large cable loops. If cables are too short, maintenance on hardware is more difficult. Use plastic twist ties for bundling similar cables. Don’t bundle power and data cables.
Cable Redundancy Wire the data center for different AC power sources. Create different pathways for cables. In other words not all cables should go through the same path. If a path is submerged in water or on-fire, you want alternative pathways.
Labeling Label racks Power cords at both ends. Data cables at both ends. Hardware –Disk drives –Tape drives –Servers Front and Back
Labels High port density equipment is difficult to label. Be creative with your labels. Some cables are molded with labeling on them.
Data Center Communications Data centers are noisy due to fans, disk drives, and the AC. Phones are hard to use.
Consoles The data center is not a good environment for working at a console. –Too noisy –Insufficient space –To many servers to have individual consoles for each. –Tends to be cold and drafty
Consoles Keep a minimal number of consoles in the data center. You want to discourage unnecessary console usage in the data center. Use a switch box for accessing the individual servers.
Consoles A laptop computer or serial console can be placed on a moveable cart. The cart can be positioned and connected to any server.
Workbench Should be grounded. Grounding wrist bands should be attached to the bench. Should have multiple power sockets. Should be in close proximity to the data center floor. Work rooms generate dust and should not be in the data center.
Tools It is very difficult to keep track of tools. Tools are borrowed and never return. Consider using an inventoried tool box and checkout policy. The best tool box has drawers in a cart.
Tools Miscellaneous things to have: –Dolly –Vacuum cleaner –Brooms and brushes.
Spare parts Keep spare parts in a special area. Use bins or drawers to organize. Cables of different types and lengths. Fans Power supplies. Anything else you can’t afford to do without.
NEBS Network Equipment Building System is the documented standards for –Room space planning –Floor loading –Temperature and humidity –Fire resistance –Installation procedures –Airborne contamination
NEBS (continued) Acoustic noise levels Electric safety EMF Electrostatic discharge immunity Lightning protection DC potential difference Grounding
NEBS Used by the telecommunications industry. Creates high reliability standards.