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Energy Management Opportunities for Commercial Customers
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 2 Your Presenters –Welcome: Jim Grossman, Business Customer Service –Technologies: Mike Carter and Mark Farrell, energy engineers –Energy Efficiency Programs: Chris Kanoff, programs manager
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 3 Energy Management Benefits –Bottom line cost savings today! Energy Maintenance –Reduced noise levels –Better indoor air quality –Reduced air emissions
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 4 Energy Management Opportunities –Energy Basics –Energy Management Restaurants Lodging Food Retailers Machine & Auto Body Shops HVAC Lighting Motors Compressed Air
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 5 Energy Basics –Demand versus Energy Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of demand—similar to the speedometer of your car that records the rate at which miles are traveled A bigger engine is required to travel at a faster rate Peak power demand is usually measured as an average over a 15-minute period »Spikes and surges from motor startup and other short-term anomalies have little influence on peak demand Kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a measure of energy/consumption—similar to the odometer on your car which measures miles traveled
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 6 Energy Basics –Demand versus Energy Energy Cost = Energy Consumption x Unit Cost = kWh x $/kWh A 113-Watt four-lamp light fixture costs about $66 annually when operating 16 hr/day (113 W x 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh ÷ 1,000 W/kW) Motor power (kW) = Horsepower (HP) x 0.746/efficiency Motor power A 10 HP motor = 10 HP x 0.746/0.90 = 8.3 kW A 10 HP motor costs about $4,850 annually (8.3 kW x 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh) when operating 16 hr/day Pay the price for improved energy efficiency! The operating cost over the lifetime of a motor or light fixture can far exceed the original purchase price
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 7 Demand Reduction Ideas –Lighting Turn off lights in unoccupied or day lighted rooms Turn off display and decorative lighting Reduce corridor lighting Use occupancy sensors in low-traffic areas –HVAC Allow space temperatures to rise as high as 78°F Raise the chilled water temperature above normal settings during off- season periods Ensure that ventilation grilles and fan coil units are not blocked by books, flowers, debris, or other obstructions
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 8 Demand Reduction Ideas –Office Equipment Activate ENERGY STAR® power-down features Use SmartStrips to completely remove power from printers and copiers Restrict use of personal appliances such as coffee pots, refrigerators and heaters Turn off or unplug chilled-water drinking fountains –Other Convert your roof to a reflective surface Use slower charging battery chargers for forklifts Shut off selected elevators and escalators Consider variable speed motors for fans and pumps Lower hot water setpoint from 140F to 120F
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 9 Corporate Energy Management –Key Components of Energy Management Commitment by owners and management Clearly stated goals on energy efficiency and waste reduction, Delegation of responsibility and accountability Sustained tracking and assessment of energy use and technology application Continuous investigation of potential energy projects Our Business Solutions Toolkit offers free energy efficiency posters for your business
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 10 Corporate Energy Management –Energy Information Systems Measure and Evaluate Knowledge is power »“If you can't measure it, you can't manage it!” Access to real-time energy consumption/demand and cost data across multiple plants and facilities Plan Benchmark »Against yourself »Against similar facilities Prioritize solutions Implement
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 11 HVAC ImplementationEnergy (kWh) Demand (kW) Temperature setback Economizers Heat/energy recovery ventilators/wheels Chiller water temperature New HVAC equipment
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 12 HVAC –Temperature Setback/Setforward Save 3% per °F per 24 hr 72°F 68°F ( 4°F) for 12 hr saves 6% –Obtain Proper Humidity Control In the Summer, decrease relative humidity (RH) to feel cool.relative humidity Operation at 78°F / 40% RH provides the same level of occupant comfort as 74°F / 50% RH does. 74°F 78°F setforward for 24 hr saves 10% to 12% Remove moisture with desiccant or enthalpy/heat wheel Relative humidity >70% with temperature >70°F can encourage mold growth! In the Winter, opposite applies–raise RH to feel warm. Add moisture with evaporative humidifier Ultrasonic humidifiers require filtered water
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 13 HVAC –Narrow Your Chiller Water Temperature Set Points Typical conditions are chilled water temperature of 42°F and condensing water temperature of 80°F to 85°F.chilled water temperature 2% savings per °F that chilled water temperature is raised 5°F to 10°F increase is possible; more may cause damage and reduce cooling capacity (ton rating) Efficiency benefits from lowering condensing water temperature are offset by increased fan and pump operation, along with reduced cooling capacity. Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and oversizing the cooling tower can help The larger the system, the greater the net energy savings
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 14 HVAC –Upgrade older HVAC (10 to 15 years) Chillers: 0.8 kW/ton 0.5 kW/ton (37% less!) Unitary rooftop: 1.5 kW/ton 1.2 kW/ton (20% less!) Source: courtesy of McQuay International
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 15 Lighting ImplementationEnergy (kWh) Demand (kW) Replace T12 with T8 or T5 Replace metal halide with T8 or T5HO Replace incandescent with CFL Replace incandescent with LED Use daylighting and occupancy sensors
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 16 Lighting –Lumens-- A measurement of the perceived power of light. 60-watt incandescent ~ 850 lumens (100 CRI) ~ 14 lpw efficacy 32-watt T8 fluorescent ~ 2,800 lumens (83 CRI) ~ 88 lpw 400-watt metal halide ~ 24,000 lumens (65 CRI) ~ 60 lpw 400-watt high-pressure sodium ~ 45,000 lumens (22 CRI) ~ 112 lpw –Color Rendering Index (CRI)-- A measurement of a light source's ability to render colors the same as sunlight does. CRI describes to what degree the light spectrum source is “filled out” 65CRI 92CRI
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 17 Lighting –Replace existing T12 fluorescent lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps (up to 30% savings) –Also, T5 lamps are more efficient than T8s. The T5s are smaller and shorter so are not interchangeable with T8s T5s have lower mercury content than T8s T5 lumen maintenance is better at higher ambient temperatures but worse in cold Four-lamp T12 versus T8 Fixtures Lamp Type Fixture Watts Fixture Lumens LPW F32T121489,12062 F32T811310,60094
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 18 Lighting –Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for HighbayMetal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent Probe start MH with low lumen maintenance (<65%) is the best target for replacement The lumen maintenance of metal halides can decrease to 45% during their lifetime, whereas fluorescents maintain 90% to 95% in optimal conditions Compare 320 W probe start MH with 20,000 EOL lumens and six F32T8 with 18,000 EOL lumens at 220 system watts Lumen output of fluorescents declines with heat/cold –Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL)Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL) You get the same or more light output (lumens) with a 75% energy reduction and over six times the rated life! Energy savings far outweigh the difference in lamp price Use reflector flood CFLs in recessed-can lights Issue of mercury content can be addressed
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 19 Lighting –Day LightingDay Lighting Skylights/lightpipes, clerestory windows, and roof monitors Energy savings can range from about $0.50/ ft 2 to $0.75/ ft 2, depending on the building type, location, office area plan, and local cost of energy –Occupancy SensorsOccupancy Sensors Ultrasonic has wider range than infrared but is prone to false positives Can shorten life of fluorescents with instant start ballast $30 to $150 cost 2 year payback is normal
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 20 Motors ImplementationEnergy (kWh) Demand (kW) Replace motors Use variable speed drives Right size the motor Disconnect unused transformers
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 21 Motors –Repair or Replace MotorsRepair or Replace Motors Replace motors <40 HP Replace if cost of rewind is >65% of new motor Replace motors last rewound before 1980 See the Motor Calculator in the Business Solutions Toolkit –Variable Speed Drives/Adjustable Speed DrivesVariable Speed Drives Best for variable torque loads often found in variable flow applications (pumps and fans) and greater than 2,000 hours operation Horsepower varies as the cube of speed/flow Cut speed/flow by 50% and you cut energy consumption by nearly 90%! (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.125) Converts 60 Hz to 120-400 Hz in pulse width modulation
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 22 Motors –Soft-start (reduced voltage starter) Does not really save energy or reduce peak demand Does keep lights from dimming and circuit breakers from popping open –Right-size the Motor Motor efficiency plummets at <40% rated load –Premium Efficiency Motors Good motor efficiency varies from about 85% (1 HP) to 95% (>75 HP) NEMA Premium Efficiency motors are 1% to 3% basis points more efficient than baseline (EPACT 1992) NEMA Premium Efficiency motors
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 23 Compressed Air ImplementationEnergy (kWh) Demand (kW) Only use when there is no other option Fix leaks Right size Use variable speed compressor motor drives
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 24 Compressed Air –Compressed Air energy cost for 6,000 hrs @ $0.10/kWh = $125/CFMCompressed Air At 4 CFM/HP, a 250 hp compressor costs about $125,000 annually
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 25 Compressed Air –Only use compressed air when it is absolutely necessary! –Examples of potentially inappropriate uses of compressed air: Open blowing Sparging Aspirating Atomizing Padding Dilute-phase transport Dense-phase transport –If possible, switch to motors, mechanical actuators, and other means to accomplish the same function Vacuum generation Personnel cooling Open hand-held blowguns or lances Diaphragm pumps Cabinet cooling Vacuum venturis
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 26 Compressed Air –Leaks often account for 20-30% of compressor output A 1/32" leak in a 90 psi compressed air system would cost approximately $185 annually –Produce only the pressure you really need For every 1 pound per square inch (1 psi) increase in discharge pressure, energy consumption will increase by approximately 0.8% to 1% for a system in the 100 psig range with 30% to 50% unregulated usage* Reducing system pressure by 10 psi saves 8% to 10% *Except for centrifugal compressors
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 27 Compressed Air –Compressors operate at highest efficiency at full load or off Optimum controls results in big savings For example, at 50% full-load flow, kW input varies from 51% to 83% –Variable speed is best applied to compressors that operate primarily as trim units, or as single units with loads below 75-80% demand Below 85% loading, variable displacement units become less efficient than variable speed, and are very poor at loads below 50% –Use ¾” diameter hose for >3 HP tools or >50’ lengths
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 28 Business Specific Ideas –Restaurants –Lodging –Food Retailers –Machine Shops & Auto Body Shops
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 29 Restaurants –Behavior Do not preheat cooking equipment until ready to use Turn cooking equipment down during slow periods Cold-rinse and stack dishes until a full dishwasher load is ready –Systems Balance make-up air with vent hood exhaust air Implement variable-speed exhaust fans Control humidity 50% RH at 78°F = 70% RH at 74°F Vinyl strips overlapped by at least 50% can reduce walk-in refrigerator cold air loss by up to 95% Best if entrance/exit rate is less than 5-6 times per hour Consider economizer refrigerator cooling for refrigerators kept at 38°F or higher Best for cold climates and may require HEPA filter
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 30 Lodging Industry –Hot Water Reduction Strategies (energy savings) Low flow showerheads ($30 to $60 per year) 120°F laundry temperature versus 140°F (20%) Pool and hot tub covers (50%) –Use door and motion sensors and Smart HVAC Controller to operate older Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner (PTAC) units Smart HVAC Controller
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 31 Food Retailers –Use condensation sensor to run anti-sweat heaters only when they are needed –Use permanent case doors or overnight case covers to save up to 70% on refrigeration –New vinyl strips overlapped by at least 50% can reduce cold air loss by up to 95% in walk-in freezers Best when entrance/exit rate is no more than 5-6 times per hour to avoid ice buildup –Replace fluorescent lighting with LED or fiber optic lighting Decreases heat load Minimizes maintenance Works well with nighttime occupancy sensors
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 32 Food Retailers –Use Air Doors/CurtainsUse Air Doors/Curtains A door 8 ft wide and 8 ft high with an indoor temperature of 70°F, an outdoor temperature of 20°F, and zero wind velocity, loses 200,000 Btu/h at a cost of roughly $2.50 per hour Any wind at all triples the loss! Air door recovers 75% of heat loss 2-3 year payback possible ($2,600 cap. + $100 op.) Exhaust fans (negative pressure) and wind tunnel effect are problems
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 33 Machine Shops & Auto Body Shops –Insulate building envelope Heat loss is walls 45%, roof 35%, and windows/doors 20%. –Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for HighbayMetal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent Probe start MH with low lumen maintenance (<65%) is the best target for replacement Compare 320 watt probe start MH with 20,000 EOL lumens and six F32T8 with 18,000 EOL lumens at 220 system watts –Use Air Doors/CurtainsUse Air Doors/Curtains Air door recovers 75% of heat loss 1-2 year payback possible ($3,500 capital + $100 operations)
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 34 Machine Shops & Auto Body Shops –Reduce compressed air losses Replace bad applications with electric motors Reduce system pressure 10 psi Repair leaks Use variable speed compressor motor drives –Use heat recovery ventilator to capture heat from paint booth exhaust air in the winter –Stagger use of high horsepower motors Shift some machine use to off peak
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 35 Online Business Tools rockymountainpower.net/toolkit rockymountainpower.net/toolkit
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 36 Rocky Mountain Power FinAnswer Express –FinAnswer Express is for commercial and industrial customers– either retrofit or new construction –Pre-calculated incentives for high-efficiency lighting, premium efficiency motors and HVAC equipment Custom incentives may be available for other types of equipment –Incentive process (pre-purchase agreement or post purchase application) varies by technology and project type Please understand the process before you purchase! –Check our Web site for on-line forms plus trade allies available to help –Also check for state and federal tax incentives at dsire.orgdsire.org
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 37 Rocky Mountain Power Energy FinAnswer –Applies to comprehensive commercial or industrial projects– either new construction or commercial retrofit* Lighting and non-lighting projects can be packaged –Starts with an energy analysis to identify options and highest priority measures Commissioning is required for most measures –Incentives are project-based $0.12/kWh of annual energy savings + $50/kW of average monthly demand reduction (up to 50% of the eligible project cost) Payable by one-time lump sum check, per project –Incentive agreement must be signed before equipment is purchased –Check our Web site for participation steps and online forms *Commercial retrofit projects must be at least 20,000 sq ft to be eligible
© 2000 PACIFICORP | PAGE 38 Contacts –For more information please phone us: Call your Business Solutions Team for answers to service and account questions at 1-866-870-3419 –Visit our Web site at: Business program Web page – rockymountainpower.net/business Business Solutions Toolkit – rockymountainpower.net/toolkit –Or contact us directly: E-mail us at email@example.com Use our online inquiry form – rockymountainpower.net/inquiry Call our business Energy Services Hotline at 1-800-222-4335 © 2009 Tech Resources Inc.
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