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COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP THROUGH PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Jason Powell & Alicia Stansell The University of North Texas - United States.

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Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP THROUGH PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Jason Powell & Alicia Stansell The University of North Texas - United States."— Presentation transcript:

1 COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP THROUGH PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING Jason Powell & Alicia Stansell The University of North Texas - United States

2 THE TWO MODELS DEFINED Cognitive Apprenticeship Conceived as a way to bridge the gap between abstract knowledge and application of knowledge. Based on centuries-old techniques of training apprentices in a skilled trade applied to cognitive domains. Relies on expert-level modeling, coaching, and fading support. Also includes reflection and exploration for students as they gain mastery over the knowledge domain. Stresses the importance of the practices, procedures, and vocabulary of a real-world community of practice. Problem-Based Learning Learning model developed in health care to train new doctors and nurses in real-world problem-solving and collaboration. Emphasizes ill-structured problems to encourage use of existing knowledge and creation of new schemas. Adapted for multi-disciplinary use as a hybrid model. Teacher provides scaffolded support, but not necessarily the modeling and coaching inherent in the cognitive apprenticeship model.

3 THE INTERSECTION OF THE TWO MODELS Problem Solving Structured Guidance Situated Learning

4 A PROTOTYPE COURSE OUTLINE FORMAT: A multi-week course organized through a Learning Management System (LMS). Activities include weekly e- learning modules, individual/collaborative activities. and bi- weekly synchronous class meetings. DESIGN: The e-learning modules feature a virtual teaching assistant who models expert-level strategies for navigating the array of software and hardware considerations involved in collaborating online. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/ACTIVITIES: The overall problem presented by the course is a collaborative literature review written by small groups of learners. The cognitive apprenticeship influence will be in the modeling and coaching provided by both the e-learning modules and the course instructor in class meetings. Over the ten week course, learners will gradually be introduced to not only communicating with, but engaging in collaborative research and writing with their small groups. The experiences of this collaboration represent the ill-defined problems being solved as part of an overall project goal. COURSE TITLE: Student Skill building Through a Cognitive Apprenticeship and Problem-Based Approach AUDIENCE: Graduate-level students entering their first distributed program PROBLEM: Students continuing or returning to school in an online environment face many challenges with asynchronous and synchronous communications. They need expert- level guidance to get started and continue to learn and adapt as they progress through their program.

5 PLANS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH PROTOTYPE: We have created a prototype of the course as described as a class project. Our intention is to continue design and develop as fully as time permits. Initially, we plan to invite peers from our program to review our progress. IMPLEMENTATION: With appropriate funding, we feel this course could be fully developed and implemented as a pilot program in a distributed learning environment at a state university. Data gathered from a pilot program could provide valuable insight into how well learning objectives are being met and what areas need improvement from the point of view of the learner. Other themes may emerge as data is collected. With subsequent re-design, we feel a course like this could be an effective way to ensure baseline skillsets and create a learner able to self-educate as needed.

6 References Boss, B. S. (2012). The challenge of assessing project-based learning. District Administration, 48(9), 46–52. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), pp. 32–42. ChanLin, L. (2008). Technology integration applied to project ‐ based learning in science. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(1), 55–65.Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Holum, A. (1991). Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Holum, A. (1991). Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator, 6(11), 38–46. Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1987). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing, and mathematics. Technical Report No Retrieved from Frank, M., & Barzilai, A. (2004). Integrating alternative assessment in a project-based learning course for pre-service science and technology teachers. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 41–61. doi: / Hendricks, C. C. (2001). Teaching causal reasoning through cognitive apprenticeship: What are results from situated learning? The Journal of Educational Research, 94(5), 302. Hockly, N. (2000). Modelling and “cognitive apprenticeship” in teacher education. ELT Journal, 54(2), 118–125. doi: /elt/ Johnson, C., & Delawsky, S. (2013). Project-based learning and student engagement. Academic Research International, 4(4), 560–571. Kumar, M., & Natarajan, U. (2007). A problem-based learning model: Show casing an educational paradigm shift. Curriculum Journal, 18(1), 89–102. doi: / Lave, J., Wenger, Etienne. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press. Masek, A., & Yamin, S. (2010). Problem based learning model: A collection from the literature. Asian Social Science, 6(8), 148–157. Miller, G., A., & Gildea, P. M. (1987, September). How children learn words. Scientific American, 257(3), 94–99. Palinscar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117–175. Project-based learning: inspiring middle school students to engage in deep and active learning. (2009). New York: New York City Department of Education. Rogers, M., Cross, D., Gresalfi, M., Trauth-Nare, A., & Buck, G. (2010). First year implementation of a project-based learning approach: the need for addressing teachers’ orientations in the era of reform. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(4), 893–917. doi: /s x Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985b). Mathematical problem solving. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. Schwalm, J., & Tylek, K. (2012). Systemwide implementation of project-based learning: The Philadelphia Approach. Afterschool Matters, spring(15), 8. Retrieved from Vygotskii, L. S., Cole, Michael. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Wendrich, W. (2012). Archaeology and apprenticeship: body knowledge, identity, and communities of practice. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.


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