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Picture by Christine Nolan & Indraneel Kumar; Linda, Wikimedia Commons.

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Presentation on theme: "Picture by Christine Nolan & Indraneel Kumar; Linda, Wikimedia Commons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Picture by Christine Nolan & Indraneel Kumar; Linda, Wikimedia Commons

2 Background Research The Well Traveled Yogurt Pot Food-miles Concept: Pros & Cons Foodsheds Specialized Supply (cold/cool) Chains Data Food Logistics Infrastructure & Data Sources Interactive Tools Processed Food Flows, IN & USA Indiana’s Food Infrastructure Farmers’ Market

3 Source: Stefanie B ö ge, The Well-traveled Yogurt Pot, World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1995 Map developed by the PCRD Strawberries Jam Yogurt culture, paper, resin, glue Corn & Wheat powder Labels & Plastics Milk Glass Jars o 150 g Yogurt pot o Strawberries- Poland- West Germany- Southern Germany o Corn and wheat powder- Holland- West Germany- Southern Germany o Labels and plastics- West Germany o Glass jars- East Germany o Milk- Stuttgart hinterlands

4 “In general, volume of road freight (tons) is stagnating, volume of freight movement (ton-miles) is increasing”………Stefanie B ö ge, 1995 o Environmental consequences- emissions of SO 2, No x, and dust o Diesel and fossil fuel expenses (non-renewable energy sources) o For one truck-load of yogurt in southern Germany, a theoretical truck-load has to move 1,005 KM. Source: Stefanie B ö ge, The Well-traveled Yogurt Pot, World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1995

5 o “Farm to the Fork”- distance traveled by food (Angela Paxton, 1994) o Energy used, GHG emissions, other environmental impacts o Favors locally grown food vs. imported food, which use air freight and other transport modes Source: Paxton, Angela, Food Miles Report: Danger of Long Distance Transport, Sep 1 st, 1994. Xuereb, Marc, And Miles to Go Before I Eat-Home Grown Hurrah, Alternatives Journal, University of Waterloo, 32:3, 18-20, 2006 o Waterloo Project, Canada- 58 imported foods traveled on average 4,500 KM with estimated GHG emissions of 51,709 tons

6 o Economic Input Output Life Cycle Analysis for food production o The average U.S. household’s carbon footprint from food consumption is 8.1 ton CO 2 /year (Weber, 2008) o Of 8.1 ton CO 2 /Year, 83% of GHG emissions are from production and only 11% is from the transportation of food materials (Weber, 2008) o Food is transported long distances, average 1,640 KM for delivery and 6,760 KM life cycle supply chain (Weber, 2008) o Arguments for locally grown foods should not be based solely on food-miles and environmental benefits Source: Christopher L. Weber & H. Scott Matthews, Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States, Environmental Science & Technology, 42, 3508-3513, 2008

7 o Similar to Watersheds, Laborsheds and Commutesheds o Area of land and waters within a region from which food is produced in order to deliver nutrition to a population base (Roots of Change, 2012) o Foodsheds can cross jurisdictional boundaries; depend on population needs and production capacity of the lands o Include production (farms, ranches, community gardens), infrastructure (composting facilities, distribution centers, transportation), wholesale and retail sites, etc. o San Francisco: 100-mile radius foodshed around the city was studied o NIRPC Food Study: 100-mile radius foodshed Source:

8 o Feeding Chicago Project estimated a hinterland of 80-mile buffer sufficient to feed the city’s inhabitants (Schuble et al., 2011) o Foodshed model is based on soil yield data, soil type, drainage, etc. o Assumptions about nutrition intake, dietary habits, etc. o Core of GIS-based model has an “optimization routine” o New York City Regional Food Initiative study- Philadelphia, around 100-mile region; New York metro region, around 200-mile region Source: Schuble, Todd, Esther Brown and Pamela Martin, The University of Chicago, Modeling the relationship between food, energy, and environmental impacts, 2011, connections.html connections.html New York City Regional Foodshed Initiative, Urban Design Lab, The Earth Institute, Columbia University,

9 o Specialized temperature controlled transport and distribution systems o U.S. imports about 30% of fruits & vegetables and around 20% of exports are perishable (Rodrigue & Nottenboom, 2012) o Subtropolis, Kansas City- comparative advantage of geography, ambient temperature 18 0 -21 0 C, 4.5 Sq. KM of potential space, 5- million Sq. feet space in use, up to 70% savings in utility costs (Rodrigue, J-P et al., 2012; The Atlantic; HuntMidwest) Source: Rodrigue, J-P et al. (2012) The Geography of Transport Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography, Subtropolis, U.S.A., The Atlantic, btropolis-usa/308033/# btropolis-usa/308033/# Hunt Midwest, Image Source: Ameriacsroof, Wikipedia o Cold chain logistics- fruits, processed food, meat/seaf ood, beverage, flowers, etc.

10 o Subsurface distribution and warehousing- Kansas City, Independence, Springfield, MO o Modes- Refrigerated railcars and truck trailers (reefers); air; not so much of intermodal ship containers o Cold chain logistics- fruits, processed food, meat/seafood, beverage, flowers, pharmaceuticals, etc. o Canada to Mexico export of processed and perishable food items (Prentice & McLachlin, 2008) o Panama Canal Expansion- Panama’s investments on new cold chain infrastructure, seaports, free trade zone, railways, airports Source: Prentice, Barry E. and Ron McLachlin, Refrigerated Food Transport from Canada to Mexico: Cold Chain Challenges, Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 47, No. 2, Summer 2008. A New Cold Chain for Panama, new-cold-chain-for-panama new-cold-chain-for-panama

11 Ag & Food Products: o Animal feed o Cereal grains o Live animals/fish o Meat/seafood o Milled grain products o Other Ag products o Other/processed food stuffs Trucks carried 85% (2.6 billion tons) of Ag & Food commodities by weight in 2007; Water modes only 3% Trucks carried 90% ( $ 1.6 trillion) of Ag & Food commodities by value in 2007; Water modes only 1% Map developed by the PCRD Source: NTAD, FAF 3.3, FHWA, ORNL, ArcGIS Online

12 Map developed by the PCRD Source: NTAD, FAF 3.3, FHWA, FRA, ORNL, ArcGIS Online Railroads carried 8% (237 million tons) of Ag & Food commodities by weight in 2007; Multiple modes and mail only 3% Railroads carried only 3% (60 billion $) of Ag & Food commodities by value in 2007; Multiple modes and mail only 3% By Weight 63.5% is cereal grains 13% is processed food stuffs 5% is milled grain products

13 o Freight Analysis Framework 3 o Oak Ridge National Laboratory o Commodities o Freight movement by 7 modes o Truck, Rail, Water, Air, Multiple modes, Pipeline, Other modes Map developed by the PCRD

14 Processed Food Stuffs: o Dairy products o Processed or prepared vegetables o Fruits, other nuts, juices o Coffee, tea, and spices o Animal or vegetable fats and oils, prepared edible fats, flours, oil seeds o Sugars, confectionary, cocoa preparations o Other edible preparations o Non-alcoholic beverages and ice Map developed by the PCRD Source: NTAD; FAF 2.2, FHWA; SRTM Elevation Data, ESRI


16 State to State flows of processed food commodities Major, medium and minor flows are processed Major flows are 1 million tonnes and above

17 Flows as less as 0.1 tonne are mapped Flows as high as 3 million tonnes and above are mapped (Indiana-Illinois; Maryland-Pennsylvania)

18 Mapping of Origin- Destination matrices Query by Origin- Indiana Query by Destination- Maine

19 Intermodal Travel Distance rings Based on FAF3 network Applicable to any intermodal in USA

20 Data from USDA, Ag Marketing Service, map developed by the PCRD 168 locations, 2010

21 D & B data, map developed by the PCRD

22 o 10,687 restaurants o NAICS 722110 o NAICS 722211 o D & B data o All types of food destinations are not covered o Day-time vs. resident population o ORNL, LandScan database

23 Source: o Supermarkets with at least $ 2 million annual sales are included o County level information

24 o Accessibility to supermarkets is available- walking and driving o Supermarkets with at least $ 1 million sales are included o NAVTEQ transportation network data Source:

25 o Making locally grown food more available (USDA) o Fresh & nutritious food products for urban consumers o Get to know the origins of your food! o 6,806 markets, 2010 are mapped o 7,864 markets, November 2012, USDA, National Farmers Market Directory Picture by Indraneel Kumar







32 Travel Time tool Area covered under different time and distance intervals Network vs. Euclidean distances Routing tools with barriers

33 o Spatial Analysis & Mapping of Food Systems, Cornell University, o ArcGIS Online Food Deserts Group, o Food Environment Atlas, o MarketMaker, o Local Foodshed Mapping Tool for New York State, mapping.cfm#foodshed mapping.cfm#foodshed o Northwest Indiana Local Food Study, o Hoosier Farmer? Emergent Food Systems in Indiana,

34 Purdue Center for Regional Development Gerald D. and Edna E. Mann Hall, Suite 266 203 Martin Jischke Drive West Lafayette, IN 47907 Contacts Scott Hutcheson Ed Morrison Indraneel Kumar Andrey Zhalnin Today’s Presenters Indraneel Kumar, AICP Andrey Zhalnin, PhD

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