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Understanding the prompt emission of GRBs after Fermi Tsvi Piran Hebrew University, Jerusalem (E. Nakar, P. Kumar, R. Sari, Y. Fan, Y. Zou, F. Genet, D.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding the prompt emission of GRBs after Fermi Tsvi Piran Hebrew University, Jerusalem (E. Nakar, P. Kumar, R. Sari, Y. Fan, Y. Zou, F. Genet, D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding the prompt emission of GRBs after Fermi Tsvi Piran Hebrew University, Jerusalem (E. Nakar, P. Kumar, R. Sari, Y. Fan, Y. Zou, F. Genet, D. Guetta, D. Wanderman, P. Biniamini)

2 Mis-Understanding the prompt emission of GRBs after Fermi Tsvi Piran Hebrew University, Jerusalem (E. Nakar, P. Kumar, R. Sari, Y. Fan, Y. Zou, F. Genet, D. Guetta, D. Wanderman, P. Biniamini)

3 OUTLINE n Deciphering the ancient Universe : GRB Rates vs. the SFR n Implication of Fermi’s observations of high energy emission n Opacity limits n Limits on the prompt emission n GeV from external shocks

4 Deciphering the Ancient Universe with GRBs GRBs & SFR Wanderman & TP 2010

5 RealObserved

6 Fewer GRBs at low redshifts compared to the SFR Possible excess at high refshifts compared to the SFR GRB090423

7 Expected Rates of Detection of High redshift GRBs

8 Fermi’s Observations and prompt GRB emission The origin of the prompt emission is not clear: Synchrotron Synchrotron Self Compton Inverse Compton of external radiation field? Comptonized thermal component

9 New Limits on the Lorentz factor (with Y. Fan and Y. Zou) Opacity limits on Γ should take into account the possibility of a different origin of the prompt low energy γ-rays This may reduce significantly the limits on Γ e_e_e_e_ e+e+e+e+ Γ Γ1Γ1Γ1Γ1

10 Spectral parameters of the prompt emission BATSE’s data shows a correlation between high E p and β. This correlation disappears in Fermi’s GBM data (GCN circulars parameters). This is expected in view of the broader spectral range of the GBM.

11 Fermi’s α distribution (GCN parameters) The synchrotron “line of death” problem persists!

12 The origin of the prompt emission is not clear: Synchrotron – “line of death” Synchrotron Self Compton Inverse Compton of external radiation field? Comptonized thermal component

13 SSC or IC ? Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 367, L52–L56 (2006) A unified picture for gamma-ray burst prompt and X-ray afterglow emissions P. Kumar E. McMahon, S. D. Barthelmy, D. Burrows, N. Gehrels, M. Goad, J. Nousek and G. Tagliaferri Synch SSC

14 Fermi – strong upper limits on GeV emission

15 Even Stronger limits on E Gev /E MeV These limits are for LAT detected GRBs. Even stronger limits arise from LAT undetected GRBs (Guetta, Pian Waxman, 10; Beniamini, Guetta, Nakar, TP 10)

16

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18 Rules our regions in the Parameter phase space

19 Even in GRB b (the naked eye burst) the  -rays are not inverse Compton of the optical

20 Limits on Synchrotron Parameters This rules out the γ e ≈100 electrons

21 The origin of the prompt emission is not clear: Synchrotron – “line of death” Synchrotron Self Compton – GeV emission is too weak Inverse Compton of external radiation field? – No reasonable source of seed photons (Genet & TP) Comptonized thermal component – Not clear how to produce the needed mildly relativistic electrons at the right location (see however Beloborodov 2010)

22 The origin of the GeV emission? From Ghisellini et al 2010

23 Lessons from “Undetected” LAT Bursts? Biniamini, P., Guetta, D., Nakar, E. & TP When we sum up data from 20 GBM burst with fluence just below the fluence of LAT detected GBM (and θ<70) we find a clear statistically significant signal. The tail (T-T 0 >100sec) is stronger than the prompt (T-T 0 <100sec).Preliminary

24 Inner Engine Relativistic Wind The Afterglow Afterglow Internal Shocks  -rays cm cm 10 6 cm External Shock

25 Afterglow Theory Hydrodynamics: Hydrodynamics: deceleration of the (Blandford & McKee 1976) relativistic shell by collision with the surrounding medium (Blandford & McKee 1976) (Meszaros & Rees 1997, Waxman 1997, Sari 1997, Cohen, Piran & Sari 1998) Radiation: synchrotron Radiation: synchrotron + IC (?) (Sari, Piran & Narayan, 98 and many others) Clean, well defined problem. Few parameters: E, n, p, e e, e B (~10 -2 ) initialshell ISM

26 Can the forward shock synchrotron produce the observed GeV emission? Kumar and Barniol-Duran - Yes (adiabatic) Ghisellini, Ghirlanda, Nava, Celloti - Yes (radiative)

27 Standard External Shock Spectra Fan, TP, Narayan & Wei, s s SSC SSC Synch Synch When we lower B 200 s

28 But TP & Nakar 2010, Kumar Barniol-Duran 2010 Cooling time = acceleration time => Upper limit on synchrotron photons => But 33 GeV photons at 82 sec from GRB090902B Much worse in a radiative cooling when Γ(t) decreases much faster.

29 Cooling and Confinement TP & Nakar 10,Kumar Barniol-Duran, Li 10, Waxman & Li 06 Downstream dominates cooling Upstream dominates confinement

30 Cooling and Confinement Cooling - MeV < hν c < 100 MeV => f B B > 85 μG (t/100) -1/6 for Confinement of the electrons producing 10GeV photon => B > 20 μG (t/100) -1/12

31 Oops - Cooling by IC Even a modest (a few μJ) IR or optical flux will cool (via IC the synch emitting electrons)

32 One slide before last Vela BATSE BeppoSAX Swift Fermi

33 Some Conclusions Long GRBs don’t follow the SFR ?! Revise minimal Γ opacity estimates Prompt emission mechanism – Not SSC (lack of high energy signature + not enough optical seed). – NOT IC – no relevant seed source – Synch – “line of death”, Fermi limits on emitting elns – Mildly relativistic comptonization ? The GeV emission – Mostly external shocks No late energetic photons No simultaneous strong IR or optical


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