Presentation on theme: "Work Participation amongst Indian Youth Sanjay Kumar Director Centre for the study of Developing Societies (CSDS) Delhi."— Presentation transcript:
Work Participation amongst Indian Youth Sanjay Kumar Director Centre for the study of Developing Societies (CSDS) Delhi
How big is the issue of Unemployment amongst the Indian Youth? As soon as we speak of Indian youth few things comes to our mind Large in numbers (sizeable population) Growing in size year after year, decade after decade Issue of educational facilities And of course– the problem of “Unemployment” amongst them
Why Indian Youth faces this problem of Unemployment? Data from the Census clearly indicate that the proportion of Youth in Indian population has increased over the years. There are now “more” and “better” educational opportunities/facilities. The employment opportunities are also expanding (if not in Govt. sector but in private sector) But the differential rate of growth in employment opportunities and those becoming employable (educated) has resulted in increasing problem of unemployment. There growth of employment opportunities are much less compared to those who are joining the workforce (both skilled and unskilled)
Sources of evidence and some explanations Sources of Information Census Data of 2001 and 2011 Data collected by Youth Survey conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies Some Explanation Main worker:- Worked more than 183 days in a year Marginal worker:-W orked less than 183 days in a calender year Non worker:-Who did not work at all.
Let us first look at the proportion of Youth population: There is consistent increase in the youth population in India (15- 29 years) Source: Census of India
Since this presentation concerns issue of Unemployment I would like to consider the employable population. (20- 34 years) An increasing youth population between 2001 and 2011 Source: Census of India
Growing opportunity for joining workforce: India has more than 20,000 colleges, with almost 10,000 colleges being set up recently Source:- FICCI 2012 Report on Twelfth Five Year Plan
Private Institutions lead in terms of number of Institutions and student enrollment University and university- level Institutions- 659 Colleges - 33,023 Diploma- granting institutions- 12,748 Central 152 Central 669 Central NIL State 316 State 13,024 State 3,207 Private 191 Private 19,930 Private 9,541 Source:- FICCI 2012 Report on Twelfth Five Year Plan
Demand for Vocational Education has resulted in the Growth of Vocational Education and Training Institutes (ITI/ ITC) Source:- FICCI 2012 Report on Twelfth Five Year Plan
The Indian Youth also share the view that unemployment is their biggest problem. But similar numbers also believe, poverty is also a big problem for them. Source: - CSDS Data Unit. ( Youth Study 2009).Youth here is 15- 33 years.
There is increase in proportion of “Non workers” among Youth since 2001 Youth (%) 2001 Youth (%) 2011 Main workers(worked more than 183 days in a year) 48.444.6 Marginal workers(worked fewer than 183 days in a year) 14.115.3 Non-workers37.540.0 Source: Census of India
The proportion of Non-workers has increased among Rural Youth RuralUrban Note: All figures in %. Source:- Census of India
The Youth workforce is largely dominated by men, there are very few women MaleFemale Note: All figures in %. Source:- Census of India
The situation is better amongst Youth belonging to ST community compared to SC Note: All figures in %. Due to limited age categories provided for 2011 Census Data for SCs and STs, age group 15-34 has been considered for analysis.
But all those who are non workers are not employable (amongst 40 percent non workers) 60.5% Household Duties/Dependents 21.1% Students 18.4% Others Source:- Census Data 2011
But problem is much deeper, unemployment is prevalent even amongst those who are employable Unemployment among young graduates in Urban India (upto 29 years) Note: NSS0 Data
But sadly issue of Unemployment is low on political radar, even youth do not consider this to be an important issue in election Most important problem that the government should address Unemployment as the most important issue for voting Source: - CSDS Data Unit. SDSA 2013 Source:- CSDS data Unit. NES 2014