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Emerging Trends,Opportunities and Challenges in Guar Farming D. Kumar Former project Coordinator (Arid Legumes) Guar Consultant Central Arid zone Research.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerging Trends,Opportunities and Challenges in Guar Farming D. Kumar Former project Coordinator (Arid Legumes) Guar Consultant Central Arid zone Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerging Trends,Opportunities and Challenges in Guar Farming D. Kumar Former project Coordinator (Arid Legumes) Guar Consultant Central Arid zone Research Institute,Jodhpur Recent Contacts: 17E\ 230, C.H. B.,Jodhpur Contacts: ; (M) E Mail :

2 Trends in guar farming –Yesterday and Today Sl. No. ParticularYesterdayToday 1. Planting season Rainy season Rainy season,summer & rabi seasons 2. Growing states Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Punjab, MP (5) Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, AP, Karnataka, T.N. (10) 3.Productivity 5-10 q/ha q/ha 4. Cropped area lakh ha lakh ha( ) 5. Production status lakh ton 24.5 lakh ton( ) 6. Soil types Light textured No soil barrier 8. Mechanization Broadcasting, Seed drills Boon sprayer,Weeder, Combine 9. Quantity Export lakh ton 7.0 lakh ton ( ) 10.Currency Rs crore Rs crore( ) 11. Cultivators ’ involvements Arid and poor farmers for life support Big financial houses, Administrators, Corporate world Big seed companies 9. Fertilty& irrigation Basal dose,flood irrig. Liquid & Nano fert. Drip irrig.

3 Production scenario In India, guar was grown in almost lakh ha, the production realized was lakh ton with productivity of 478 kg\ ha ( ). In India, guar was grown in almost lakh ha, the production realized was lakh ton with productivity of 478 kg\ ha ( ). Rajasthan is the mega state for guar production (60-65%), followed by Haryana (20-22%), Gujarat (10-12%) Punjab (2%) and other southern and central states (3-4%). Rajasthan is the mega state for guar production (60-65%), followed by Haryana (20-22%), Gujarat (10-12%) Punjab (2%) and other southern and central states (3-4%). Productivity of guar varies between the states and within state (Rajasthan). Indian productivity is 490 kg\ha against 1200 kg for haryana,685 kg for Punjab and 669 kg\ha for Gujarat. Productivity of guar varies between the states and within state (Rajasthan). Indian productivity is 490 kg\ha against 1200 kg for haryana,685 kg for Punjab and 669 kg\ha for Gujarat. Rajasthan productivity is 370 kg, whereas for Ganga nagar and Hanuman garh (807 & 870 kg, resp.), for Churu, Barmer,Bikaner ( kg\ha ). Rajasthan productivity is 370 kg, whereas for Ganga nagar and Hanuman garh (807 & 870 kg, resp.), for Churu, Barmer,Bikaner ( kg\ha ).

4 Improved varieties of guar suitable for different cropping regions, Rajasthan Sl.No. Average rainfall* (mm) Region/dist rict Cropped area* (000ha) Producti vity* (kg/ha) Varieties Maturity (days) Remarks Churu RGC Suitable for arid Rajasthan Jaisalmer HG High viscosity (3500 cP) and ruling variety of Haryana Bikaner RGC Suitable for Haryana, high gum and viscosity profile (4050 cP) Barmer RGC RGC Ganganaga r HG Hanumang arh RGM RGC Suitable for mechanical harvesting

5 Fig: Grain yield and gum content during kharif 2011 and summer 2012.

6 Summer, 2012 Kharif, 2011 Viscosity Fig: Gum content and viscosity during kharif 2011 and summer 2012.

7 Farmer happy with bumper guar production at Yavatmal. Farmers. Guar field in Yatmal during summer 2012 Summer guar introduced in Vidharbha(Yavatmal),

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13 Lot of Opportunities 1.Taming drought, sustaining soil productivity, nutritional security,agricultural diversity 2.Mrginl lands, marginal inputs, marginal care marginal support, as a social crop 3.Multi uses,cash crop, fodder, primary and secondary products 4 Horizontal expansion taken place 5.Enhanced productivity 6.Crop of poor & prosperous persons, large industries 7.Best crop for cropping sequence & rotations 8.TIFAC a body of DST organized one day workshop and submitted report on export of guar gum to GoI.

14 Main Challenges Longer growth period : 95 to 120 days Longer growth period : 95 to 120 days Quality seed not available only 7-8% seed replacement rate Quality seed not available only 7-8% seed replacement rate Life saving irrigation at crucial stage Life saving irrigation at crucial stage Population stress due to sub-opt. plant density Population stress due to sub-opt. plant density No weeding and inter culture operations No weeding and inter culture operations Crucial planting dates for newer regions Crucial planting dates for newer regions No plant protection measures used No plant protection measures used

15 Challenges Stagnated gum contents at the varietals level Stagnated gum contents at the varietals level Poor genetic variability for guar gum viscosities Poor genetic variability for guar gum viscosities Unstable price structure Unstable price structure No by-back policy in newer regions No by-back policy in newer regions No Government support in spite of being most important foreign earning field crop. No Government support in spite of being most important foreign earning field crop. No R and D incentives from guarindustry sector No R and D incentives from guarindustry sector

16 Additional challanges Chemical source (CMC) of guar gum identified Chemical source (CMC) of guar gum identified Use of guar gum is twisted with higher viscosity ( cP) in petroleum industries and in Oil drilling wells Use of guar gum is twisted with higher viscosity ( cP) in petroleum industries and in Oil drilling wells Temerind, Sesbania bispinosa, Cassia tora, C. sophera,C. accidentails Temerind, Sesbania bispinosa, Cassia tora, C. sophera,C. accidentails Cultivated in other countries also Cultivated in other countries also Low price : farmers loosing interest Low price : farmers loosing interest Frotier sciences and big seed coys not coming to help this crop Frotier sciences and big seed coys not coming to help this crop

17 Guar Gum By- Products Poor utilization of guar meal protein( %)-through By- pass plant Poor utilization of guar meal protein( %)-through By- pass plant Value addition of Korma and Churi Value addition of Korma and Churi Removal of residual guar gum from guar meal for better quality of the same Removal of residual guar gum from guar meal for better quality of the same Removal of toxic substances,like trypsin inhibitors, Saponians, Lignins, Phytates etc. from guar meal. Removal of toxic substances,like trypsin inhibitors, Saponians, Lignins, Phytates etc. from guar meal. Additional uses of large content of crude protein available in guar meal. Additional uses of large content of crude protein available in guar meal.

18 Inter specific hybridizations In guar C. tetragonoloba X (late, limited pods, BLB susceptible) [Cultivated sp.] C. Serrata & C. senegalensis C. Serrata & C. senegalensis (High pods 45 days maturity, BLB resistance) [Wild sp.] No fertile hybrids

19 Stable, diversified and specific sources of guar viscosity may be identified. Stable, diversified and specific sources of guar viscosity may be identified.. Attempts may be made to develop guar varieties having different viscosity values ( low, medium,high). Specific growing inputs and environmental conditions may be specified in reference to gum quality.. Specific varieties with similar inputs may be grown in particular zone to have control over sustainability and traceability of guar gum and its quality. Specific varieties with similar inputs may be grown in particular zone to have control over sustainability and traceability of guar gum and its quality.

20 Enhancing guar gum content Guar gum content per se may be increased almost to 35.0% against existing values of % for last many decades Guar gum content per se may be increased almost to 35.0% against existing values of % for last many decades A source (IC ) reported to have almost 34.83% gum content,may be confirmed,if found stable be transferred into promising guar cultivars A source (IC ) reported to have almost 34.83% gum content,may be confirmed,if found stable be transferred into promising guar cultivars Traditional and non-traditional approaches may be used in this context Traditional and non-traditional approaches may be used in this context could help increase gum yield even without increasing grain yield could help increase gum yield even without increasing grain yield

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