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Julian Stanley Head of the Centre for Education and Industry, University of Warwick Anthony Mann Director of Policy and Research,

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Presentation on theme: "Julian Stanley Head of the Centre for Education and Industry, University of Warwick Anthony Mann Director of Policy and Research,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Julian Stanley Head of the Centre for Education and Industry, University of Warwick Anthony Mann Director of Policy and Research, Education and Employers Taskforce WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES EMPLOYER ENGAGEMENT MAKE? CONSTRUCTING A THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING Education and Employers Taskforce Conference 12 October 2011

2 Tina and Anglee Kumar are introduced to Sir Stuart Rose (ex chairman of M&S) at Business in the Community’s ‘Turning Work-Experience into Inspiration’ event

3 Tina and Anglee are introduced by Sir Michael Rose to Antony Jenkins, Chief Executive of Barclays Bank

4 Tina and Anglee organise a fashion show at school to raise funds for charity. Stuart Rose provides clothes, shoes and press gifts. Antony Jenkins provides work experience placement and personal gift of £100 towards event. ‘it has given me and my twin, Anglee, a wonderful experience as young entrepreneurs and I have to say I am really proud of myself and Anglee ’ Tina Kumar

5 Employer engagement = direct involvement of employers in the education of young people, e.g. work experience, enterprise education, mentoring, visits, reading support etc.

6 Questions How can employer engagement affect social, economic and educational outcomes for young people? How can we situate accounts of employer engagement in relation to broader sociological and economic theorising about education?

7 Some social theories about education Life course analysis: education is a trajectory where prior experiences and outcomes influence succeeding experiences and outcomes (Elder, Gorard). Human Capital: education and workplace experience increase labour productivity (Becker). Social Capital: social relationships give access to resources and information and influence (Coleman, Granovetter, Bourdieu). Cultural Capital: knowledge, qualifications, habits and cultural objects shape access to resources and people (Bourdieu, Bernstein).

8 Employer engagement: Increases human capital as evidenced in attainment and labour market outcomes. (Hypothesis 1) Increases social capital as evidenced in enhanced access to networks of economic value. (Hypothesis 2) Increases cultural capital as evidenced in changes in habitus – improved navigation through the education system and on into employment. (Hypothesis 3) Interacts with pre-existing accumulations of human, social and cultural capital to enhance pre-existing advantage and/or to compensate for comparative disadvantage. (Hypothesis 4)

9 Four Surveys young Britons aged 19-24, exploring labour market position, experience and perceptions of employer engagement activities undertaken while in education, aged Fieldwork, February YouGov employers involved in the Taskforce’s 2010 Visit our Schools and Colleges campaign. Fieldwork, January Taskforce young people aged enrolled in Cumbrian education institutions. Fieldwork, March 2011, Taskforce young people aged 14-17, exploring experiences of employer engagement activities and confidence in career progression. Fieldwork, March B-live.

10 EE increases human capital as evidenced in attainment and labour market outcomes Taskforce/YouGov. 986 young adults, Great Britain. February 2011 P-Value = Number of employer engagement activities undertaken whilst in education (aged 19-24) or more Which of the following BEST applies to you? NEETs Non- NEET Weighted Base

11 EE increases social capital as evidenced in enhanced access to networks of economic value Offered unpaid work experience placements to school pupils – 74%. Offered paid employment opportunities to school-age pupils or school leavers – 50%. Had ever offered paid employment to someone who had previously been on an unpaid work experience placement - 41% (82%). Source: 203 employers. January 2011.

12 EE increases social capital as evidenced in enhanced access to networks of economic value How important was it [for employment decision] that they did the work experience with you? (1-10) – 55% - 6+ – 40% - 7+ – 24% - 1 (irrelevant)

13 EE increases social capital as evidenced in enhanced access to networks of economic value Survey of 40 young people aged Cumbria. March % stayed in touch with the employer they did their work experience for at least a few months with and half that number for more than a year % were offered paid employment after the placement with a further 20% having discussed employment as a future opportunity.

14 EE increases cultural capital as evidenced in changes in habitus – improved navigation through the education system and on into employment.

15 14 to 19 P-Value = Frequency of careers advice Just once or twice Three times or more To what extent did it help you to decide the sort of job or career you wanted in later life A lot9.6%28.1% A little51.0%58.6% Not at all39.5%13.3% Total100% Unweighted Base (442) EE increases cultural capital as evidenced in changes in habitus

16 EE interacts with pre-existing accumulations of human, social and cultural capital which can serve to enhance pre-existing advantage and/or to compensate for comparative disadvantage Table 10: 14 to 19 P-Value = School type attended between 14 to 19 Comprehensive State School Grammar or State Selective School An Independent School To what extent did WEX help you to decide the sort of job or career you wanted in later life A lot15.7%19.0%35.8% A little38.1%40.0%44.8% Not at all 46.2%41.0%19.4% Total100% Weighted Base (644)

17 EE interacts with pre-existing accumulations of human, social and cultural capital which can serve to enhance pre-existing advantage and/or to compensate for comparative disadvantage Table 11: 14 to 19 P-Value = School type attended between 14 to 19 Comprehensive State School Grammar or State Selective School An Independent School To what extent did WEX prove useful in getting you a job after you finished education A lot8.7%9.6%15.1% A little17.8%21.3%32.1% Not at all 73.6%69.1%52.8% Total100% Weighted Base (597)

18 EE interacts with pre-existing accumulations of human, social and cultural capital in different ways for individuals and definable social groups which can serve to enhance pre-existing advantage and to compensate for comparative disadvantage Table 12: 14 to 19 P-Value = School type attended between 14 to 19 Comprehensive State School Grammar or State Selective School An Independent School To what extent did it help you to get in to university A lot6.1%11.0%12.9% A little18.7%17.0%29.0% Not at all 75.2%72.0%58.1% Total100% Weighted Base (605)

19 Outcomes for Young People in Education (stage n) Outcomes for Young People in Education (stage n + 1) Outcomes for Young People in Employment (stage n+ 2) Social Capital  Relationships  Personal Identity  Qualifications  Aspirations  Competences/skills/ knowledge  Dispositions and attitudes  Decision making  Relationships  Personal Identity  Qualifications  Aspirations  Competences/skills/ knowledge  Dispositions and attitudes  Decision making  Relationships/ Networks  Income & Status  Experience of Work  Personal Identity  Aspirations  Competences/ skills/knowledge  Dispositions and attitudes  Decision making Cultural Capital Human Capital Family Peer Group Locality Gender Ethnicity Work Other institutions School Environmental factors contributing to capital formation Employer Engagement 1 Employer Engagement 2 Employer Engagement 3 Employer interventions contributing to capital formation Life- course

20 Implications for Research Robust research to explore the difference that employer engagement makes to a range of outcomes, e.g. achievement, employment, self- efficacy etc. Longitudinal work to explore how interventions combine with ‘environmental factors’ and accumulated outcomes over life-course. Explore different impact of different kinds of employer engagement with different groups. Explore sources of employer engagement, e.g. individual, social and corporate motivations. Theoretical work to conceptualise relationships between different kinds of capital and their application.

21 Conclusions There is some rigorous evidence of impact in relation to some of the outcomes under investigation. The concepts of social, cultural and human capital can be used separately to make sense of the evidence arising from the evaluation of employer engagement. There is scope to bring together ‘capital’ concepts to provide a more satisfactory account of how employer engagement works. A life-course approach is helpful – but some outcomes from each stage will have a more lasting impact upon later stages than others. EE raises policy issues: universal versus compensatory deployment

22 Julian Stanley Head of the Centre for Education and Industry, University of Warwick Anthony Mann Director of Policy and Research, Education and Employers Taskforce


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