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Test Blanket Module: Steels & Fabrication Technologies E. Rajendra Kumar and TBM Team Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar WS&FT-08, 21 st July.

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Presentation on theme: "Test Blanket Module: Steels & Fabrication Technologies E. Rajendra Kumar and TBM Team Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar WS&FT-08, 21 st July."— Presentation transcript:

1 Test Blanket Module: Steels & Fabrication Technologies E. Rajendra Kumar and TBM Team Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar WS&FT-08, 21 st July 2008, IPR

2 INDIAN FUSION ROAD MAP Indigenous Fusion Experiment - Qualification of Technologies - Qualification of reactor components & Process scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy SST-2 DEMO ITER Participation Steady State Physics and related technologies SST-1 ADITYA Tokamak 1986 2004 2005 2035 2020 Fusion Power Reactor Power Plant 2050 TBM Program Prototype Programs

3 3 Breeding Blanket 400-550°C Vacuum Vessel ~100°C DEMO = Demonstration Fusion Reactor Plant Plant DEMO Fusion Reactor Core Blanket Divertor Vertical Manifold ~320°C Neutron Shield ~320°C Neutron Shield ~320°C -FZK Magnet Vessel

4 4 High grade heat extraction Radiation Shielding BLANKET Functions Tritium Breeding

5 5 The ITER Basic Device has Shielding Blanket, but no Breeding Blanket Breeding Blankets will be tested in ITER, by inserting Test Blanket Modules (TBM) in specially dedicated ports All the ITER Parties have their own TBM program and developing indigenous Materials & Technologies. CHINA, EUROPE, INDIA, JAPAN, KOREA, RUSSIA & US TBM Program in ITER ITER mission : “ITER should test tritium breeding module concepts that would lead in a future reactor to tritium self-sufficiency, the extraction of high grade heat and electricity production.”

6 6 THE ITER DEVICE Height: 25 m, Diameter: 28 m ParametersITERDEMO Surface Heat Flux (MW/m 2 ) 0.270.5 Neutron wall Loading (MW/m2 ) 0.572.5 Pulse length (sec) Up to 3000~ continuous Duty cycle0.25- Avg. Neutron Fluence (MWa/m 2 ) 0.1 (for initial 10 years) 7.5 Frame TBM 1.66 m (h) x 0.48 m (w) x 0.54 m (t)

7 7 Lead-Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB)  Tritium Breeder: Lithium-Titanate pebbles  Breeder Coolant: Lead-Lithium eutectic alloy  (multiplier and breeder)  Structural Material : Reduce Activation FMS Solid Type: Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder (HCCB)  Tritium Breeder: Lithium-Titanate / Lithium Silicate pebbles  Multiplier : Beryllium Pebbles  Structural Material : Reduce Activation FMS  Coolant : helium gas Indian TBM Concepts

8 Lead-Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM Bottom Plate Outer Back Plate Support Shear Keys He Outlet Pb-Li Inlet Top Plate He Inlet Pb-Li Outlet He Purge InletHe Purge Outlet Radial 536 Poloidal 1660 U-shaped First wall Box structure Toroidal 480

9 9 LLCB TBM Parameters 90 %Li-6 enrichment 350/480 o CPb-Li inlet/outlet 0.3 MPaHe pressure drop in module 8 MPaHelium pressure 350 / 480 o CHe inlet/outlet Helium and Pb-LiPrimary coolant Al 2 O 3 or Other choice MHD insulation SS 316 LN IGNeutron reflector / shield Pb-17Li, Li 2 TiO 3 Breeder IN-RAFMSStructural material 1.66 m (h) x 0.484 m (w) x 0.54 m (t) LLCB Helium as Purge gas for Tritium extraction

10 10 Structural material : Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel (RAFMS) and ODS Tritium Breeder : Solid : Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3 Liquid : Pb-17Li Enriched Lithium : Li-6 (30 – 90 %) Neutron multiplier : Be, Be 12 Ti, Pb Composite Material : SiC f /SiC (FCI) Coatings : Be, Alumina, Erbium oxide coatings Neutron Shielding and External Piping : SS 316 LN-IG TBM Materials

11 Key Material Issues in Fusion Devices The 14 MeV neutrons produce transmutation nuclear reactions and atomic displacement cascades inside the materials Damage and transmutation imply degradation of physical and mechanical properties of materials ( Swelling, Hardening, LD, LCS, LFT..) DEMO: Radiation damage @ First Wall, End of life: 100 - 150 dpa (5 yr) Transmutation to Helium: 1200 -1800 appm He The existing sources of 14 MeV neutrons have a small intensity and do not allow us to get important damage accumulation in a reasonable time. It is necessary to simulate irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons (@ 550 C), by using either fission neutrons, or high energy protons. Presently, Materials are irradiated with fission neutrons and with high- energy protons. Results are interpolated for fusion irradiation conditions.

12 Structural Steels for TBM RAFM Steel : 9Cr W Ta V Si, C  Composition tailored to reduce activation and waste  Operational Temperature window: 300-550°C To be used as structural material for the TBM and in DEMO blankets Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Steels (Potential Candidate to replace RAFMS)  Operational Temperature window: 350-650°C

13 13 ElementsWt. % Cr8.80 – 9.20 C0.10 – 0.12 Mn0.4 0 – 0.60 V0.18 – 0.24 W1.0 – 1.20 Ta0.07 – 0.10 N0.02 – 0.04 O< 0.01 P< 0.002 S B< 0.001 Ti< 0.005 Nb< 0.001 Mo< 0.002 Ni< 0.005 Cu< 0.002 Al< 0.005 Si< 0.05 Co< 0.005 As+Sn+Sb+Zr< 0.03 Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steels (RAFMS) Typical RT300 o C500 o C UTS (Mpa)640 – 680520 – 560400 – 440 YS (E 0.2%)(Mpa)540 – 580465 – 485385 – 40 DBTT : < -70 o C Process : Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) Quantity Required: Each TBM (Typically) : ~ 5 Ton To develop 8 TBMs in 15 years : ~ 40 - 50 Ton Plates of dimensions: (in mm) (i) 1700 L x 1500 W x 12-15 T (ii) 1700 L x 1500 W x 25-30 T Rectangular tubes: (18mm x 18 mm) Powder & Wire form (for welding ) IGCAR & MIDHANI jointly developing

14 14 RAFMS Development : Critical Issues Characterization and understanding of degradation due to neutron irradiation ( ~ 550 C)  3 -15 dpa (engineering database for TBM design, fabrication and TBM licensing) Major Issues: –Development of Reliable joints manufacturing process (HIP, EBW, LW etc..) –Compatibility with Breeder Materials (Li-ceramics, flowing Pb-Li in magnetic filed) –Anti-Corrosion / Anti-Permeation Barriers development –Creep-Fatigue Interaction due to high temperature cyclic operation (data validation) –High Temperature Design Criteria as per the ITER SDC (RCCMR & ASME) LONG TERM R&D for the Development of fully qualified LAFMS material Modeling & Simulation Chemical Composition Characterization Mock-up fabrication Optimization of joining techniques Neutron irradiation Industrial Production

15 15 Disadvantages with FMS  DBTT decrease after irradiation at T irr < 400°C;  The welds need heat treatments  Upper operating temperature limited by creep strength: T max  550°C Possible solution: T max in range 550-650 °C by powder metallurgy Route (ODS) ODS alloysAdvantagesDisadvantages 12-16% Cr ODS ferritic steel Higher temperature capability Better oxidation resistance Anisotropic mechanical properties Lower fracture toughness 9% Cr ODS ferritic/ martensitic steel Nearly isotropic properties after heat treatment Better fracture toughness Scalable fabrication Limited to temperature below ~700 C Marginal oxidation resistance at high temperatures  8-9.5 Cr, 1 % W and 0.3 %Y2O3 (50 nm size) without Titanium ODS alloys Long Term Needs

16 Manufacturing Technologies adopted for TBM HIPPING / INVESTMENT CASTING EB Welding Hybrid (MIG/LASER) TIG Welding LASER Welding Testing Methods  Ultrasonic testing  X-ray / γ-ray testing  Dye Penetrant testing  Helium leak tightness

17 Component-1 : U-Shaped First Wall Box Structure First Wall He Channel (Top plate cooling) HIPPING Or Investment Casting Overall Dimension: 1.66 m (h) x 0.48 m (w) x 0.54 m (t) Channel20 x 20 mm No. of Channel 64 Nos. Corner Radius Inside Channel 2.5 mm

18 18 Typical Dimensions (Reference EU Trials) HIPPING First Wall thickness : ~ 25 – 30 mm Cooling channels : 15-18 x 15-18 mm 2 (5 - 6 mm rib) Top & Bottom covers : 30 – 32 mm Stiffening plates / flow divider wall thickness : 5 – 8 mm 300 200 Built-in Cooling Channels Options 1000 o C, 130 MPa TBM FW

19 19 TBM FW mockup fabrication (EU - References) F82H as recieved Grain Size # G : 5 Grain Size : 60  m 1040 ºC x 2hr x 150MPa Grain Size #G : 2 Grain Size : 170  m 200mm X 200mm X 100mm (height)

20 20 300 200 Built-in Cooling Channels Japanese Trials with RAFMS (F82H) Horizontal Channels

21 Component-2 Top Plate Assembly of LLCB TBM Top Plate 1 Top Plate 3 Top Plate 2 Rib BY HIPPING Or Investment Casting

22 All Dimensions are in mm Plate Thickness4 mm Rib Thickness6 mm Rib Width4 mm Unspecified Corner Radius2 mm ISO View Dimensions of Top Plate-3 with Rib (He Inlet/Outlet)

23 Component-3 : Manifold Arrangement with Inner Back Plate Inner Back Plate First Wall Breeder He Inlet for Back Plate He Outlet for Back Plate He Channel Inner Back Plate

24 Dimension of Inner Back Plate Section View A:A Detail View B Channel Dimension 20 x 20 Total No. of Channel 32 Unspecified Corner Radius = 10 mm All Dimension Are in mm

25 Outer Back Plate First Wall Outer Back Plate Inner Back Plate He Outlet for Back Plate He Inlet for Back Plate He Channel Manifold Arrangement with Outer Back Plate

26 Dimension of Outer Back Plate

27 27 HIPPING Joint Properties EU Ref.

28 Investment casting Investment casting is a potentially attractive alternative to HIP for first-wall, grid plate and manifold fabrication – Reduces the need for extensive joining which should improve reliability (joints are typically the origin of structural failures) – Reduces the amount of NDE needed (few joints). – Potentially less expensive than other fabrication methods. – Complex castings of 9-10 Cr steels have been produced with mechanical properties similar to those of wrought products (Ref: Valves & Steam Turbine applications)

29 29 EB-Welding For High Depth Welding: High voltage: 150 kV, Welding current: 72 mA, Travel speed: 0.3 m/min 40 mm and weld width 2 mm. Macrography of Eurofer / 316LN EBW (1.5 mm thick) Sound structural welds: Free of cracks, low pores

30 Major Tasks in EBW development Development of welding procedure for thick RAFMS plates Optimization of Welding process (current density, speed, environ.) Characterization of weld joints (ITER-SDC  RCC-MR and ASME codes) –Radiography Test –Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Hardness (needs optimization) –Effect of neutron Irradiation on weld joints (Microstructures, Mechanical Properties (TS, DBTT, YS, FT) Optimization of EBW process in actual TBM mock-ups (In real joint configurations)

31 31 LASER Welding Plate – Plate welding 5 - 8 mm to 12 – 15 mm YAG LASER  Penetration of the melt run ranges typically from 4 to 8 mm (WS = 130 cm/min).  Metallurgical analysis: hot cracks (max. 1.2 mm) and gas pores (max.  0.7 mm).  RAFMS / EUROFER is sensitive to hot cracking. - Laser power: 4 kW - Travel speed: 0.35 m/min - Focal length: 150 mm - Twin spot with d = 2.1 mm Coolant Panels (Reference EU R&D)

32 SP- Fusion Butt welding (YAG LASER) > 2 KW Pipes Dia: 75 – 85 mm, thick = 3 - 6 mm - Metallographic - Destructive / non- destructive tests Join realized in 2 passes (Top & Bottom) Mode I: Successive and opposite direction of the passes; Mode II : Simultaneous and same direction of the passes LASER Welding on TBM Mock-up Trials Dissimilar Joints (RAFMS/SS 316 LN) Assembly mode I & II Clamping Conditions (Reference EU R&D)

33 33 Sr. No. Major Milestones (1/2) Completion by: 1Materials composition definition12/2008 2TBM Quality management system establishment (e.g., QA)06/2009 3Out-Of-Pile characterization of DEMO-relevant structural material and TBM fabrication process validation (at laboratory level) 12/2009 4TBM system conceptual design12/2009 5TBM Preliminary Safety Report (for each concept and dummy plug) 12/2009 6Small/medium size TBM mock-ups fabrication addressing critical components (industrial manufacture or, at least, industrially compatible manufacture) 12/2010 7Small/medium size TBM mock-ups testing results12/2011 8Completion of data base for structural material and joints for use in design codes and codes & standards 6/2012

34 9Detailed design of the first TBM system to be installed in ITER day one (1 st Plasma) 06/2012 10Completion of data base for structural material and joints under irradiation (at least, 3 dpa) 06/2014 11End of fabrication of large size TBM mock-up and associated system 06/2014 12End of testing and qualification of large size TBM mock-up and associated system in appropriate facilities 12/2015 13Delivery of TBM systems to ITER12/2016 14End of 1 st TBM System acceptance tests (e.g., leakage tests, pressure tests, compatibility check with ITER interfaces) and Commissioning 12/2017 15TBM Safety Report to be provided with QA records during construction and reception tests 12/2017 Major Milestones (2/2)

35 Summary Materials Requirement and related Manufacturing technologies for TBM development has been projected The fabrication technologies development for TBM need to be initiated through mock-ups and prototype fabrication and testing The qualification according to codes and standards needs to be finalized and harmonized as per the ITER requirements The budget for the TBM Program is available. We invite R&D centers to initiate the developmental activities for a committed delivery to meet the ITER time schedule 35

36 Thank you 36

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40 Fusion neutrons, fission neutrons, high energy protons: Strong differences in the production rates of impurities Defect poduction (in steels) Fusion neutrons (3-4 GW reactor, first wall) Fission neutrons (BOR 60 reactor) High energy protons (590 MeV) Damage rate [dpa/year] 20-30~ 20~ 10 Helium [appm/dpa] 10-15≤ 1~ 130 Hydrogen [appm/dpa] 40-50≤ 10~ 800 Irradiation Modes

41 Effect of 300°C Irradiation on Eurofer97 Base and EB Weld Metal Tensile Ductility J.W. Rensman / NRG Irradiation Testing: Report on 300°C and 60°C Irradiated RAFM Steels (2005) 25 mm PlateElectron Beam Welded 25 mm Plate

42 Effect of 300°C Irradiation on Eurofer97 Base and EB Weld Metal Impact Properties J.W. Rensman / NRG Irradiation Testing: Report on 300°C and 60°C Irradiated RAFM Steels (2005) 25 mm PlateElectron Beam Welded 25 mm Plate

43 Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Hardness of Eurofer 97 EB Welds Research needs: –No systematic study of all variables in the literature. There is a need to understand the controlling variables to optimize weld and PWHT for irradiation response. –Irradiation testing of very fine grained HAZ. –Irradiation testing of base and weld metal with multiple PWHTs. J.W. Rensman, E. Rigal, R. Meyder, A. Li Puma / ICFRM-12 (2005)

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