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Data Mining Anomaly Detection Lecture Notes for Chapter 10 Introduction to Data Mining by Tan, Steinbach, Kumar © Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 1

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 2 Anomaly/Outlier Detection l What are anomalies/outliers? –The set of data points that are considerably different than the remainder of the data l Anomalies are usually rare l Called also outliers

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 3 Anomaly/Outlier Detection l Variants of Anomaly/Outlier Detection Problems –Given a database D, find all the data points x D with anomaly scores greater than some threshold t –Given a database D, find all the data points x D having the top- n largest anomaly scores f(x)

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 4 Anomaly/Outlier Detection l Applications: –Credit card fraud detection, –telecommunication fraud detection, –network intrusion detection, fault detection

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 5 Importance of Anomaly Detection Ozone Depletion History l In 1985 three researchers (Farman, Gardinar and Shanklin) were puzzled by data gathered by the British Antarctic Survey showing that ozone levels for Antarctica had dropped 10% below normal levels l Why did the Nimbus 7 satellite, which had instruments aboard for recording ozone levels, not record similarly low ozone concentrations? l The ozone concentrations recorded by the satellite were so low they were being treated as outliers by a computer program and discarded! Sources: http://exploringdata.cqu.edu.au/ozone.html http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/hole/size.html

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 6

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 7 Anomaly Detection l Challenges –How many outliers are there in the data? –Method is unsupervised Validation can be quite challenging (just like for clustering) –Finding needle in a haystack l Working assumption: –There are considerably more “normal” observations than “abnormal” observations (outliers/anomalies) in the data

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 8 Anomaly Detection Schemes l General Steps –Build a profile of the “normal” behavior Profile can be patterns or summary statistics for the overall population –Use the “normal” profile to detect anomalies Anomalies are observations whose characteristics differ significantly from the normal profile l Types of anomaly detection schemes –Graphical & Statistical-based –Distance-based –Model-based

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 9

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 10 Graphical Approaches l Boxplot (1-D), Scatter plot (2-D), Spin plot (3-D) l Limitations –Time consuming –Subjective

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 11 Statistical Approaches l Assume a parametric model describing the distribution of the data (e.g., normal distribution) l Apply a statistical test that depends on –Data distribution –Parameter of distribution (e.g., mean, variance) –Number of expected outliers (confidence limit)

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 12 Grubbs’ Test l Detect outliers in univariate data l Assume data comes from normal distribution l Detects one outlier at a time, remove the outlier, and repeat –H 0 : There is no outlier in data –H A : There is at least one outlier l Grubbs’ test statistic: l Reject H 0 if:

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 13 Limitations of Statistical Approaches l Most of the tests are for a single attribute l In many cases, data distribution may not be known l For high dimensional data, it may be difficult to estimate the true distribution

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 14

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 15

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 16

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 17

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 18 Distance-based Approaches l Data is represented as a vector of features l Three major approaches –Nearest-neighbor based –Density based –Clustering based

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 19 Nearest-Neighbor Based Approach l Approach: –Compute the distance between every pair of data points –There are various ways to define outliers: Data points for which there are fewer than p neighboring points within a distance D The top n data points whose distance to the kth nearest neighbor is greatest The top n data points whose average distance to the k nearest neighbors is greatest

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 20

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 21

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 22

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 23 Outliers in Lower Dimensional Projection l In high-dimensional space, data is sparse and notion of proximity becomes meaningless –Every point is an almost equally good outlier from the perspective of proximity-based definitions l Lower-dimensional projection methods –A point is an outlier if in some lower dimensional projection, it is present in a local region of abnormally low density

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 24 Density-based: LOF approach l For each point, compute the density of its local neighborhood l Compute local outlier factor (LOF) of a sample p as the average of the ratios of the density of sample p and the density of its nearest neighbors l Outliers are points with largest LOF value p 2 p 1 In the NN approach, p 2 is not considered as outlier, while LOF approach find both p 1 and p 2 as outliers

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© Tan,Steinbach, Kumar Introduction to Data Mining 4/18/2004 25 Clustering-Based l Basic idea: –Cluster the data into groups of different density –Choose points in small cluster as candidate outliers –Compute the distance between candidate points and non-candidate clusters. If candidate points are far from all other non-candidate points, they are outliers

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