Information and Communication Technologies and e-Learning: Reusable Learning Objects Mark James Seitz University of Wisconsin-Stout
Introduction: ICT “A diverse set of technological tools and resources used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. These technological tools and resources include computers, the Internet (websites, blogs, and emails), live broadcasting technologies (radio, television and webcasting), recorded broadcasting technologies (podcasting, audio and video players, and storage devices) and telephony (fixed or mobile, satellite, video/video-conferencing, etc.)” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2002)
Tighter budgets Well trained workforce Life-long learners Great distances Diversity Nurmi & Jaakola (2005): Cheap Fast Good Problem Solution: Reusable Learning Objects (RLO)
RLO? “Small instructional components that can be reused and adapted to suit different learning contexts.” Cameron & Bennett (2010) Term is credited to Wayne Hodgins. Polsani (2003)
Traits of Effective RLOs Reusable Context is everything! (Nurmi & Jaakola, 2005) Granular Size matters! (Duncan, 2003) Accessible (Cenchinel et at., 2011)
Increase in student engagement Increase in classroom discussion Students adapted materials to their own learning strategies. (Cameron & Bennett, 2010) Impact Analysis Positive Impacts
“Give(s) students experiences that they could not otherwise access.” (Davison, Kenny, Johnson & Fielding, 2003) Impact Analysis Positive Impacts Image: Delingette, H. and Avache, N. Soft Tissue Modeling for Surgery Simulation.
Information overload! Currently 48 hours of video uploaded to YouTube every minute, resulting in nearly 8 years of content everyday. (YouTube FAQ, 2012) Little is peer-reviewed. Difficult to search. Solutions: Semantic annotation (commentary). Metadata Peer-review (Garcia-Barriocanal, Sicilia, Sanchez-Alonso and Lytras, 2011) Impact Analysis Negative Impacts
Inequity in technological capabilities: Haves and Have Nots (Littlejohn, Jung & Broumley, 2003) Slow adopters of technology (McNaught, 2003) Adopting for all disciplines (Smith, Heindel & Torres- Ayala, 2008) Impact Analysis Negative Impacts
Recommendation o Encourage use of RLOs in e-Learning & traditional classroom o Develop a peer-review process & best practices o Use of metadata & personal learning assistant (Windle, McCormick, Dandrea & Warrad, 2011) o Continued development of repositories o Rating systems (Sampson & Zeras, 2011) o Encourage late adopters o Build-out of reliable infrastructure
Problem: Providing education to more people cheap, fast and good Solution: RLOs Summary Thank you!
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Bibliography Smith, G., Heindel, A., & Torres-Ayala, A. (2008). E-Learning Commodity or Community: Disciplinary Differences Between Online Courses. Internet and Higher Education, 11, 152-159. UNESCO. (2002). Retrieved from UNESCO: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001295/129538e.pdf Windle, R., McCormick, D., Dandrea, J., & Wharrad, H. (2011). The Characteristics of Reusable Learning Objects That Enhance Learning: A Case-Study in Health-Science Education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 811-823.