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12. Thriving Together
3 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positivity The science and application of positive emotions and behaviors such as joy, gratitude, appreciation, curiosity, and resilience. “Broaden and Build” theory of positive emotions Positive emotions broaden awareness and encourage exploration of new approaches. The broader range of thinking and behaving builds skills and resources. Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Random House.
4 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positivity Transforms and allows people to discover new ways of being, learning, and acquiring new knowledge. Can be learned and developed and cultivated in others. Opens up new possibilities and a more hopeful perspective. Reframes observations from a fixation on what is wrong with people/organizations to noticing what is working in order to build from there. Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Random House.
5 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positivity Tipping Point Positivity Ratio: Three positive/one negative In Frederickson’s studies, members of high-performing teams experienced three positive encounters for every negative one. Positive encounters (for example): Encouragement, gratitude, affirmation, active listening, and empathy Negative encounters were those with growth and learning as their intent, rather than the intent to be destructive. Feedback on ways to improve Disagreement with ideas Holding team members accountable for promises Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Random House.
6 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positive Leadership Tools Be open. Create high-quality connections. Cultivate kindness. Disrupt unhealthy distractions. Dispute negative thinking. Apply your strengths. Ritualize gratitude. Visualize your future. Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Random House.
7 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positive Leadership Three connotations of positive leadership: Facilitate positively deviant performance (i.e., exceeding expectations) Include an affirmation bias focused on strengths and human potential. Have an orientation toward virtuousness. Recognize the worth and strengths of every group member. Elevate others and encourage virtue in others. Cameron, K. (2008). Positive leadership: strategies for extraordinary performance. San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler.
8 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positive Leadership Create a positive climate Fredrickson’s positivity ratio (3 to 1) Leaders set the tone for a climate in which positive emotions such as gratitude and appreciation predominate over negative ones. Maintain positive relationships Establish relationships that facilitate positively deviant performance and learning. Cultivate relationships that are uplifting and result in quality connections with one another. Cameron, K. (2008). Positive leadership: strategies for extraordinary performance. San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler.
9 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Positive Leadership Facilitating positive communications Seek other’s views, be curious about new approaches, and communicate hope. Communicate a preponderance of positive statements compared to negative statements and use supportive communication when addressing concerns and shortcomings. Enabling positive meaning Infuse a sense of meaning and purpose in members’ tasks and responsibilities. Help others to see personal value and long-term impact of their work. Cameron, K. (2008). Positive leadership: strategies for extraordinary performance. San Francisco, CA: Berrett- Koehler.
10 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PERMA Model of Well-Being Positive emotion―expressing positive emotions with others that bring greater levels of vitality, resilience, and self-esteem Engagement―being curious, seeking out learning, interacting with others Relationships―caring about others and being cared for Meaning and purpose―seeing value and worthiness in life’s activities Achievement―accomplishing something in service of a purpose larger than one’s self interest Seligman, M.E.P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York, NY: Free Press.
11 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Resonant Leaders and Renewal Have developed practices that sustain their effectiveness by being able to manage the physiological and psychological ups and downs of leadership. Bring resonance to others and themselves by developing the competencies of self- awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.
12 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Resonant Leaders and Renewal Bring resonance to others and themselves by developing the competencies of Self-awareness Self-management Social awareness Relationship management Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
13 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sacrifice Syndrome These leaders burn out completely or continue to act in unhealthy ways that might result in damaging relationships, frustration, and unawareness of their impact on others. Leaders are overextended, burned out, exhausted. Their dissonance spreads to the group. Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
14 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keeping Yourself Renewed Stretch yourself to learn and to do new things. Develop the realization that what you are doing matters. Engage in renewal as a holistic process that involves your mind, body, soul, and spirit. Make time for peaceful reflection and centering. Maintain healthy, supportive relationships.
15 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Spirituality and Leader Renewal Finding meaning and purpose in our work and our lives. Finding meaning in our relationships with others and the world around us. Coming to have a strong sense of identity, who we are and why we are here. Cultivating equanimity, having a reflective composure and the capacity to reframe experiences in order to respond rather than react. Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2010). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
16 Copyright ©2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Spirituality and Leader Renewal “Leaders need not only technical skills to manage the external world but also the spiritual skills to journey inward toward the source of both shadow and light.” (Parker Palmer, 2000, p. 79) “They are capable of depending on others and of being depended upon. They can see life through another’s eyes and feel it through another’s heart.” (Howard Gardner, 2000, p. 15)
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