Presentation on theme: "LONDON RIOTS 2011. Brixton Riots 1981 Confrontation between the Metropolitan Police and protestors in Lambeth, South London Between 10 th and 12 th April."— Presentation transcript:
Brixton Riots 1981 Confrontation between the Metropolitan Police and protestors in Lambeth, South London Between 10 th and 12 th April 1981 Growing unease between police and the black community of South London Broadwater Farm Riots 1985 6 th October 1985 Events of the day dominated by 2 deaths – - Cythnia Jarett – an Afro-Caribean woman who died the previous day of a stroke whilst police were raiding her home. - PC Keith Blacklock – first police officer to be killed in rioting in Britain since 1833. Blacklock tripped and fell and was surrounded by a mob armed with machetes, knives and other weapons who killed him in an attempt to decapitate him.
Mark Duggan – The Trigger? Mark Duggan, 29, was shot on 4th August 2011. Police were attempting to arrest him in Tottenham, London, England. Also known as ‘Starrish Mark’, he was a known drug dealer and founding member of North London’s Tottenham Mandem Gang. Duggan had been under surveillance by the Police, suspecting that he was planning to commit a crime related to the death of his cousin Kelvin Easton. who was stabbed to death outside an East London bar in March 2011. EVENT Police attempted to arrest Duggan 18:15 4 th August 2011. Police fired twice in order to stop him, killing him with a single shot to his chest. He was pronounced dead at the scene. According to an eyewitness, a police officer had "shouted to the man to stop 'a couple of times', but he had not heeded the warning". A Metropolitan Police Federation Representative asserted that the officer who killed Duggan had "an honest-held belief that he was in imminent danger of him and his colleagues being shot".
Mark Duggan – The Aftermath At about 17:30 BST on 6 August 2011, Duggan's relatives and local residents marched from Broadwater Farm to Tottenham Police Station. The demonstrators wanted information from police about the circumstances of Duggan's death. A chief inspector spoke with the demonstrators, who demanded to see a higher-ranking officer. About 20:20 BST, some members of the waiting crowd attacked two nearby police cars, setting them on fire. Rioting, arson and looting spread to other parts of London, and to other cities in England. Duggan's family condemned the disorder. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJQHWwEpwAY
RIOTS – Saturday 6 th August TOTTENHAM Following the ‘peaceful’ protest to the Tottenham Police station, A younger and more aggressive crowd arrived at the scene around dusk. The peaceful protest turned into a violent retaliation on the rumour that police had attacked a 16-year-old girl. The night witnessed burning cars and buildings Fireworks, petrol bombs and other missiles were also thrown at police. Twenty-six officers were injured, including one who sustained head injuries.
RIOTS – Sunday 7 th August LONDON Riots had spread to 11 areas in Greater London. Brixton being a particularly hostile case; where London saw riots in 1981. The spread of the riots caused the Police to launch an investigation into the death of Mark Duggan – ‘Operation Withern’.
RIOTS – Monday 8 th August Riots had spread further throughout London. Incidents of rioting, looting and damage to private property were reported in 37 more areas within Greater London. This night also saw the spread outside of London ( primarily in the West Midlands; Birmingham and West Brom) 12 further cities around the UK were affected by the riots. Most notably; Leeds and Liverpool The fifth fatality related to the events associated with the 2011 London riots occurred in Ealing, London. Richard Mannington Bowes, 68 year old retired accountant, was attempting to put out a fire when he was attacked by rioters, causing severe head injuries. The event was caught on CCTV.
RIOTS – Tuesday 9 th August Riots continued to be fierce. This was the first day that rioters came out in force during the daytime as well as the night. Rioting also spread to Greater Manchester (central Manchester and Salford) Prime Minister David Cameron returned early from his holiday in Italy and chaired an emergency meeting of COBR, following the third night of violence in the capital. In a statement at 11:00, Cameron announced that 16,000 police officers will be deployed in London in anticipation of further violence. By 9 August 2011 563 arrests had been made since the start of the disruption in London, and 100 arrests made in Birmingham.
RIOTS – Wednesday 10 th August David Cameron chaired another emergency meeting of COBRA, mid-morning. Cameron announced that plastic bullets were available to the police for use in response to the riots if necessary, and contingency plans have been put in place to make water cannon available at 24 hours notice. Rioting and general disorder continued but the numbers had reduced greatly from the previous few nights The weather played a role in dissuading rioters to take to the streets. By 08:05, police had made more than 1,100 arrests, including 768 in London, 35 in Liverpool, 5 in Milton Keynes, 90 in Nottingham, 13 in Leicester and 19 in Bristol. By 15:00, the police had made 113 arrests in Greater Manchester.
White Vs Black involvement Non-black London boroughs did not riot. Non-black settlements UK-wide did not riot. One of the theories was that all large cities would experience riots because they follow similar patterns, but that is not the case. Large cities with a small black population did not riot. Highly unemployed non-black settlements did not riot. The UK has large areas with high unemployment that have a small black population. There were no disorders there. Unemployment was shown to be the single best socioeconomic correlate of riots in London, better than education or class
Reasons: Poor Relations with Police? The riots in London were initially blamed on poor relations between the black community and the police. Tactical use of frequent ‘stop and search’, particularly towards young, black men caused feelings of resentment within the community. David Lamy MP, ‘the cracks that already existed between the police and community have become deep fissures.’ Historian David Starkey blamed ‘black gangster culture’, stating it had influenced youths of all ages.
Reactions to 2011 Riots International: - IRAN: President Ahmadinejad – condemned Britain’s police for brutality shown against ‘opposition’ protestors. - LIBYA: state-run programmes said that the Libyan people and their leader supported ‘black power in Britain’ and always supported blacks who had ‘suffered racial discrimination’ in the UK. Social Media: - The riots were followed in great details by many Arab users of Twitter Many noted the difference between the dignified and largely peaceful protestors who protected banks and shops from looters during the uprisings in Libya, Egypt, Tunisia and elsewhere and contrasting them with the behaviour of those on the rampage in London. "London rioters are despicable, if only because they are stealing media attention away from where it really matters.“ – Tweet from Egypt
Reasons: Criminal Opportunism? The riots were not politically motivated - ‘recreational violence’ – Paul Hobbs (One News, New Zealand) ‘I think this is about sheer criminality. That is what we have seen on the streets. The violence we’ve seen, the looting we’ve seen, the thuggery we’ve seen – this is sheer criminality and let’s make no bones about it’ – Theresa May, Home Secretary ‘Every time I go into town I just think how the shops got smashed up in 2011 by all of us, I just laugh about it every time I go back in now’ – Manchester rioter to BBC commentator