2Brixton Riots 1981 Broadwater Farm Riots 1985 6th October 1985 Confrontation between the Metropolitan Police and protestors in Lambeth, South LondonBetween 10th and 12th April 1981Growing unease between police and the black community of South LondonBroadwater Farm Riots 19856th October 1985Events of the day dominated by 2 deaths –- Cythnia Jarett – an Afro-Caribean woman who died the previous day of a stroke whilst police were raiding her home.- PC Keith Blacklock – first police officer to be killed in rioting in Britain since Blacklock tripped and fell and was surrounded by a mob armed with machetes, knives and other weapons who killed him in an attempt to decapitate him.
3Mark Duggan – The Trigger? Mark Duggan, 29, was shot on 4th August 2011.Police were attempting to arrest him in Tottenham, London, England.Also known as ‘Starrish Mark’, he was a known drug dealer and founding member of North London’s Tottenham Mandem Gang.Duggan had been under surveillance by the Police, suspecting that he was planning to commit a crime related to the death of his cousin Kelvin Easton. who was stabbed to death outside an East London bar in March 2011.EVENTPolice attempted to arrest Duggan 18:15 4thAugust 2011.Police fired twice in order to stop him,killing him with a single shot to his chest.He was pronounced dead at the scene.According to an eyewitness, a police officerhad "shouted to the man to stop 'a couple oftimes', but he had not heeded the warning".A Metropolitan Police FederationRepresentative asserted that the officer whokilled Duggan had "an honest-held belief thathe was in imminent danger of him and his colleagues being shot".
4Mark Duggan – The Aftermath At about 17:30 BST on 6 August 2011,Duggan's relatives and local residentsmarched from Broadwater Farm toTottenham Police Station.The demonstrators wanted informationfrom police about the circumstances ofDuggan's death.A chief inspector spoke with the demonstrators, who demanded to see a higher-ranking officer.About 20:20 BST, some members of the waiting crowd attacked two nearby police cars, setting them on fire.Rioting, arson and looting spread to other parts of London, and to other cities in England.Duggan's family condemned the disorder.
5RIOTS – Saturday 6th August TOTTENHAMFollowing the ‘peaceful’ protest to the Tottenham Police station, A younger and more aggressive crowd arrived at the scene around dusk.The peaceful protest turned into a violent retaliation on the rumour that police had attacked a 16-year-old girl.The night witnessed burning cars andbuildingsFireworks, petrol bombs and othermissiles were also thrown at police.Twenty-six officers were injured,including one who sustained headinjuries.
6RIOTS – Sunday 7th August LONDONRiots had spread to 11areas in Greater London.Brixton being a particularlyhostile case; where London sawriots in 1981.The spread of the riots caused thePolice to launch an investigationinto the death of Mark Duggan –‘Operation Withern’.
7RIOTS – Monday 8th August Riots had spread further throughoutLondon.Incidents of rioting, looting anddamage to private property werereported in 37 more areas withinGreater London.This night also saw the spread outsideof London ( primarily in the West Midlands; Birmingham and West Brom)12 further cities around the UK were affected by the riots.Most notably; Leeds and LiverpoolThe fifth fatality related to the events associated with the 2011 London riots occurred in Ealing, London.Richard Mannington Bowes, 68 year old retired accountant, was attempting to put out a fire when he was attacked by rioters, causing severe head injuries. The event was caught on CCTV.
8RIOTS – Tuesday 9th August Riots continued to be fierce.This was the first day that rioters came out inforce during the daytime as well as the night.Rioting also spread to Greater Manchester(central Manchester and Salford)Prime Minister David Cameron returnedearly from his holiday in Italy and chaired anemergency meeting of COBR, following the third night of violence in the capital.In a statement at 11:00, Cameron announced that 16,000 police officers will be deployed in London in anticipation of further violence.By 9 August arrests had been made since the start of the disruption in London, and 100 arrests made in Birmingham.
9RIOTS – Wednesday 10th August David Cameron chaired anotheremergency meeting of COBRA,mid-morning.Cameron announced that plastic bulletswere available to the police for use inresponse to the riots if necessary, andcontingency plans have been put in place to make water cannon available at 24 hours notice.Rioting and general disorder continued but the numbers had reduced greatly from the previous few nightsThe weather played a role in dissuading rioters to take to the streets.By 08:05, police had made more than 1,100 arrests, including 768 in London, 35 in Liverpool, 5 in Milton Keynes, 90 in Nottingham, 13 in Leicester and 19 in Bristol.By 15:00, the police had made 113 arrests in Greater Manchester.
13White Vs Black involvement Non-black London boroughs did not riot.Non-black settlements UK-wide did not riot.One of the theories was that all large cities would experience riots because they follow similar patterns, but that is not the case. Large cities with a small black population did not riot.Highly unemployed non-black settlements did not riot. The UK has large areas with high unemployment that have a small black population. There were no disorders there.Unemployment was shown to be the single best socioeconomic correlate of riots in London, better than education or class
14Reasons: Poor Relations with Police? The riots in London were initially blamed on poor relations between the black community and the police.Tactical use of frequent ‘stop and search’, particularly towards young, black men caused feelings of resentment within the community.David Lamy MP, ‘the cracks that already existed between the police and community have become deep fissures.’Historian David Starkey blamed ‘black gangster culture’, stating it had influenced youths of all ages.
15Reactions to 2011 Riots International: - IRAN: President Ahmadinejad – condemned Britain’s police for brutality shown against ‘opposition’ protestors.- LIBYA: state-run programmes said that the Libyan people and their leader supported ‘black power in Britain’ and always supported blacks who had ‘suffered racial discrimination’ in the UK.Social Media:- The riots were followed in great details by many Arab users of TwitterMany noted the difference between the dignified and largely peaceful protestors who protected banks and shops from looters during the uprisings in Libya, Egypt, Tunisia and elsewhere and contrasting them with the behaviour of those on the rampage in London."London rioters are despicable, if only because they are stealing media attention away from where it really matters.“ – Tweet from Egypt
16Reasons: Criminal Opportunism? The riots were not politically motivated - ‘recreational violence’ – Paul Hobbs (One News, New Zealand)‘I think this is about sheer criminality. That is what we have seen on the streets. The violence we’ve seen, the looting we’ve seen, the thuggery we’ve seen – this is sheer criminality and let’s make no bones about it’ – Theresa May, Home Secretary‘Every time I go into town I just think how the shops got smashed up in 2011 by all of us, I just laugh about it every time I go back in now’ – Manchester rioter to BBC commentator