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DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS

2 AUXILIARY FACTILITIES AS LISTED IN THE TEXT:

3 GENERAL CATEGORIES PLANT UTILITY SYSTEMS –STEAM –WATER –AIR –POWER –NATURAL GAS MINOR UTILITIES –FIRE SYSTEMS –INERT GASES WASTE DISPOSAL –SEWERS –HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTION & TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS –ROADS –RAILS – DOCKS Energy/images/St- Joes-Boiler-plnt.jpg k-boxcar-loading.jpg

4 ESTIMATE FACTORS DEPEND ON TYPE OF FACILITY

5 AUXILIARY PROCESSES CAN BE COMPLICATED EXAMPLE OF WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS

6 PIPING SYSTEM COST ESTIMATES ESTIMATES DEPEND ON FOLLOWING FACTORS TYPE OF SYSTEM WELDED SCREWED SWAGED FLANGES WELDED FLANGES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION –SEE TABLE 12-2 FOR ALTERNATE TYPES vices.com/pic3b.jpg

7 PIPING DESIGN CRITERIA MAXIMUM VELOCITIES – DIAMETER IS GENERALLY SET TO MEET PROJECT CRITERIA – SEE TABLE 12.3 AND NOTE LIMITS AS A FUNCTION OF VISCOSITY SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP (SEE MEMO CTA-02) –USE SPECIFIC EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR, TURBULENT, COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW. –CHOOSE MORE CONSERVATIVE (LARGER DIAMETER) WHEN COMPARING RESULTS FROM VARIOUS MODELS –AVOID SONIC VELOCITY (VALVES ARE PRIMARY SOURCES)

8 OTHER CONSTRAINTS CODES –ASME B31.3 – PROCESS PLANT PIPING –ASME B31.1 – STEAM PIPING

9 SYSTEM CURVES PRESSURE DROP IN FLUID FLOW LINES (TOTAL HEAD) –USING EQUIVALENT LENGTHS REQUIRE SOME IDEA OF THE ROUTING. –FACTORS IN CRANE OR CAMERON. ad-free/chapter4-extract.pdf

10 PIPING INSTALLATION OPTIONS OVERHEAD PIPING SYSTEMS ARE EASIER TO MAINTAIN – RUN PIPING IN RACKS – MINIMUM SIZE IS GENERALLY 2"(NOM) TO ALLOW REASONABLE SPAN OF ABOUT 25 FT – RACK PIPING LAYOUT SHOULD ISOLATE INCOMPATIBALE MATERIALS –USE STRUCTURAL STEEL IN BUILDINGS

11 SUBSURFACE PIPING GENERALY LOCATED IN TRENCHES –DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH MOST SURFACE OPTIONS –CAN LIMIT SPREAD OF LEAKS WHEN FLUIDS FLOW INTO TRENCHES –TRENCHES MUST BE PERIODICALLY DRAINED –HAVE MIXED EFFECTS IN FIRES MANY PLANTS HAVE A COMBINATION OF OVERHEAD AND SUBSURFACE PIPING od_place/hazy_4.jpg

12 DETAILED PIPING DESIGN FACTORS ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CONSTANT VELOCITIES THROUGH SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES OF EFFICIENCY USE WELDED WHERE LEAKS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WOULD BE POSSIBLE FLANGED FITTINGS ARE USED WHERE LINES MIGHT BE FREQUENTLY OPENED FOR MAINTENANCE LINES 2-3"(NOM) IN DIAMETER MAY BE RUN IN THE FIELD. LARGER SHOULD BE FABRICATED IN SHOP.

13 PIPING QUALITY CHECKS RADIOGRAPHY REQUIREMENTS – RANGE FROM 0% ON LOW RISK SYSTEMS TO 100% ON HIGH RISK –5% RANDOM A TYPICAL INTERMEDIATE VALUE. –THERMAL AND MECHANICAL STRESS CONSIDERATIONS EXPANSION MUST BE CONSIDERED AND SYSTEMS DESIGNED TO HAVE ZERO STRESS ON EQUIPMENT NOZZLES –NPSH MAY BE A FACTOR WHEN DESIGN FOR PUMP INLETS. SEE PERRY'S FOR GUIDELINES –AVOID VAPOR TRAPS IN EQUIPMENT PIPING –CONTROL VALVES SHOULD BE ISOLATED TO ALLOW REMOVAL FOR MAINTENANCE WITHOUT SHUTTING DOWN THE SYSTEM

14 VALVE DESIGN CRITERIA DEPEND ON MEDIA AND SERVICE –POSITIVE SHUTOFF - GATES, PLUG, BALL –GASES - GATES FOR SHUTOFF, BUTTERFLYS FOR THROTTLING –CHECK VALVES - PREVENT BACKFLOW AND SHOULD BE INSTALLED AFTER ROTATING EQUIPMENT stics.com/media/picture s/gate.gif ews/article.asp?Id=3226 om/media/pictures/check.gif

15 RELATIVE COSTS FOR PIPING SEE FIGURES 12-4 THROUGH PIPING COSTS ARE LOWEST FOR SCREWED PIPING, BUT THIS IS GENERALLY LIMITED TO 6” DIAMETER OR LESS STRAIGHT RUN PIPE IS GENERALLY FIELD FABRICATED IN 20 FT SECTIONS –AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINES FOR FIELD INSTALLATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FOR STRAIGHT RUNS –SCREWED CONNECTIONS CAN ALSO BE INSTALLED IN LONGER SECTIONS

16 OTHER PIPING COST FACTORS PIPE WITH BENDS, FITTINGS, VALVES, MULTIPLE CONNECTIONS IS TYPICALLY FABRICATED IN A SHOP THE SHOP CAN BE LOCATED IN THE FIELD FOR PIPE UNDER 1 FT IN DIAMETER LARGE PIPE FABRICATIONS ARE COMPLETE IN A SHOP WITH AUTOMATED WELDERS og/lockseam22.jpg log/ /Quality_Pipe_ Fittings_Elbow_Bend_Tee_ Flange_Reducer.html

17 SPECIFIC EXAMPLE Cl 2 PLANTS PRODUCTION ECONOMICS FOR DIAPHRAGM Cl 2 Cl2 CapacityST/Y Cl2 ProductionST/Y Investment ($US millions) Battery Limits Off-Sites Total Fixed Capital PRODUCTION ECONOMICS FOR MEMBRANE Cl 2 Cl2 CapacityST/Y Cl2 ProductionST/Y Investment ($US millions) Battery Limits Off-Sites Total Fixed Capital DATA FROM T. PAVONE


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