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Effects of Open Access and the power of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek Open Knowledge Foundation Wageningen UR Library.

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Presentation on theme: "Effects of Open Access and the power of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek Open Knowledge Foundation Wageningen UR Library."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effects of Open Access and the power of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek Open Knowledge Foundation Wageningen UR Library

2 You are free to: Copy, share, adapt, or re-mix; Photograph, film, or broadcast; Blog, live-blog, or post video of; This presentation. Provided that: You attribute the work to its author and respect the rights and licenses associated with its components. Slide Concept by Cameron Neylon, who has waived all copyright and related or neighbouring rights. This slide only ccZero.ccZero Social Media Icons adapted with permission from originals by Christopher Ross. Original images are available under GPL at;

3 Definition and Needs Comparing Open Access and Toll Access publishing The cost of Open Access Effects of Open Access How to get Open Access Tools for use with Open Access

4 Open Access is completely free and unrestricted access to Publications and Data A detailed Definition was published by the Budapest Open Access Initiative in 2001 (BOAI Definition) and an Update was published this year the open access initiative at the Open Knowledge Foundation uses this Definition In addition we strongly recommend using Creative Commons licenses, CC-BY for publications and CC0 for Data

5 whoneedsaccess.org

6 SURVEY RESULTS MALARIAWORLD 95% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed to the ‘statement that Scientific articles on malaria should be available for free to all in need of it’ Only 2% never experience access problems In Africa, South America, and Asia, 41, 79, and 92% of the respondents, respectively, claimed never to use HINARI or did not even know about its existence Testimonials MalariaWorld “more than three-quarters of researchers based in the developing world consider lack of access both to be unethical and costing lives” ( MW Survey) Research resources for diseases of the poor must be made available without cost to the poor and those who are committed to helping them. Our management discourages us from supporting new open access journals due to their low, or unassigned, impact factor. When did scientists start agreeing with this slave-type of agreement with publishing houses? How could this nonsense have started? We inherited this sick system, but that does not mean we should allow it to continue at my university the department only pay publication fees for persons with a permanent position. The rest of us have to find the money somehow - or bribe a prof Open-source is not without downsides. I favor a mixed model in developed countries with open access for developing countries.

7  TRANSFER of COPYRIGHTS (since 1998!)  RIGHT TO READ BUT NOT TO USE  PAY PER VIEW

8 1,350 $ / article 4 x less than Toll Access Eventually cost may go down to 250 $ / article Open access publishing will then eventually be 20 x cheaper than Toll Access 5,333 $ / article TOTAL 16 billion These are cost for funding agencies On TOTAL Budget 300 billion Research funding now needs 5 % for publishing Sources: SVPOW :http://svpow.com/2012/07/18/what-does-it-cost-to-publish-a- paywalled-paper-with-anyone/

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10 SOMEHOW SOMEWHERE SOMEONE IS GOING TO PAY WHO PAYS? Less than 1% of current science funding will easily cover the cost of open access publishing Funders and libraries are now paying 5 % or $ 15 billion on a total funding of $ 300 billion WHO PAYS? Less than 1% of current science funding will easily cover the cost of open access publishing Funders and libraries are now paying 5 % or $ 15 billion on a total funding of $ 300 billion IS OPEN ACCESS SUSTAINABLE? Several studies show: OA benefits outweigh the costs by a factor of 5 or more Houghton ( ) Swan (2010) Brembs (2011) CED DCC final Report 2012 IS OPEN ACCESS SUSTAINABLE? Several studies show: OA benefits outweigh the costs by a factor of 5 or more Houghton ( ) Swan (2010) Brembs (2011) CED DCC final Report 2012

11 The effects of Open Access Science & Education Open science Open education Politics Open government Informed citizens Economics developmentinnovation

12 Open Access improves the quality of science OA enables new ways of measuring Impact Articles can be reviewed by many Downloads & social media buzz reflect impact Include impact in other areas than science Open Access improves the quality of science Open Science prevents fraud Open data prevents data tampering Open access enables new forms of collaboration and discovery Open access enables citizen science Michael Nielsen Reinventing Discovery Michael Nielsen Reinventing Discovery

13 The Impact Factor is a main obstruction to Open Access

14 Björn Brembs access-is-a-symptom-not-the-disease Negotiable Irreproducible Mathematically unsound

15 ‘New’ Definition of Scientific Impact

16 Quality of editorial board Citation index Reputation Collaboration Reference density More indicators Quality of peer-review “Transparency” indicators Criteria used by reviewers Duration of review process Post-publication comments Openness about submission and Rejection rates potential conflicts of interest Aims, scopes and expected readership Reviewer’s comments and editorial correspondence ( published alongside papers More indicators A-vector: a new tool for quality Assessment of OA journals Tom Olijhoek SURF-NL A-Vector: introducing a new form of journal level metrics

17 Less fraud Open data better control of scientific quality Open publications Less bias Crowd control Less duplication Better use of resources More collaboration Shorter time between research and practice Less important where you publish All journal content online and accessible Reputation not because of selectivity but because of quality

18 OPEN ACCESS TO PUBLICATIONS AND DATA MORE VISIBILITY OF  PLAGIARISM  FABRICATED DATA  PUBLICATION BIAS MORE DIFFICULT TO  LEAVE OUT DATA  SELECT SPECIFIC RESULTS

19 RESULT: MANY PEOPLE SUFFER FROM BAD MEDICINES AND EVEN FROM UNNECESSARY TREATMENTS High percentage of medical publications are based on flawed experiments Side effects are often not published Pharmaceutical companies “hide” negative results for medicines GSK paid 3 billion fines because of fraud with paxol publications Sources: Howard Brody | Ben Goldacre | Richard Smith | John Ioannidis

20 OA enables higher education for all through the internet eLearning initiatives like Coursera, eDX, Udacity Level of education will rise rapidly More education -  more economic and social development

21 Open Access crucial for scientists in the global south conference The Hague 25 oct 2012 as long as scientific output remains behind walls of paid content, no possibility for a dialogue will exis t Open Access opens Science for All Science is the motor for economic development Research is the key to fighting disease Participation of scientists from Africa, Asia and Latin America is necessary for success

22 How to Get Open Access Scientists hold the power in their own hands Attitude change is crucial Coordination of scientist networked communities Structured information and focused communities

23 Open Access getting new ideas by sharing CollaborationPublish for impactFocus on quality Toll Access fear of losing ideasCompetitionPublish or perishFocus on quantity

24 The open access movement is fragmented No consensus on what open access is No consensus on the best form of open access publishing Need to build communities with common ideas Someone needs to coordinate these communities WHO? Open Knowledge OKFN? OpenWetware?

25 repositories libraries OA journalsDatabases Indexing services Discussion platforms Scientist networks Social media Archives Datahubs

26 COMMUNITIES FOCUSSED ON TOPICS MalariaWorld PatientslikeMe Ecancer.orgMyScienceWork ResearchGate African networks like ir-africa.info MalariaWorld is a model open access community for malaria research Main Task

27 ORGANIZE DATA Open Data archive Publication archive Archive for preprints Tool development Reference managing POSSIBLE PARTNERSScientific librariesOpen access publishersPubmedCentralEU openairWorld BankUN Platform for collaboration Discussion, forum, news, jobs, OA Journal

28 ALTMETRICS REPUTATION INDEX A-VECTOR

29 BibSoup: Malaria Database used by MalariaWorld Examples of use Open Access and the role of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek & Mark McGillivray unknown cc-by 2.0 cc-by 2.5 Graphical representation of types of licences in the malaria database. The largest part is “unknown” Graphical representation of the 1000 most cited articles in the malaria database. The Header in the figure is the nr 1 citation

30 Malaria Open Access Index developed in collaboration with MalariaWorld HOW OPEN IS MALARIA RESEARCH? J1 Percentage of a articles on malaria in a journal that are Open Access (Y-axis) J2 Percentage of the grand total of OA malaria articles that one journal publishes X-axis) PLoSOne (brown) and Malaria Journal (blue) have highest index Open Access and the role of scientific communities Tom Olijhoek & Mark McGillivray The nine bubbles along the top, from left to right(be careful to note the thin sliver of red that is bubble 6) * BMC Public Health * BMC Inf.Diseases * BMC Genomics * PLoS Medicine * PLoS Pathogens * Parasites and Vectors * PLoS Negl Trop Diseases * PLoS One * Malaria Journal And finally the small one on the bottom left: * Virology Journal

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32 Open Source Biomedical Research for the 21st Century An open, collaborative research community will find new ways to do science, answering questions that current institutions find difficult or impossible.


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