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FIXED MARINE STRUCTURES.  Piers  Wharves  Bulkheads  Quays  Dolphins  Trestles  Catwalks  Moles.

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Presentation on theme: "FIXED MARINE STRUCTURES.  Piers  Wharves  Bulkheads  Quays  Dolphins  Trestles  Catwalks  Moles."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIXED MARINE STRUCTURES

2  Piers  Wharves  Bulkheads  Quays  Dolphins  Trestles  Catwalks  Moles

3 A pier is a raised walkway over water, supported by widely spread piles or pillars

4 Coastal bulkheads are most often referred to as seawalls, bulkheading, or riprap revetments. These manmade structures are constructed along shorelines with the purpose of controlling beach erosion.

5 A trestle is a rigid frame used as a support, especially referring to a path supported by a number of such braced frames or short spans supported by splayed vertical elements (usually for railroad use).

6  Marine Engineering involves the design, construction, installation, operation and support of the systems and equipment which propel and control marine vehicles, and of the systems which make a vehicle or structure habitable for crew, passengers and cargo.

7  Closed - manufactured in such a way that various portions cannot be readily inspected at the installation site without their disassembly or destruction.  Open - manufactured in such a way that all portions can be readily inspected at the installation site without disassembly or destruction.

8 SHEET PILE COFFERDAM STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE CAISSONS  Use weight and gravity as their primary structural components  Suited for areas where shallow rock exists  Ideal for structures that require resistance to high lateral pressure and overturning  Concrete and stone offer great compressive strength

9  A watertight structure that encloses an area under water, pumped dry to enable construction work to be carried out.  Constructed by driving a series of thin retaining dividers in the form of interconnecting circles or diaphragms and filling the voids with a concrete or stone substrate  The system is divided into smaller diaphragms because excessive concrete would cause to much lateral pressure during the curing phase and could cause the supporting sheet piles to give out

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12  A caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.  Concrete caissons consist of circular steel or concrete tubes drilled into the ground  The tubes are filled with concrete or an equivalent structural material  The caisson will be brought down through soft mud until a suitable foundation material is encountered. While bedrock is preferred, a stable, hard mud is sometimes used when bedrock is too deep.

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16  End Bearing Pile Loads – get strength from the dense soils or rock located below the upper layer of sand  Friction Pile Loads – get strength from the surrounding cohesive soil  Pile construction is generally used where lateral load is not a huge concern.

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18  Subsurface soil conditions  Bedrock depth  Bearing material  Water depth

19  Subsurface soil can be made up of materials such as sand, stone, clay, silt or any combination of the four  Pre-construction involves consulting with a soil engineering firm so the engineers can administer any necessary test involved with designing a safe and sturdy structure

20  Bedrock depth is an important consideration because you need to know how deep you need to drive piles or columns to meet the required live and dead loads  Live Load – any projected load the structure will have to support that is not connected to the structure itself (people, equipment, etc)  Dead Load – weight bearing or non-weight bearing materials connected to the structure

21  Important in determining what equipment to use and the means of acquiring it  Contractors need to know this when figuring out how to cut costs  Local cost and availability of construction materials and labor

22  The magnitude and nature of loadings  Hydraulic conditions such as wave action and currents  Fire hazard and safety-related requirements  Damage susceptibility and ease of repairs  Construction schedule and weather considerations  Local construction practices  Environmental and regulatory concerns over water circulation and habitat loss

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