Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures © Ed Green Penn State University All Rights Reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures © Ed Green Penn State University All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures © Ed Green Penn State University All Rights Reserved

2 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures2 Topics Meaning of organizational culture Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) Competing values framework

3 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures3 Meaning of Organizational Culture Every culture characterized by Unique language Symbols Rules Ethnocentricity Organizational culture refers to values, assumptions, expectations, knowledge, and definitions

4 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures4 “Organizational Culture” Defined Commonly held and subscribed set of values, goals, expectations, processes, and rules that govern the operation of and relationships within an enterprise Reflects What is valued Dominant leadership styles Language Symbols Procedures Routines Exists within the broader realm of societal culture Driven by internal and external forces Market Technology Political Process

5 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures5 Importance of Organizational Culture in Effecting Change Ignored Taken for granted Must be recognized Frequently implicit until challenged Enterprise culture represents the larger culture (value set) Each sub-unit has a unique sub-culture Derives from the large value set Has its own unique aspects Creates some amount of difficulty in coordinating and integrating organizational activities

6 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures6 Characteristics For Successful Change Practical Timely Involving Quantitative Qualitative Manageable Valid

7 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures7 Stating the Challenge Provide information solutions of exceptional quality Meet the changing needs of the enterprise Respond to organizational culture and its changing nature Reduce costs Improve productivity and profitability

8 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures8 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument

9 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures9 OCAI Tool used by organizational analysts Assess current organizational culture Determine desired future organizational culture Measure the differences Support a migration process

10 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures10 OCAI* Set of categories with subordinate questions Dominant characteristics Organizational leadership Management of employees Organizational glue Strategic emphasis Criteria of success Two measures Organization today Organization tomorrow Scoring algorithm * Concurrently, refer to Cameron & Quinn, Figure 2.1, Pages

11 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures11 OCAI Assessment technique Consistent point system Each subcategory must add up to 100 Two passes – “As is” organizational culture “To be” organizational culture

12 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures12 OCAI Process “as is” and “to be” columns separately Algorithm – OCAI = (Σ q i /4)A <= I <= D In other words Obtain the mean value for each question group Then the difference to be processed is – Δ(abs ((OCAI as is, OCAI to be )))

13 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures13 Competing Values Framework

14 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures14 Value of Frameworks Cultural strength and congruence Holographic versus idiographic dimension Strong-weak dimension Internal-external focus dimension Speed (high/low) of feedback Degree (high/low) degree of risk Participatory versus ethnographic dimension

15 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures15 Eleven Dimensions of Culture* Clarity and direction Organizational reach Integration Management contact Encouragement of individual initiative Conflict resolution Performance clarity Performance emphasis Action orientation Compensation Human resource development * Gordon, 1985

16 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures16 Competing Values Framework Clan Shared values & goalsShared values & goals CohesionCohesion ParticipativenessParticipativeness IndividualityIndividuality “We-ness”“We-ness” Hierarchy RulesRules SpecializationSpecialization MeritocracyMeritocracy HierarchyHierarchy Separate ownershipSeparate ownership ImpersonalityImpersonality AccountabilityAccountability Adhocracy InnovativeInnovative PioneeringPioneering EntrepreneurshipEntrepreneurship CreativityCreativity “Cutting edge”“Cutting edge” Market TransactionsTransactions External constituenciesExternal constituencies Market MechanismsMarket Mechanisms ProfitabilityProfitability Market strengthMarket strength Market nichesMarket niches Customer basesCustomer bases Flexibility and Discretion Stability and Control Internal Focus and Integration External Focus and Differentiation

17 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures17 Factors and Cultures CLANADHOCRACYHIERARCHYMARKET ORIENTATION CollaborativeCreativeControllingCompeting LEADER TYPE Facilitator Mentor Team builder Innovator Entrepreneur Visionary Coordinator Monitor Organizer Hard driver Competitor Producer VALUE DRIVERS Commitment Communication Development Innovation Transformation Agility Efficiency Timeliness Consistency Uniformity Market share Goal achievement Profitability THEORY OF EFFECTIVENESS Human development and participation produce effectiveness Innovation, vision, and new resources produce effectiveness Control and efficiency with capable processes produce effectiveness Aggressively competing and customer focus produce effectiveness CULTURE FACTOR

18 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures18 Values of Cultures CULTURE CRITERIA CLANADHOCRACYHIERARCHYMARKET LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE JUSTIFICATION

19 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures19 Plotting the Organizational Culture Profile CLANADHOCRACY HIERARCHYMARKET Flexibility and Discretion External Focus & Differentiation Internal Focus & Integration Stability and Control Internal maintenance; concern for people; sensitivity to customers External positioning; high degree of flexibility & individuality Internal maintenance; need for stability & control External positioning; need for stability & control

20 4/30/2015 Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures20 Diagnosing and Changing Cultures Process for culture change 1. Reach consensus on current culture 2. Reach consensus on desired future culture 3. Determine what changes will/will not mean 4. Identify examples 5. Develop an action plan 6. Develop an implementation plan Key considerations Identify small “wins” Generate social support Design follow-up and accountability Provide information – SHARE! Measure Create readiness and acceptance – explain WHY Conduct transition – set the stage Implement symbolic and substantial change Focus on process


Download ppt "Assessing Organizations and Their Cultures © Ed Green Penn State University All Rights Reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google