Presentation on theme: "Diversion from prosecution: retuning the crash magnets Professor Stephen Stradling Emeritus Professor of Transport Psychology Edinburgh Napier University."— Presentation transcript:
Diversion from prosecution: retuning the crash magnets Professor Stephen Stradling Emeritus Professor of Transport Psychology Edinburgh Napier University
DIVERSION FROM PROSECUTION COURSES: RETUNING THE CRASH MAGNETS STEPHEN STRADLING Edinburgh Napier University & Timperley WITH DR PAUL BROUGHTON Owl research DR CRIS BURGESS Exeter University DR FIONA FYLAN Leeds Metropolitan University DR HELEN SCOTT Sunderland University RSGB Chester 15 Nov 2011
Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30 Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40 Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion Driver overtaking on the inside at speed Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?
Moving traffic offences Failures of socialisation and training Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP, A SECOND CHANCE WHAT DO ALL THESE HAVE IN COMMON?
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Moving traffic offences Failures of socialisation and training Crash Magnets: driving with reduced safety margins, purposely or inadvertently Potential prelude to a prang or disruption of progress: IT COULD HAVE BEEN WORSE THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP A SECOND CHANCE? SO IT ISN’T WORSE NEXT TIME - Retribution OR Remediation?
NATIONAL COURSES approved by ACPO developed through NDORS NATIONAL RIDE COURSE NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US? COURSE Driving and riding are activities that involve sharing the road with many, often more vulnerable, legimately present, others. Attendance at a course with the physical co-presence of other such road users, often with different outlooks and trip agendas, helps convey this message. The provision of common national courses means that drivers and riders can choose from any of the participating providers, making courses more accessible.
RIDE SPEED AWARENESS DRIVER ALERTNESS DRIVING 4 CHANGE WHAT’S DRIVING US? P2W rider crossing a solid white line to overtake P2W rider cutting corners on country road at speed Driver clocked doing 38 in a 30Driver stopped doing 51 in a 40 Driver changing lane on a dual carriageway without signalling, causing non-injury collision Driver taking a short cut driving the wrong way on a 1-way street Driver remaining in lane 2 or 3 on motorway when lane 1 is empty Driver taking the wrong lane at a roundabout, causing confusion Driver overtaking on the inside at speed Driver mounting the kerb to avoid stationary traffic
NATIONAL RIDE COURSE An alternative to prosecution for offences committed under Section 3, Section 39 and excess speed (non-camera) of the Road Traffic Act 1988. Objectives: increase awareness of current riding behaviour and engender a positive and responsible approach to motorcycling. The course encourages clients to continue to ride their motorcycle, but to examine their individual attitudes and motivations examine their approach to risk probe their beliefs surrounding inappropriate riding behaviour consider the positive effects and benefits of mindset change maintain these positive changes after course completion Duration 1 day Location classroom Cost £86 - £101
NATIONAL SPEED AWARENESS COURSE An alternative to prosecution for low level speeding (limit +10% + 2–6mph at the time of evaluation; now limit +10% + 2-9 mph). (e.g., was 35-39, now 35-42 in a 30) Objectives: identify the benefits of complying with speed limits raise awareness of appropriate attitudes towards the misuse of speed understand the consequences of speeding and explore the advantages and disadvantages of speeding improve knowledge of speed limits and skills in identifying different limit areas recognise personal responsibility for choice of speed recognise impact of driving behaviour on other road users provide opportunity to increase knowledge and skills in hazard perception Duration 4 hrs (5 hrs) Location classroom (+ on-road) Cost £75 - £95
Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area HUSSAR SAC UK n=1,066 n=362 Total Total Before At After % % % % Conformer 30 30 30 47% 24% Nervous conformer 28 25 28 16% 63% 9% 32% Complier 35 30 30 11% 22% Late complier35 35 30 0% 11% 7% 29% Full manipulator 40 30 40 14% 24% Partial manipulator 40 30 35 5% 5% Released manipulator 30 30 40 7% 26% 3% 32% Defier 50 50 50 0.9% 0.9% 7% 7%
Self-reported behaviour at 30 mph speed camera in built-up area HUSSAR SAC UK n=1,066 n=362 Total Total Before At After % % % % Conformer 30 30 30 47% 24% Nervous conformer 28 25 28 16% 63% 9% 32% Complier 35 30 30 11% 22% Late complier35 35 30 0% 11% 7% 29% Full manipulator 40 30 40 14% 24% Partial manipulator 40 30 35 5% 5% Released manipulator 30 30 40 7% 26% 3% 32% Defier 50 50 50 0.9% 0.9% 7% 7% Skill deficit Attitude deficit
NATIONAL DRIVER ALERTNESS COURSE The National Driver Alertness scheme should be used to remove from the criminal justice system those drivers who by a driving error have offended against Section 3 of the Road Traffic Act 1988 and offer them a course at an approved course venue. Where there is evidence that the person’s driving amounts to more than an error of judgement, the case should be referred for prosecution. Driving without Due Care and Attention OR without reasonable consideration for other road users. Objectives: re-calibrate drivers' perceptions of task difficulty help drivers avoid factors that reduce their driving competence increase drivers' awareness of the causes and consequences of collisions challenge drivers' dysfunctional beliefs enable drivers to identify their individual driving dangers and develop an action plan to stay safe on the roads Duration 1 day Location classroom + on-road Cost £125 - £200
NATIONAL DRIVING 4 CHANGE COURSE A lapse of concentration, an error of judgement, or a general mistake, or a lack of awareness of the law pertaining to the offence that he or she has committed, that has not had wider consequences (i.e. a collision) Aim To raise awareness of driving skill deficits and start the process of addressing it Objectives 1.To increase understanding of what constitutes safer driving behaviour 2. To increase understanding of their own skill deficits 3. To improve their driving skills 4.To increase their motivation to further improve their driving Duration 1/2 day Location on-road Cost £80 - £85
The W Model What type of road did the incident occur on? Type of Road Speed Limit Tick as identified Urban 30 Rural National Dual Carriageway 70 Motorway 70 WHERE Why did you do what you did? (Statement to discuss) WHY WHEN 1)Who was in the car with you at the time? Children Peer 25-60 Disabled Other (2) Who do you think your behaviour affected? WHO 1) What was happening at the time? (Statement to discuss) WHAT Time/dates Time of dayDay of weekMonth Am Pm Do you think this had any effect on your incident, if yes why?
Mapping of ND4C Course Objectives to Content Course ObjectivesLet’s Discuss Let’s Drive 1 Let’s Drive 2 Let’s Reflect 1.To increase their understanding of what constitutes safer driving behaviour √√√ 2.To increase understanding of their skill deficits √√√√ 3To improve their driving skills√√√ 4. To increase motivation to further improve their driving √√√√
Research Course evaluation and client satisfaction Does the course change behaviour? Does the course change attitudes? Research Methodology Behaviour/attitude questionnaire Pre course Post course I Post course II (4 week follow-up)
Research Research Question What are the underlying causation factors for specific referral offences? Research Methodology ADI to complete a record sheet for each participant: The Offence and circumstances (W template) Three items to work on (agreed following drive 1) Three items promised for practice (agreed following drive 2) Other comments
NATIONAL WHAT’S DRIVING US? An act or omission that can be construed as intentional or deliberate, where … the driver knew their actions amounted to an offence, that had not had wider consequences (i.e. a third party complaint or collision) Aims of the course are to produce safer and more responsible attitudes towards driving, and to increase motivation to drive with consideration for other road users. Objectives : Increase perceptions of driving as a complex and difficult task. Increase recognition that the way they drive and the risks they take increase the likelihood of crashing. Increase awareness of the physical, emotional, and financial consequences of being involved in a crash. Increase understanding of the need for traffic rules. Increase insight into the things that influence their driving. Duration 4 hrs Location classroom
A plan for the day 9am – 10.30am: Presentations and activities 10.30-10.45am: Break 10.45 – 11.45: Group work and feedback 11.45- 12.15: Presentations and activities
(GRIEVING for LOSS of CURRENT IDENTITY as a DRIVER)
Behavioural Change Technique (Abraham & Michie, 2008) Provide information about the behaviour-health link Provide information on consequences Provide information about others’ approval Prompt intention formation Prompt barrier identification Provide instruction Plan social support / social change Prompt specific goal setting Teach to use prompts/cues Prompt practice Provide opportunities for social comparison Prompt identification as role model Motivational interviewing Relapse prevention The WDU course makes use of the following behavioural change techniques
What are you going to do differently? Thinking about your incident, what situation might you be in that means you might drive in this way again? Where will you be driving to? Who will you be travelling with? What are you going to do differently? – Before the drive? – During the drive? Prompt intention formation Teach to use prompts/ cues
Behavioural Change Technique Provide general encouragement Set graded tasks Model or demonstrate the behaviour Prompt review of behavioural goals Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour Provide feedback on performance Provide contingent rewards Agree behavioural contract Use follow-up prompts Prompt self-talk Stress management Time management And these are the ones we failed to get in
RIDEBefore, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews; compared to untreated group of bikers SPEED AWARENESSBefore, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs DRIVER ALERTNESSBefore, After and 2 mo Follow-up; compared to Driver Improvement Scheme DRIVING 4 CHANGEBefore and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire WHAT’S DRIVING US? Before and After + 2 FGs, instructor interviews, online provider questionnaire Enhanced administrative arrangements such as supplier accreditation, training the trainers, process monitoring including quality control inspections, and robust outcome evaluation involving before-after designs, are being put in place to ensure we know what works, with whom, and under what conditions. COURSE EVALUATION
RIDEBefore, After and Follow-up inc 4 FGs, tutor interviews; compared to untreated group of bikers RIDE clients report: o Lower speeds in specific riding locations following course attendance o Braking sharply less frequently, in both urban and rural areas o Leaving larger safety margins between their hypothetical maximum speed and their ‘normal’ riding speed They agreed or strongly agreed that the course: o helped them to identify their own bad riding habits (80%) o gave them a better understanding of the hazards riders face on the roads (92%) They: o were surprised that they were not chastised or patronised during the course, and appreciated the knowledge and experience of the tutors o were expecting the course to focus on skills and techniques that would make them a safer rider, and that it would provide them with practical skills, and this expectation was not met o found RIDE an acceptable alternative to points and a fine EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
SPEED AWARENESSBefore, After and 3 mo Follow-up inc 6 FGs 99% of clients who responded at follow-up reported that they had changed their driving after attending the course: driving more slowly, being more aware of the road environment and of their speed, and feeling less stressed while driving. While a minority (9%) described how they had found it difficult to break their driving habits, and that they sometimes felt pressure from other drivers to speed up, particularly on motorways, the majority (90%) reported that they had not experienced any difficulties in applying what they had learnt. The course: o provides information that challenges attitudes towards speeding o helps them to recognise that the advantages are not as great as they may have assumed o helps them understand the reason for speed limits being set as they are o helps them realise that the driving environment is more hazardous than they had appreciated o gives them greater insight into their own driving, including the pressures that they face and the limits to their own knowledge o gives them skills in identifying speed limits, and easy-to-recall tips (e.g., COAST), knowledge and skills to improve their driving style Many become advocates for the course and share their new knowledge and skills with friends and family. They promote slower more relaxed driving styles and actively encourage others to slow down. EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
DRIVER ALERTNESSBefore, After and 2 mo Follow-up; compared to Driver Improvement Scheme At follow-up 99% reported that they had changed their driving o Being more aware of what could happen in different situations o It’s made me think ahead more o I am more observant with near or distant road users 'making last minute changes‘ o I am a lot more tolerant. I do not get upset about minor things o I am slower, allowing more space, more relaxed and knowledgeable about traffic signs as I had misread one when I had the accident o I drive much more economically now which means I am less rushed and safer and more aware of the road Agreed: o the classroom instructors knew what they were talking about o the driving instructors understood their driving o the instructors cared that you stay safe on the road Driver Alertness was as effective in changing self-reported attitudes and behaviours in 1 day as Driver Improvement in 1.5 days EVALUATION HIGHLIGHTS
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