Presentation on theme: "Metaphors in real-time: Evidence for ‘affective models’ Lynne Cameron The Open University."— Presentation transcript:
Metaphors in real-time: Evidence for ‘affective models’ Lynne Cameron The Open University
A cognitive view of metaphor Metaphor is “only derivatively a linguistic phenomenon” (Kövecses, 2005, p. 8)
A socio-cognitive view of metaphor Metaphor has its existence in the dialogic dynamics of discourse. It is a matter of both language and thought or talking-and-thinking. Many metaphors work as affective models through embodiment perception and simulation socio-cultural convention
The data ESRC New Security Challenges programme “Perception and Communication of Terrorist Risk” 12 focus groups, N =96 London / Leeds men / women Muslim / non-Muslim A-B / C1-C2 socio-economic status Transcribed recordings: 213K words Metaphor analysis
The indeterminacy of metaphor implicit metaphor topics: the use of source domain / vehicle terms in the ‘topic flow’ of the talk the reach of a metaphor vehicle across the talk metaphor shifting in the dynamics of talk interplay of metaphor, metonymy and literal language
Understanding metaphors in real time talk cultural knowledge of vehicle or source domain ‘models’ tightly-defined meanings packed into metaphoremes ‘affective coherence’ across topic flow.
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning SOCIAL POSITIONING IS PHYSICAL POSITIONING the middle east situation the situation here
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning in Leeds over in the Czech Republic
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning in gangs in London
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning in gangs in London people will look down on you
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning in gangs in London people will look down on you up town up in Stockwell up north
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning PEOPLE she was taking it to extremes people close to you,
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning NATIONS divisions between the nations, build the bridges... hatred on both sides.
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning FAMILIES one side of your family was Irish
The LANDSCAPE metaphor as model of social positioning COMMUNITIES community cohesion and everybody's intermingled. integrated you are at the interface..of this..situation,
using the scope of the metaphor~model spreading this culture of hatred,.. that was washing around the country, this is where terrorism starts from. like a much more distant threat it’s ignorance that drives people apart
Coding affect into the language of metaphor: Physical-and-speech-action expressions is a metaphoreme with the following stabilised characteristics: the physical action of turning round is metaphorical the speech action is likely to be hypothetical rather than real affectively, there is implied opposition, dislike or distrust between speaker and those reported to say in the hypothetical scenario, and/or what is said. the grammatical form of the physical and speech action verbs is likely to be turn/say or turns/says, i.e. simple present tense or root form a modal verb occurs in about 50% of uses. I mean using that argument you could turn round and say Rambo’s OK who might turn round and say all right so in life there are...
Physical-and-speech-action expressions stand up and say have the finger pointed at them and said came forward and said came up to me and said come out and say (America, UK) go into other countries and say go out and stand on a cardboard box and say bringing your own little part of Islam into this country and saying look at and say
Embodied metaphor / metonymy Last month, Len and Helen Prior - a British couple who had retired to a small village in Almeria, southern Spain - hit the headlines as they watched their home being bulldozed. When Len Prior collapsed as his home came tumbling down, it seemed to sum up the hopes of retired Britons like him, who had gone to Spain in search of a new life. It sounded a warning, too, of the traps that lie in wait for unwary buyers. The Guardian, Weds 6 February 2008.
Affect and metaphors of terrorism public perceptions of social issues and international events are strongly shaped by the dominant metaphors (of media and political discourse). ( Deignan 2005, p. 131)
WAR is other peoples’ metaphor terrorists do see it as war; Blair’s excuse for a war.
Terrorism is negative action perpetrated by cowards it's a form of blackmail, it's a form of bullying, it’s hit and run. violent action on society, affectively they could strike anywhere; the London bombings would have had a big impact; was just so devastating.
Target as metaphor connecting to the ordinary and the innocent it’s mostly people that are targeted; old people are a target; they’re aiming at innocent people. soft target
Terrorism as disturbing social and mental balance the world's out of balance stir everything up in this time of unrest upsets the fragile.. peace they try to disrupt the government After a period of time, things settle down go back to normal.
GAMES OF CHANCE metaphors they will play that bluff the terrorists just stepped up their game we get caught up in a poker game a game of bluff it’s like a lottery really lottery odds; if your number’s up; pawns in a game
GAMES OF CHANCE metaphors AUTHORITIES or is it..just CIA playing around with people's minds? you don’t want to play into the hands of the terrorists they’re actually dicing with your life
GAMES metaphors don't let them bea- beat you it's like this. it's not a level playing field on the total sense of fair play.
NATURAL WORLD metaphors there’s always a bad apple, there are bad onions in every sack locking the door after the horse has bolted
Metaphors in real-time talk Metaphors emerge as more or less coherent vehicle meanings are dropped into the talk with more or less determined connections with the ‘topic flow’. Metaphorical connections are ‘well enough’ determined for people to understand each other: through cultural knowledge of large scale metaphors (and these are like ‘models’) through the tightly-defined meanings packed into metaphoremes through ‘affective coherence’ across topic flow.