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Adam Blackie MBA ACMA Management Skills for Archivists and Records Managers Session - Change Management and Advocacy 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Adam Blackie MBA ACMA Management Skills for Archivists and Records Managers Session - Change Management and Advocacy 23."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Adam Blackie MBA ACMA a.blackie@websmartgroup.co.uk Management Skills for Archivists and Records Managers Session - Change Management and Advocacy 23 February 2011 10.00 – 11.00 Birkbeck College lecture theatre B04

3 Change Management People and Individuals Leadership of Change Groups and Teams Summary Reasons for change - Restructure - Culture - Merger/Acquisition

4 INDIVIDUAL CHANGE (Theory Types) BEHAVIOURAL (Changes what you do) COGNITIVE (Motivating for results) PSYCHODYNAMIC (What’s going on for you) HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY (Maximising your own potential)

5 COMPETENCE (Gestalt Style) Unconscious Incompetence Unconscious Competence Conscious Incompetence Conscious Competence Don’t know what we don’t know Don’t know what we know Know what we don’t know Know what we know

6 Learning Cycle (Kolb style) Experience (Start here) ExperimentsReflection Theories (or Start here) Encourage New Activities Design Toolkits to experiment Question and Analyse what is going on Research new ideas

7 Motivation “People do things because they want to” – Adam Blackie 2007 (A)Behavioural Theories: ( Changing what you do ) 1.Theory ‘X’ & Theory ‘Y’ – McGregor 1960 (Stick & Carrot?) 2. Hygiene Factors and Motivators – Herzberg 1950 -1960 (Removing Barriers?)

8 Motivation (B) Cognitive Theories: ( Motivating for results ) Aaron Beck – 1970 SELF CONCEPT & VALUES BELIEFS ATTITUDES FEELINGS BEHAVIOURRESULTS

9 (C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? ) 1. Reactions to change – Kubler - Ross 1969 SELF ESTEEMSELF ESTEEM TIME Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance

10 (C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? ) 2. Reactions to change – Adams, Hayes & Hopson 1976 SELFESTEEMCONFIDENCEMORALESELFESTEEMCONFIDENCEMORALE TIME Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Shock Experimentation Discovery Integration

11 (C) Psychodynamic: ( Whats going on for you? ) 3. Reactions to change – Satir 1991 & see also Wernberg 1977 PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE TIME OLD STATUS QUO FOREIGN ELEMENT CHAOS IDEAS INTEGRATION PRACTICE NEW STATUS QUO

12 (D) Humanistic Approach: ( Maximising your own potential ) 1. Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow 1970 Self Actual- isation Self Esteem Needs Love and Belonging Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs

13 (D) Humanistic Approach: ( Maximising your own potential ) 2. Gestalt Approach to Change – Fritz Perls 1976 AWARENESSENERGY/ACTIONCONTACTRESOLUTION (ANALYSIS/ DATA) (MOBILISE) “Get out of your mind and come to your senses” – Fritz Perls (OTHERS/ TEAMS) (DO STUFF)

14 PEOPLE & PERSONALITIES Personality Types – Myers Briggs (E) Extraversion Intraversion (I) (S) Sensing Intuition (N) (T) Thinking Feeling (F) (J) Judging Perceiving (P) Useful Change Groups IS = Thoughtful Realists – cautious and careful – “If it isn’t broke don’t fix it” IN = Thoughtful Innovators – generates new ideas – “Let’s think ahead” ES = Action Oriented Realist – energy and enthusiasm – “Let’s just do it” EN = Action Oriented Innovators – enthusiastic for change – “Let’s change it”

15 PEOPLE & PERSONALITIES Personality Types - LIFO – Life Orientation Preferences “ people prefer some behavioural styles more than others.” (SG) The supporting / giving-in orientation - Harmony (CT) The controlling / taking-over orientation - Action (CH) The conserving / holding-on orientation - Reason (AD) The adapting / dealing-away orientation – Excellence Some are more change oriented than others.

16 Achieving a change affects three dimensions of the individual Emotional Change is understood to be an urgent need Intellectual There is a clear rationale for the proposed changes that makes standing still not an option Physical People need to be competent in a new way of working People and Individuals Summary Changing values and behaviours

17 Change Management People and Individuals Leadership of Change Groups and Teams Summary

18 MANAGING CHANGE. “Those who make it happen. Those who let it happen. Those who wonder what happened” - ANON

19 MANAGING CHANGE. 1. 5 factors in responding to change – Cameron & Green 2004 3. ORGANISATIONAL HISTORY 2. CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGE 1. NATURE OF CHANGE RESPONSE TO CHANGE 4. TYPES OF INDIVIDUALS 5. INDIVIDUAL HISTORIES

20 MANAGING CHANGE 2. Schein’s Model – Lewin / Schein 1980 - 2000 UNFREEZE: CREATE MOTIVATION TO CHANGE LEARNING: NEW CONCEPTS (AND NEW MEANINGS FOR OLD CONCEPTS) REFREEZE: INTERNALISING NEW CONCEPTS AND CHANGE

21 LEADERSHIP OUTCOMES LEADERSHIP INTERESTSEMOTIONS Influence, Authority & PowerEnable people & culture change Business Goals

22 BALANCE OF LEADERSHIP Tasks TeamsIndividuals

23 LEADERSHIP CONFLICT Build close relationships and keep your distance Lead from the front and hold oneself back Trust your staff and keep an eye on what’s happening Be tolerant and exercise control Achieve your team’s goals and be loyal to the organisation Plan your time well and be flexible with your schedule Express your view and be diplomatic Be a visionary and keep your feet on the ground Win consensus and be able to cut to the chase Be dynamic and reflective Be sure of yourself and be humble

24 RESISTANCE “I cannot understand why my staff are not wholeheartedly embracing my changes” – any number of CEO’s 1920 – 2010 People often say they do not like change. What they are really trying to say is that they do not want change thrust upon them.

25 RESISTANCE 1.SCHEIN’S MODEL (SIMPLIFIED) Then... This is all about psychological safety SURVIVAL ANXIETY > LEARNING ANXIETY LEARNING ANXIETY MUST BE REDUCED

26 Change Management People and Individuals Leadership of Change Groups and Teams Summary

27 TEAMS vs. GROUPS SAMPLE DEFINITIONS GROUP – “any number of people who interact with each other, are psychologically aware of each other, and who perceive themselves to be a group” – Schein and Bennis 1965 TEAM – “A distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact interdependently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives” – Morgan et al 1986 WORK TEAM – “A group of individuals who share responsibility for outcomes for their organisations” – Sundstrom, de Meuse and Futrell 1990

28 TEAM DEVELOPMENT 1. Bion 1961 DependencyFight or FlightPairing Leaders selected and have power and authority The team challenges the leaders and other members – some leave Team members form alliances and groups to resolve anxieties

29 TEAM DEVELOPMENT 2. Tuckman 1965 FORMINGSTORMINGNORMINGPERFORMING Purpose Structure Roles Leader etc Dealing with the emerging conflicts Agreeing and collaboration Getting on with it

30 TEAM DEVELOPMENT 3. Scott Peck 1990 PseudocommunityChaosEmptinessCommunity Members fake teamliness Pecking order and team names established Abandon assumptions and expectations Accept each other and get on with tasks

31 Change Management People and Individuals Leadership of Change Groups and Teams Summary

32 ADKAR Change Readiness Model Prosci 1996-2010

33 Good change managers will therefore: Create a compelling vision Train staff Involve the staff in change planning Create groups around the change Provide coaches, feedback Acknowledge positive behaviours Provide support groups and sub groups Reward teamwork, innovation, risk taking Develop, involve, empower Aim high Get the rewards strategy right Link goals to motivation Treat people as individuals and understand their emotional motivators Believe that people want to grow and develop Encourage flexibility Create flexible structures Hold regular one to one meetings Individually praise all (especially junior) staff Invent Specialist Staff Grades Make sure staff and managers know what decisions they can take without reference to a senior manager

34 Change Management in Practice Change often goes wrong due to: Over-expectation Un co-ordinated decision making Lack of clear objectives Cost reductions without a corresponding reduction in scope Practical change management is most often a mixture of the following elements: Technology Commercial Principles Business processes Human nature and interactions Legal contracts Money The above is driven by senior staff responsible approving change, thus a change manager also needs to be a: Politician Psychologist Business analyst Project manager Diplomat It is generally affected by: Politics Personal ambition Financial pressures Accountability Desires to deliver and achieve

35 Manage Your Stakeholders TargetImpact on TargetTypical ReactionTheir InfluenceHow to Approach DirectorHIGH New practices New technology Less resource BLOCKER Lacks skills to cope Doesn’t believe change is necessary HIGH Respected Speaks their mind One to one - explain need for change Offer external coaching Publicly debate / support their views ManagerHIGH Changes to job description Tough time scale for new systems implementation BLOCKER Wants to develop in- house systems MEDIUM Controls use of systems Track record is poor Stress opportunity to increase their influence Demonstrate change operation in other locations StaffMEDIUM Changes in routines Some increase in workload FLOATERS Don’t know enough about the project Concerned about security LOW No decision making powers BUT their co- operation is what delivers the change Explain purpose of project Stress operational benefits of new systems / process. Involve them in design. Support Services HIGH Change increases the need for internal services CHAMPIONS Enthusiasts for opportunities LOW-MEDIUM But no one else can supply. Involve them in design Use their skills to deliver

36 If You Find Yourself Leading Change Establish a sense of urgency Form a powerful guiding coalition Create a vision Communicate that vision Empower others to act on that vision Plan for and create short-term wins Consolidate all the improvements maintain momentum Institutionalize these new approaches

37 Useful Reading on Change Management 1. Making Sense of Change Management by Esther Cameron and Mike Green - Change Management theory 2. The Naked Leader by David Taylor - Leadership 3. Leading Change by John Kotter - Leadership 4. Maverick by Ricardo Semler - An alternative organisational model 5. Performance Coaching: The Handbook for Managers, HR Professionals and Coaches by Angus McLeod - Leadership

38 Adam Blackie MBA ACMA a.blackie@websmartgroup.co.uk Thank You Any Questions? WebSmart ltd. – www.WebSmartgroup.co.uk/WhatWeDo.htm

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