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Hilo Hawaii 2013 Greening up Palms, Orchids, and the Environment with Controlled Release Fertilizers, Foliar Plant nutrition, Conditions, Symptoms, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Hilo Hawaii 2013 Greening up Palms, Orchids, and the Environment with Controlled Release Fertilizers, Foliar Plant nutrition, Conditions, Symptoms, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hilo Hawaii 2013 Greening up Palms, Orchids, and the Environment with Controlled Release Fertilizers, Foliar Plant nutrition, Conditions, Symptoms, and Solutions!

2 Evolution of a Fertilizer Salesman…

3 Monocotyledones & Dicotyledones Class - Monocots –Seed - one nutrient storage area (cotyledon) –Leaves - parallel veins –Flowers - flower parts in 3 –Roots - many fibrous roots –Stem Vascular Tissue - bundles scattered throughout the stem Class – Dicots –Seed - two nutrient storage area (cotyledons) –Leaves – net or branching veins –Flowers - flower parts in 2,4,5 parts –Roots - one main taproot (may smaller branching roots) –Stem Vascular Tissue - bundles arranged in a ring

4 Arecaceae Palm Family comprises 202 genera in about 2600 species First appear in the fossil record around 80 million year ago. Modern palms 60 million years ago, Cretaceous period. Monophyletic group of plants, meaning the group consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants Tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates to deserts Sea level to 12,000 ft. in the Ande’s. Lack any dormancy mechanism enabling them to tolerate cold

5 Cretaceous lasted 84 million years and finished when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Early Cretaceous cooling snowfalls, Glaciation periods, tropics became wetter. Mid to late Cretaceous temperatures increased again, and these conditions were almost constant until the end of the period. This trend was due to intense volcanic activity which produced large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2). Plants physiology adapted to increased C02, Flowering plants dominated by the end of the period. Prospective: What drove the Physiology of Palms and Orchids Philmont Scout Ranch, Cimarron NM

6 Palm Leaf Structure Formation Palms typically have only one growing point or apical meristem per shoot. Growing point is embedded and protected within a series of older, overlapping leaf bases (LBs). Developing leaves (DLs). This compound leaf development gives palms their organized structure. Dransfield 2008;Tomlinson 2006 D. Hodels 2009

7 Vertical Growth Plication - Produces a repeating system of folds through differential cell growth and separation, gives mechanically efficient shape to palm leaves and packing prior to leaf expansion. This Maximizing efficiency allows this monocot to reach tree proportions. Potential Gigantism – Large leaves fix huge amounts of carbon and develop a strong vertical structure that can tolerate adverse growing conditions: wind, heat, humidity, and still supply needed water and nutrients. Tomlinson 2009; Dengler & Kaplan 1982

8 Palm Stem / Trunk Cross Section Stem / Trunk - Transport and storage of water, minerals, and carbohydrates, and mechanical support for leaf crown Cortex – Narrow band on outside of stem, more numerous thick walled hard cells, larger and lignified with age, psuedobark. Central Cylinder – Hardened vascular bundles of phloem and xylem dark in color (water and mineral transport) Parenchyma - Cells light in color, store water and carbohydrates as starch, hard with age, provide water and food until roots regrow and leaves start functioning at transplanting. Tomlinson, 1990; Hodel 2009

9 Water From the Gods Kane - Father Of Life, the Sky…and provider of Sunlight and Fresh Water. Pele - Goddess of fire, lightning, wind, and volcanoes.

10 Big Island Rainfall Map

11 11 Root Media & Solution pH Impacts nutrient availability

12 12 Essential Elements Definition: Required for normal vegetative & reproductive life cycle of plants Whose function cannot wholly be substituted by other chemical components. Directly affects plants growth and/or metabolism. Macro-nutrients (%) from air & water: –Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O) Macro- and Secondary nutrients (%) from fertilizers, water & media: –Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S) Trace/Micro- nutrients (ppm) from fertilizers, water & media: –Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn) –Chlorine (Cl)

13 Cation Exchange Capacity or CEC: ability of soil particles to absorb and store cations/anions and regulate their supply to the plant. Plants take up nutrients in Charged Ionic forms: Cation-a positively charged ion NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Mn2+... Anion-a negatively charged ion NO3-, PO42-, SO42-, BO3-, Cl-

14 Cation Exchange Capacities of Soil Components Lava, Basalt, Glass Sand 2 Sandy Loam 8 Bark Mix 24 Silty Clay Loam 36 Clay Coco or Coir (Sodium chloride) Montmorillonite Vermiculite Sphagnum PeatMoss Humus 200 – 400 (Milligram Equivalents per 100g)

15 Volcanic rock as potting media and Soil Volcanic Basalt / Glass or Noncrystaline Rock – Age of Volcanic Deposits, Mountain flanks, Rain Bearing side, Trade Winds! –Large Bulk Density –Large Surface Area –High Moisture Retention On a water volume basis it holds 80 to 90% of total soil volume. Soil ph range 5 to 6 for buffered Noncrystaline cinders, Water Source? Some with high to very Phosphorous retention. Soils from the same volcanic flow can very from Windward to Leeward ( Wet Humid - Tropical vs. Dry Warm – Desert Climate) Hydraulic breakdown effects the Al and FE contents. –Higher organic component wet side vs. dry. –Faster Degradation Wet side, smaller soil particle sizes.

16 Palm Nutrition – Deficiencies in Palms N, P, K and Mg are mobile elements within Palms where symptoms occur first in the outer leaves. Under deficiency conditions the palm is able to extract these mobile elements (N,P,K,Mg) from the oldest leaves in the canopy and translocate to the new growing leaf spears to allow for continued growth As the deficiency increases in severity progressively younger leaves will be affected. Deficiency Symptoms of Mn, B, and other non mobile micro nutrients show up in the newest expanding leaves. Nutrient deficiencies in Palms can be fatal with a single apical meristem and the length of time it takes to correct, especially in mature trees. Broschat 2009

17 Nitrogen (N) Nitrogen – Number one problem in container production and NOT seen as much in the landscape. Nitrogen is tied up in soil mix, N Drafting or runoff from leaching. Uniform light green to very light yellow green Mature leaves have been depleted of N palm growth will slow. Broschat 2009

18 Phosphorous (P) Phosphorous can be a serious limiting factor in Acid Tropical soils Symptoms not clear, appear as uniform light Olive-Green coloration of foliage or purplish spots leaf tip necrosis on oldest leaves.

19 Potassium (K) Potassium deficiencies are by far the most common palm production and landscape In production much less common than N deficiencies Symptoms very by species, but early symptoms consist of translucent Yellow-Orange and / or necrotic spots on oldest leaves, followed by tip necrosis. K is highly mobile element within the canopy and symptoms appear most severe on oldest leaves first. High N:K ratio fertilizers have been know to accelerate the decline from K def. Broschat 2009

20 Magnesium (Mg) Mg Deficiency occurs in oldest leaves, distinct broad lemon yellow to orange bands. The centers of leaf margins remain dark green. K;Mg Ratio relationship that usually a palm show Mg def. will also have K Def. Mg def. can take 1-3 years to appear in Adult trees, and Mg def. can get worse with high levels of N & K in soil.

21 Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Boron (B) Iron def. appears on newly emerging leaves as uniform interveinal chlorosis. Roots affected by poor soil aeration or root diseases shown this symptom. Manganese def. also occurs in the new leaves and emerge with interveinal chlorosis, longitudinal necrotic streaking. Others nutrient deficiencies rarely seen are Sulfur (S), Copper (Cu), Chloride (Cl), and Molybdenum (Mo). Calcium (Ca) Not mentioned much of the literature, In Acid areas of Hawaii…Do you see Calcium Deficiency? Broschat 2009 

22 Boron (B) Boron deficiencies is wide spread in ground landscape trees but not as common in container production. Appears as translucent streaking on leaflets of newest leaves, crumpling on leaf tip, “accordionleaf”, or one or two spears do not open normally. B Def. can be transient to chronic, from mild to lethal in palms. Broschat 2009

23 23 What is the optimal nutrient rate? Luxury Compsumption

24 24 Nutrients H2O H2PO4- K+ NH4- NO3- NH4+ PO4- K+ NO3- Each granule is coated with a biodegradable resin coating The nutrients become soluble, The granule takes moisture from the soil (or from the air) creating pressure in the granule The soluble nutrients are released by pressure and osmosis 4. Since the membrane is somewhat elastic, the pressure will cause the prill to swell. 5. Fertilizer salts are released through micro-pores developed when the prill swells. Irrigation disperses nutrients into the root zone. NPK or NPK + Trace Elements Each granule is coated with a biodegradable resin 1. Water vapor moves through polymer coating into the fertilizer prill (granule). 2. Water solubilizes the fertilizer inside the coating. 3. Pressure increases inside the prill as water vapor continues to enter. How Osmocote® Technology Releases Nutrients Micros

25 Controlled release nutrient available compared to Water Soluble (Peters, or soluble granules). Both have their place…. Controlled Release vs. Water Soluble / Non Coated Max. Min. WSF-only systems Osmocote system Safe nutrient limits Time Nutrient Availability Controlled Release provides even nutrient availability over a prescribed time period. Used properly, Water Soluble is a fast- acting, precision tool.

26 Palm Fertilizer Program Correcting existing Nutrient Deficiencies can take considerable time. Fertilization to prevent deficiencies before they appear should be growers emphasis. Single element fertilizer applications upset critical elemental ratios N:K, N:Mg, K:Mg

27 Fertilizer Program Recommended NPK Ratio 3 : 1 : 2 used to be a 2 : 1 : 2 Ole Palm Special! Osmocote Plus /9 M or Month, Do not recommend uncoated NPK or Micros Standard Release Curve Rates? Temp and Water related! Foliar Fertilization has been successful when used for short term rapid corrections of N, Fe, Mn, Def…But Not for K, Mg. Spray in Early morning, good humidity. Most successful in conditions where the palm is limited by soil conditions ( i.e. High ph) or a compromised root system, wet, little aeration, disease.

28 Orchidaceae Orchid Family comprises 880 genera in about 26,000 species, diverse and widespread family. Orchids may have arisen 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. Currently placed in the order Asparagales, Five sub-families are recognized Most varieties is found in the tropics of Africa, Asia, South America and Central America. Found above the Arctic Circle to southern Patagonia.

29 Palm / Orchid Root and Leaf Cross Section

30 The mechanism of foliar nutrition Stages in foliar uptake of nutrients: Penetration through cuticle and epidermal cell wall Translocation: Cell-to-cell transport by Passive diffusion or mass flow through the water/fluids between cells (apoplastic movement) mass flow from a high concentration of spray solution to negative charge in Epidermis / Cuticle. Absorption of ions by the cytoplasm’s membrane surface (symplastic movement) mass flow from a high concentration to low concentration in cell. Active penetration into protoplast (symplastic movement). Active transport involving ATP Transport through vascular channels Phloem (symplastic movement) Requires energy, More suitable for cations, Translocation of anions is very limited, Xylem (apoplastic movement)Regulated by xylem flow, Driving force for this flow is water potential differences between soil, leaf and atmosphere.

31 Successful foliar fertilization General Spray during the cooler and more humid times of the day Spray when the wind is low Never spray plants under stress Test for possible side-effects or phytotoxicity by a small trial, spraying a week prior to the intended commercial treatments After spraying rinse thoroughly the sprayer and all its parts with fresh water.

32 Substrates –Bark substrates; 100 % Bark Mixture - Bark 1 part and 2 parts moss Sphagnum moss, Coir Chips –Dolomite; Grower practice is (2.5 to 4.2 lbs/ cu. yard). Result can be high pH levels…Water? –New developments are a mixture of bark and so called “Growcorns” A turf based product.

33 Cultivation3; stages For plants which come from trays: –Growing; 0-6 weeks from potting in final pot 6-27 weeks until cooling –Cooling; weeks is cooling (initiating flower branches) –Finishing; weeks hardening till final sales

34 Growing; 0-6 weeks –Plants have to start growing quickly after potting –From the trays plants need to be potted the same day –Often high N fertilization; use of Peters or ) & calcium nitrate. –1st irrigation; normally 1 day after potting or the same day –pH level in substrate is often too high at the start, leach substrate

35 Recipe 0-6 weeks –Based on use of rain water or reversed osm. water –1000 l (264.2 gallon) tank, 85x concentrated ( EC=1,0 mS/cm ) –N:K ratio 2,0:1 in mg elemental/ liter –Often high N because of the use of fresh bark

36 Mg and ug EL/l 0-6 weeks N:K ratio 2,0:1 mg EL/l

37 6-27 weeks –Water on average 1 x per 5-7 days. –Fertilization with less N than in stage 1

38 Recipe 6-27 weeks –Based on use of rain water or reversed osm. water –1000 l (264.2 gallon) tank, 91x concentrated ( EC= 1,0 mS/cm ) –N:K ratio1,5:1 in mg elemental / liter

39 Mg and ug EL/l 6-27 weeks N:K ratio 1,5:1 mg EL/l

40 27-33 weeks Cooling stage: –Plants go into cooling when enough mature leaves are made; approx. 3-4 leaves of approx. 20 cm (8 inches). Cooling is needed for a good flower branch induction. Period of cooling normally is 6 weeks. –Plants which stay longer in cooling get heavier, more branched flower branches. –Cool temp ± 19 0 C (66 ◦ F). Varies through the past years, but is still a good average cooling temp. –Fertilization with less N than the previous stage.

41 33-48 weeks Final stage: –Growth of flower branches after induction period –Temp in this stage ca C C (68 0 F F) –Change in fertilization

42 Recipe 0-6 weeks Remarks: –Based on use of rain water or reversed osm. water –1000 l (264.2 gallon) tank, 85x concentrated ( EC=1,0 mS/cm ) –N:K ratio 2,0:1 in mg elemental/ liter –Often high N because of the use of fresh bark

43 Recipe > 27 weeks Remarks –Based on use of rain water or reversed osm. water –1000 l (264.2 gallon) tank, 95x concentrated( EC= 1,0 mS/cm ) –N:K ratio1,16:1 in mg elemental/ liter

44 Mmol stage > 27 weeks –N:K ratio 1,16:1 mg in mg elemental/ liter

45 Target values drain water

46 CO 2 –In history the need for extra CO 2 was denied. –Recently research proved that the addition of CO 2 brings greater production for Phalaenopsis.

47 Irrigation strategy –Use clean irrigation water Rain- or reversed Osmosis water Check the amount of Sodium and of chlorine Also check the amount of bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) –The water must be supplied to the crown of the plants by sprinkler lines of sprays booms. –Make sure there is appropriate drainage each time you supply water. –The normal quantity of water during an irrigation varies between the liters/m 2 (31.3 – 43.8 fl. oz. / sq ft) every 5-7 days. –Sometimes growers use a temporary irrigation between the major irrigations with 1 or 2 liters/m 2 (3.1 – 4 fl oz / sq ft).

48 Irrigation strategy How fast is the uptake of available water by the roots of the Phalaenopsis? –After 10 minutes there’s an increase of the plant weight that can be caused by the uptake of water. –The speed of water uptake varies per cultivar between 10 till appr. 30 minutes. –After 4 hours one cultivar took up 50% of the available water, while an other cultivar just achieved an uptake of 25% of the available water.

49 Trial results

50 Light –Amount of light per growing stage Growing5.000 – 8000 lux (464.5 – 743 fc) Cooiling7.000 – lux (650 to 836 fc) Finishing – lux (743 to 1114 fc) –The amount of light the growers allowed on the crops is often “on the edge” of what the plant can deal with. Specially in combination with low temperatures.

51 Light Current light circumstances in a Dutch Orchid greenhouse: Start & first growingstage:4-5 mol PAR (lightsum/day) Second growingstage:5-7 mol PAR (lightsum/day) Cooling/Finishing stage6-9 mol PAR (lightsum/day)

52 Appendix: pictures Example of a quick growing youngleaf

53 Appendix: pictures Example of the induction of a youngleaf

54 Appendix: pictures Example of the induction of two spikes after a few weeks in the cooling area

55 Appendix: pictures Example of a infection with Pseudomonas (bacteria) Can be caused by climate, infected youngplants, mechanical damage or wrong fertilizer recepy, to low K or Ca or to much N

56 Appendix: pictures Example of the use of collars to have a more equal humidity in the pot and grow more plants on the same surface

57 57 Pour Thru Technique The following is a step-by-step procedure for measuring pH and soluble salts (EC) in greenhouse crops using the PourThru method of soil solution extraction. North Carolina State U. Substrates Laboratory Web Site http ://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/project/hortsublab/M_M.htm

58 Mahalo! Building Relationships… Educating the Grower… Thanks You! …CPS


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