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20110311 Sendai, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Source: NASAPage created by W. G. Huang.

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Presentation on theme: "20110311 Sendai, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Source: NASAPage created by W. G. Huang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sendai, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Source: NASAPage created by W. G. Huang

2 Occurred at 14:46 JST 11 Mar 2011 Region name Sanriku Oki Depth about 20km Magnitude 8.8 Credit: JMAPage created by W. G. Huang

3 The depth of the Pacific Ocean floor Credit: NOAA

4 Tsunami Wave Height Model Shows Pacific-Wide Impact Credit: NOAA

5 How Shifting Plates Caused the Earthquake and Tsunami in Japan Source: U.S. Geological Survey Page created by W. G. Huang

6 Credit: NOAAPage created by W. G. Huang

7 Source: NOAAPage created by W. G. Huang

8 Swirling waves on the coast at Oarai, Ibaraki prefecture Photograph: AP Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

9 A tsunami wave washes away buildings in Sendai, Miyagi prefecture Photograph: Keystone/Rex Features Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

10 An office building on fire in Tokyo Photograph: Kyodo/Reuters People on top of a building at Sendai airport Miyagi prefecture as cars, planes and debris are swept past Photograph: Kyodo/Reuters Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

11 Water surges through Iwaki, Fukushima prefecture Photograph: AP Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

12 Houses ablaze in Natori city, Miyagi prefecture Photograph: AFP/Getty Images Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

13 Water surges through part of Kesennuma city in Miyagi prefecture Photograph: AFP/Getty Images Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

14 The sea engulfs homes in Natori, Miyagi prefecture Photograph: Keystone/Rex Features Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

15 Natural gas storage tanks burn at the Cosmo oil refinery, Ichihara, Chiba prefecture Photograph: Reuters Page created by W. G. HuangCredit: Guardian Unlimited

16 The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Aerial view of the plant The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Page created by W. G. Huang

17 This is a satellite image of Japan showing damage after an Earthquake and Tsunami of the Kengaya bridge Credit: DigitalGlobePage created by W. G. Huang

18 This is a satellite image of Japan showing damage after an Earthquake and Tsunami at the Fukushima Dai-Ni Nuclear Power plant. Credit: DigitalGlobePage created by W. G. Huang

19 Credit: DigitalGlobePage created by W. G. Huang This is a satellite image of Japan showing damage after an Earthquake and Tsunami at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power plant.

20 This is a satellite image of Japan showing damage after an Earthquake and Tsunami at the Sendai Port, Japan. Credit: DigitalGlobePage created by W. G. Huang

21 This is a satellite image of Japan showing damage after an Earthquake and Tsunami at the Kirin Plant, Sendai. Credit: DigitalGlobePage created by W. G. Huang

22 2004 年蘇門達臘地震所觸發之巨大海嘯 Page created by W. G. Huang Map credit:

23 2004 年 12 月 26 日南亞地震海嘯可侵入內陸達四公里 Page created by W. G. Huang

24 Banda Aceh Shore 海嘯前 ( 攝於 2004 年 6 月 23 日 ) 與海嘯後 ( 攝於 2004 年 12 月 28 日 ) 之衛星影像 Image Credit: “DigitalGlobe” Page created by W. G. Huang

25 Banda Aceh Shore 海嘯前 ( 攝於 2004 年 6 月 23 日 ) 與海嘯後 ( 攝於 2004 年 12 月 28 日 ) 之衛星影像 Image Credit: “DigitalGlobe” Page created by W. G. Huang

26 Kalutara Water Detail ( 斯里蘭卡 ) 海嘯前 ( 攝於 2004 年 1 月 1 日 ) 與海嘯入侵前之退潮 ( 攝於 2004 年 12 月 26 日 ) 之衛星 影像 150 公尺 Kalutara 首都 可倫波 Image Credit: “DigitalGlobe” Page created by W. G. Huang

27 Map Credit: Guardian Unlimited 印度 16, 年蘇門達臘地震的死亡人數: 298,055 東非 137 馬爾地夫 82 斯里籣卡 43,832 印尼 228,948 泰國 8,506 馬來西亞 74 緬甸 59 孟加拉灣 阿拉伯海 孟加拉 2 Page created by W. G. Huang

28 1900 年以來發生於世界各地的大地震 Source: USGSPage created by W. G. Huang LocationDateMag.Coordinates 1.Chile S73.05 W 2.Prince William Sound, Alaska N W 3.Andreanof Islands, Alaska N W 4.Off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra N95.78 E 5.Kamchatka N E 6.Off the Coast of Ecuador N81.50 W 7.Northern Sumatra, Indonesia N97.01 E 8.Rat Islands, Alaska N E 9.Assam - Tibet N96.50 E 10.Ningxia-Gansu, China N E 11.Kuril Islands N E 12.Banda Sea, Indonesia S E 13.Kamchatka N161.0 E Maule, Chile Mw 8.8 Sandai, Japan Mw 8.8

29 海嘯 (Tsunami) 海嘯的英文通常被稱為 Tsunami ( 發音 : soo-NAH-mee) , 來自日語「津波」, ”tsu” 指港口 (harbor) , ”nami” 指 波浪 (waves) 。目前已愈來愈少人使用 tidalwave ,以便 和潮汐作區別。海嘯是指海洋中綿延數百公里的波浪, 在廣闊的深海大洋中其行進速度最快可高達每小時 1000 公里左右, 2004 年 12 月 26 日印尼蘇門答臘地震所 引發的海嘯在 75 分鐘內便前進了 600 公里 ( 亦即時速 480 公里 / 小時 ) 。海嘯在靠近淺水區的速度則驟降,可 疊加形成高度達數十公尺的水牆,這些水牆對海岸地 區的衝擊往往能釀成巨大的傷亡。 Page created by W. G. Huang

30 Tsunami Generation: This animation by Prof. Miho Aoki from the University of Alaska Fairbanks Art Department provides a very nice look at how a tsunami can be generated by a subduction zone earthquake.

31 Earthquake-generated tsunamis  Seafloor deformed by earthquake  Wave initiated with small amplitude and high speed in deep water  Speed decreases and amplitude increases in shallow water Page created by W. G. Huang

32 海嘯和一般的風所引起海浪兩者有許多的不同,主 要的差異在於它們的來源,速度與尺度的大小 Tsunamis and normal waves are many differences between the two. The primary differences are size, speed and source. 典型的海嘯與典型的風浪之區別 Typical Tsunami Wave versus Typical Wind-generated Wave 風所引其起的波浪 Wind-generated Wave 海嘯 Tsunami Wave 波速 (Wave Speed)8 – 100 公里 / 小時 (kph)500 – 1,000 公里 / 小時 (kph) 波的週期 (Wave Period)5 – 20 秒 (seconds)10 分鐘 (minutes) – 2 小時 (hours) 波長 (Wave Length)100 – 200 公尺 (meters)100 – 500 公里 (km) Page created by W. G. Huang

33 Pacific Tsunami Warning Center PTWC Alaska Tsunami Warning Center ATWC Hawaii Alaska Pacific Tsunami Warning Center PTWC The PTWC was established in 1948, following the 1946 tsunami in Hawaii that left more than 150 people dead. The ATWC was established in 1967 as a result of the earthquake in Alaska that left 132 dead— 122 of those deaths have been attributed to the tsunami that was generated. 黃色表地震帶 DART station Photo courtesy DART Map Credit : U.S. National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Page created by W. G. Huang


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