Presentation on theme: "1 CLEAN BLACK SEA WORKING GROUP EC SSA PROJECT INCO--CT-20004-003510 VARNA, BULGARIA 2 – 5 June 2005 RESEARCH OF THE WATER POLLUTION STATE AND CHEMICAL-BIOLOGICAL."— Presentation transcript:
1 CLEAN BLACK SEA WORKING GROUP EC SSA PROJECT INCO--CT VARNA, BULGARIA 2 – 5 June 2005 RESEARCH OF THE WATER POLLUTION STATE AND CHEMICAL-BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE COASTAL ZONE OF THE BLACK SEA OF GEORGIA KH.CHIKVILADZE Ministry of Environment of Georgia
2 INTRODUCTION (1) Due to increasing transportation activities under TRACECA (Trans Europe-South Caucasus-Asia Transport Corridor), in particular while using oil pipelines sufficiently increase the anthropogenic load on the environment, This has particularly great impact on the special economic zone of Georgia where main seaports, Batumi and Poti are located. Exploitation of the oil pipeline Baku-Supsa as well as the work of oil refinery plant (Batumi) revealed that there are some accidental throws and hence the pollution of rivers and the Black Sea with oil products has taken place on the Georgian territory. In the coastal zone of Georgia is located Paliastomi Lake, which is characterized by unique and endemic biodiversity and its territory is protected under the Ramsar convention. The artificial channel changed the hydrobiologIcal conditions of the lake and caused the decrease in fresh water plankton mass and bentos accordingly by 15 and 6 times.. If in out of 36 species of fish were registered in the lake, currently only 16 species are left.
3 INTRODUCTION (2) Various researches carried out on environmental protection of the Black Sea coastal zone have revealed that the main sources of surface water pollution of the region are: Industrial waters polluted by the enterprises existing in the region; Rainfall waters flowing from the agricultural lands; Wastewaters from the farms; Municipal wastewaters; Waters flown from the landfills. The industrial waters first pollute surface waters of the rivers and then, respectively, the Black Sea. Pollution of the Black Sea by the rivers and communal flows cause pollution of the eastern part of the Sea with oil products and heavy metals. This in its turn causes decrease of fish populations including the Black Sea salmon and trout.The increase in the amount of various groups of bacteria due to eutrophication of the Black Sea is also observed. Eutrophication of the sea environment and the related microbial pollution is conditioned by the urban, industrial and agricultural pollution.
4 INTRODUCTION (3) The monitoring carried out in coastal zone of the Black Sea for assessment of anthropogenic load on the marine and river environment included the chemical and biological aspects: investigation of pollution of a biotic environment by organic and inorganic compounds. The polluting substances acting at a marine environment come in complicated interactions with marine organisms and their communities. On the one hand, the polluting substances directly or indirectly influence on marine flora and fauna, and on the other hand, biota converts them, destroys before on junctions, including them into a common stream of substance and energy at ocean, i.e. participates in the process of self-refining. Research of the reaction of biota on this contamination i.e. determination of destruction dynamics of organic matters by the natural processes.
5 INTRODUCTION (4) In the present work on the basis of 20 years statistical data (bioorganic elements, oil products, phenol, heavy metals etc.) the role of main rivers as well as of lake Paliastomi of West Georgia in pollution of the Black Sea was estimated and share of industry, agriculture and communal sewage waters in this process are shown. While aiming the study of biodegradation of organic substenses (Humic acids) in the natural, it is necessary to research this process: evaluation of a degree of activity of microorganisms therefore it is possible in model conditions.
6 RECEARCH METHODOLOGY The one of the main objectives of the present work was the study of humic acids bio destruction process. The researches were carried out on probes of surface waters of the Black Sea coastal zone of Georgia (samples from water areas around Poti (r.Rioni) and Lake Paliastomi From taken tests were chosen a number of humic destruction microorganisms. The tests of marine water were taken by means of Zobel bathometer. The sowing was conducted by the method of limiting cultivation on a mineral medium of the following structures (in gr): KCl–0.5, Mg SO 4 – 0.5, Na 2 HPO 4 –1, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 –1, NaCl–3, FeSO , CaCO 3 –3, H 2 O– l, Fulvic (or Humic) Acid 10ml. pH – Crops were incubated during ten days, at the temperature of 28 O C. Availability of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was judged on emerging bacteria pellicle. Ability of the separated, microorganisms to grow on Fulvic Acid were checked up by secondary sowing on agar environment of some structure with adding of Fulvic Acid.
7 RECEARCH METHODOLOGY The humic substances were separated from peat of lake Paliastomi (using fraction method). For identification of the process of destruction of humic acids by microorganisms, pH and optical density of the systems "humic acid+ micro organisms" and "fulvic acid+ microorganisms" were measured using spectro- fotometer (Thikness of drainage ditch-1.0 cm). Determination of destruction dynamics of Humic substances (Humic and Fulvic acids ) by the natural processes and defining of heterotrophic microorganisms destructors, there spread and the most probable number was calculated.
8 RESULTS In the area located around seaports Batumi and Poti the The amount of dissolved oxygen, concentration of chloride ions, oil products, phenols and nutrients sometimes 10 and 100 time exceeds the marginal permissible concentration (MPC) for surface waters. The direct dependence of oil content in seawater from fluctuation of of natural radiation was observed. Therefore, their high content was determined in the warmest months.Correlation of oil product concentrations with natural radiation is revealed in the surface layer of seawater as well as in deeper ones (10 m, 20 m). Fig. 1 Measurements of phenol consecrations gives the direct dependence on natural radiation as in case of oil products. Taking into consideration that phenols are intermediate products of oil destruction processes that may be clarified by the correlation as well as by their high content during warm months. Fig.2
9 Fig. 1. The Average Concentrations of Oil Products in Seawater for Natural Radiation; 2- C oil Surface; 3- C oil Depth.
10 Fig. 2 The Average Concentration of Phenol Products in Seawater for 2001
11 RESULTS Experiments carried out to research the tendency of micro organism biomass growth depending on fulvic acid fractions and the destruction dynamic of the same fulvic acid at the same time range showed, that the growth of micro organism biomass and destruction dynamic is carried out synchronously i.e. when the microorganism biomass reaches its maximum (time range of hours) the destruction from its side reaches the most active phase. The results also show that after 96 hours the primary equilibrium of the fulvic acid destruction is achieved. Fig 3 Based on data of calculation of oil destruction microorganisms, fulvic acids destruction microorganisms and sum of heterotrofic microorganizms, the max. amount of Humic acids destruction microorganisms was in sample from Lake Paliastomi and low in sample from Port (c. Poti), as concern max. amount of oil destructor microorganisms was in sample from Port and min. amount in sample from Mouth of riv. Rioni, where amount of heterotrofic microorganisms was maximum. Table 1.
12 Fig.3 Dependence of Dynamic of Fulvic Acid Destruction from the Growth of Microorganisms; 1- The growth of the Biomass; 2- The Logarithm of Absorption Specter of the Group -CHO
13 Tab. 1 Results of Microorganisms amount calculation Place of Sampling Sampling Time Depth, mAmount of mc-org oil destructors cell/ml Amount of mc-org Fulvic destructors cell/ml Sum of hetero trofic microorganisms cell/ml Mouth r. Rioni ,021,4· ,7· · ,9· ,6· ·10 6 Lake Paliastomi ,020,7· ,5 · · ,5· · ·10 6 Port, c.Poti ,029,5· ·101.4· ,5· ·101.4·10 3
14 RESULTS The increased amount of dissolved organic matters (Humic acids) are observed near Sea port Poti due to impact of soils and peat. Research shows, that the process of destruction is more intensive in case of "fulvic acid+ microorganisms”, than in case "humic acid+ microorganisms" Table 2.
15 Tab.2 Optical Density and pH of the system FA - FA+microorganisms and HA- HA+ microorganisms Optical density D Sample pH λ=340 nm λ=400 nm λ=440 nm Fulvic Acid FA+mc-org Humic Acid HA+mc-org
16 PERSPECTIVES: Confluence of the rivers, municipal and industrial wastewaters into the Black Sea causes pollution of the eastern part of the sea with oil products, heavy metals (among them Hg) and organic compounds. This in its turn causes eutrophication of the Black Sea environment. The further Perspectives are connected with finding the d ependence of the occurrence of mercury organic compounds from concentration of FA, pH and contacts of existing phase with the microorganisms. Considering the role of the microorganisms in the process forming coexisting forms of mercury compounds in the phase of surface water solution.