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North Africa and Southwest Asia

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Presentation on theme: "North Africa and Southwest Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 North Africa and Southwest Asia

2 Grouped together due to common physical characteristics, histories, and cultural beliefs
Naming the Region Dry World Arab World Islamic World Middle East

3 Earliest cities recorded around Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Fertile Crescent Earliest cities recorded around Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Rich soil and water source Birthplace of civilization Mesopotamia: ”Land Between the Two Rivers”

4 Sahara Arabian Desertification Largest in the world
Deserts Sahara Largest in the world Arabian Desertification Expansion of desert around the world

5 Longest river in the world
The Nile River Longest river in the world Flows from higher elevation in south to Mediterranean in north Area of rich, fertile soil Annual flooding

6 Located between Iran and Arabian Peninsula Extension of Indian Ocean
Persian Gulf Located between Iran and Arabian Peninsula Extension of Indian Ocean Discovery of oil transformed the region to area of commercial wealth

7 Highest salt content in the world
Dead Sea Lowest point on Earth Highest salt content in the world Desalinization

8 Physical Factors Cluster near water sources
Settlement Factors Physical Factors Cluster near water sources Low-lying areas allow for agriculture Temperate/mild climate

9 Homogeneity of society
Settlement Factors Human Factors Access to resources, economic activity, transportation Homogeneity of society


11 Nile River Valley Highest population density is located along the river banks (delta), 2 major centers are Cairo and Khartoum Desert (dry) Water, fertile soils

12 Tigiris-Euphrates River Valley
Higher population density along the east side of the Tigris River, city of Bagdad has high population density Desert (dry), semi-desert Water, fertile soils

13 Persian Gulf Population centers include Qatar, the east coast of Oman, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi is a large population center Desert 9arid) Oil and natural gas

14 Sahara Sparse population throughout most of the region, large population concentration in Morocco, Libya, and Algeria, and Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea Desert (arid) Oil and natural gas

15 Sahel Sparse population. Most people rely on a nomadic way of life.
Desert (arid), semiarid Grasslands, small trees, farmland

16 Today Complete the last column of your chart Finish maps

17 Homework Quiz B Why are the Red Sea and Suez Canal of strategic value in the region? How did the presence of oil in the region change the region's importance in the global economy? Which resource do you believe is more important in Southwest Asia- water or oil? What agricultural products are raised in the coastal areas? How do the two types of deserts in the region differ from each other?

18 Vocabulary Dead Sea Dome of the rock Oasis
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Salt Flat Drip irrigation Kurds Sunni Desalinization Shi’ite Fossil Water Taliban Crude Oil Stateless Nation Refinery Mecca Islam Mosque Theocratic OPEC

19 Crude Oil Oasis Desalinization Drip Irrigation Mosque Kurds Refinery Islam Theocratic Fossil Water Dead Sea Taliban Salt Flat Mecca OPEC Stateless Nation

20 Major Religions of the Middle East
Islam Judaism Christianity

21 Judaism Followers known as Jews
Currently 14 million people practice Judaism Worship God (called Yahweh) and follow his teachings Main laws & practice is found in the Torah First 5 books of the Old Testament (Bible) Additional practices found in the Tenach and the 10 Commandments

22 Basic History of Jewish Faith
Divine covenant between God and Abraham in 2000 BCE Prophet Moses led people to Israel Holy city of Jerusalem Founded by King David First temple built in Jerusalem but was destroyed in 70 CE In 1948 the nation of Israel was created as a Jewish state

23 Jewish Beliefs Services held in synagogues on Saturday Beliefs:
Consider themselves to be God’s Chosen People Believe that the Messiah will arrive in the future to lead all followers to Jerusalem Strict Practices Bar/Bat Mitzvah Food restrictions

24 Christianity Followers known as Christians
Over 2.1 billion followers Worship God the Father (one God) Belief in the Holy Trinity God, Son of God, Holy Spirit Main religious text is the Bible- the word of God Consists of two parts: Old and New Testaments

25 Christian History Break off of Jewish faith
Leader was Jesus Christ- man believed to be the Son of God sent to save humanity from sins Jesus was crucified by the Roman government circa 33 C.E. After crucifixion, one of the 12 disciples, Paul of Tarsus, built the structure of the church Constantine adopted Christianity for himself Eventually accepted as the official religion for Rome

26 Christian Beliefs Services held in churches, mostly on Sunday
Many different denominations Roman Catholic Orthodox (Eastern, Greek, Russian) Protestants (include Baptists, Methodist, Lutheran, Amish, Anglican, etc.) Holy Cities- Jerusalem and Bethlehem Beliefs Faith in Jesus (Messiah) will lead to salvation and life in heaven

27 Islam Followers known as Muslims Worship Allah (the One True God)
1.5 billion practice Islam Worship Allah (the One True God) Believe that prophets have brought news from god, but reject the idea of a savior Religious Texts Qur’an- the words of Allah Hadith- sayings from Muhammad

28 History of Islam Muhammad the Prophet founded the religion in 622 CE
Creation of Islamic city- Medina Other Holy Cities- Mecca and Jerusalem No true successor to lead the religion splitting into two major denominations Sunni follows the teachings of the Umayyad leaders Shi’a follow the teachings of Ali (closest male relative to Muhammad) Islam spread through Middle East, Northern Africa, Spain

29 Islam- Beliefs Services are held on Friday at a mosque
Five Pillars of Islam Shahada- declaration of faith Salat- daily prayer routine Zakat- tithe or alms (giving to the church) Sawm- period of fasting for purification Hajj- journey to Mecca Follow a strict code of law Shar’ia Food restrictions Instructions on how to live life

30 Warm-up 1/22

31 What landmark is this? Egyptian Pyramids Where is it located? Egypt, specifically, Giza located outside of Cairo Which culture created it? Ancient Egyptians Why/when was this landmark created? BC, they were originally built to protect the body of a dead Pharaoh What defining characteristics of this landmark standout to you?

32 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Centered around control of Jerusalem Land has been constantly fought over because of the fact that it is a holy land for not only the Jewish faith but also Islam City founded by Jewish King David in 1000 B.C.E. Muslim Arabic armies took control in 638 C.E. Nation of Palestine created and controlled by Islamic Empires Crusades Religious wars during Middle Ages

33 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
In 1948 the state of Israel was created by the United Nations Land taken from the nation of Palestine and split into two parts but kept under the control of one nation Palestinians feel like the land is rightfully theirs and refuse to recognize Jewish control Jews feel like it is their land and were willing to share with Muslims until violence ensued.

34 Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
West Bank is currently considered to belong to the Palestinians (not recognized as an independent nation) Peace Talks have been taking place as recently as 2012.

35 Lebanon History Civil War 1975-1990 Hezbollah - the Party of God
Christian vs Muslim Syria and USA sent in troops Suicide attack on US embassy; another in October killed 241 US troops. US troops withdrawn in 1984. Hezbollah - the Party of God political and military organization in Lebanon made up mainly of Shia Muslims.

36 Lebanon Today War is being fought between Lebanon and Syria over border control and religion Government is currently controlled by a leader who was put in place by Syria after the Civil War Has many Palestinian refugees

37 Afghanistan 1979-1989 Soviet occupation Taliban
Islamic religious students formed the group's main recruits 1996 it captured Kabul and instituted a strict Islamic regime Gave Osama bin Laden (al Qaeda leader) safe haven 2001 UN coalition attacked Taliban

38 Afghanistan Today Elected President Hamid Karzai controls the nation
US trying to help institute a democratic government

39 Iran Government ruled by Supreme Leader History Theocratic leader
US backed Shah Reza Pahlavi during 1950s and 1960s Revolution led by Ruhollah Khomeini Led to Khomeini being named Ayatollah (Supreme Leader) Leader of Iran through Sharia law

40 Iran Today Has a Presidential system of government
President is under the lead of the Supreme Leader Repairing from Iran-Iraq War Tensions with the UN over nuclear weapons Poverty stricken and high unemployment rates set the stage for the nation’s economy

41 Iraq History Ruled from 1958-2003 by military dictatorship
Saddam Hussein from War between Iran and Iraq starting in 1980 Most fighting occurred over religious beliefs Sunni vs. Shia Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990

42 Gulf Wars have resulted in oil issues
Iraq Today Gulf Wars have resulted in oil issues United States and British invasion in 2003 resulted in overthrow of Saddam Hussein Issues with creation of a democratic government in Iraq

43 Homework Quiz A Why might water projects in Southwest Asia cause controversy? How has the presence of large deposits of oil changed the lives of the people of the Arabian peninsula?


45 Homework quiz b Why was the region of Southwest Asia important to colonial powers? What impact has technology had on the supply of oil and water in the region?

46 Middle Eastern Culture
Struggle between tradition and modernity Islam is often seen as both a religion and a lifestyle Focus on: Honor (self-respect to self-pride) Equal treatment regardless of wealth, position, or rank. Strong loyalty to extended family, friends, and locality Expectation of solidarity. Family – loyalty; respect for elders

47 Sha’ria Law Code of law practiced in many Islamic nations
Often just practiced regionally, not necessarily 100% in control with government Governs not only legislative issues but also personal ways of living Some examples: Rituals and worship Property and inheritance Contracts and trade Public Finance Crime Hygiene Criminal: breaking laws like alcohol, robbery, murder, etc. Punishments assigned accordingly Finance: most do not include interest (earned on your own), money as shared wealth Property: common property water, fire, pastures,

48 Social Norms and Customs
Hygiene Cleansing body before entering house of worship Using only right hand for eating and drinking Respect Displaying the sole of one’s foot or touching someone with a foot Taking shoes off at homes, mosques No PDA Greeting elders before young Modest amount of personal space Greeting with statement of ‘Peace Be with You’

49 Hospitality and Eating
Accepting snacks/drinks when offered Homes open at all times to guests Eating Etiquette: On ground Will use a common plate in some occasions Pass using right hand

50 Eating Requirements Halal Eating Requirements: No:
Pork or pork by-products Animals that were dead prior to slaughter Birds of prey Alcohol Carnivorous animals No animal fat Any animal that is slaughtered must be done in the name of Allah and face Mecca

51 Clothing Men Must be covered from knees to waist in Islamic nations Most wear turbans or head-covers for both religious purposes and to cover head from extreme heat Women Many women are not required to wear head-coverings but choose to do so for modesty In some Islamic countries, women are expected to be covered fully with exception of hands and face Stricter nations require everything to be covered Rationale is so women are not viewed in a sexual manner

52 Types of Veil Hijab- head-covering used as a symbol of womanhood and modesty. Mostly associated with religion. Khimar- long cape-like veil covers hair, neck, and shoulders Chador- full body cloak worn in Iran Niqab- veil attached to head-cover. Covers all but eyes. Burqa- covers entire face and body with mesh screen to see SOURCE: The word hijab comes from the Arabic for veil and is used to describe the headscarves worn by Muslim women. These scarves, regarded by many Muslims as a symbol of both religion and womanhood, come in a myriad of styles and colours. The type most commonly worn in the West is a square scarf that covers the head and neck but leaves the face clear. The khimar is a long, cape-like veil that hangs down to just above the waist. It covers the hair, neck and shoulders completely, but leaves the face clear. The chador, worn by Iranian women when outside the house, is a full-body cloak. It is often accompanied by a smaller headscarf underneath. The niqab is a veil for the face that leaves the area around the eyes clear. However, this may be obscured by a separate eye veil. It is worn with an accompanying headscarf, such as a khimar. The burqa is the most concealing of all Islamic veils. It covers the entire face and body, leaving just a mesh screen to see through.

53 Gender Relations Most societies are patriarchal
Women expected to submit to both religion and men Men are considered the breadwinners and closer to religion Women were expected to have an escort when in public Many still prefer arranged marriages Divorce is not normally allowed In some nations today, women are allowed to ask for a divorce Tradition said that all a man had to do was say a ‘divorce code’ Men most of the time get the children Educational inequalities exist Many women are not offered education of any sort

54 Status of Women Women’s roles vary in different nations
Persian Gulf states- most women do not work outside of home, if they do its in all women institutions In Egypt, women are allowed to file for divorce and travel overseas without approval In Turkey, women wear Western clothes In Kuwait, women are allowed to vote In Saudi Arabia, women eat separate from men in public and can attend female only universities

55 Warm-up 3/9 Watch the video to practice for your map quiz!

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