2Grouped together due to common physical characteristics, histories, and cultural beliefs Naming the RegionDry WorldArab WorldIslamic WorldMiddle East
3Earliest cities recorded around Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Fertile CrescentEarliest cities recorded around Tigris and Euphrates RiversRich soil and water sourceBirthplace of civilizationMesopotamia: ”Land Between the Two Rivers”
4Sahara Arabian Desertification Largest in the world DesertsSaharaLargest in the worldArabianDesertificationExpansion of desert around the world
5Longest river in the world The Nile RiverLongest river in the worldFlows from higher elevation in south to Mediterranean in northArea of rich, fertile soilAnnual flooding
6Located between Iran and Arabian Peninsula Extension of Indian Ocean Persian GulfLocated between Iran and Arabian PeninsulaExtension of Indian OceanDiscovery of oil transformed the region to area of commercial wealth
7Highest salt content in the world Dead SeaLowest point on EarthHighest salt content in the worldDesalinization
8Physical Factors Cluster near water sources Settlement FactorsPhysical FactorsCluster near water sourcesLow-lying areas allow for agricultureTemperate/mild climate
9Homogeneity of society Settlement FactorsHuman FactorsAccess to resources, economic activity, transportationHomogeneity of society
11Nile River ValleyHighest population density is located along the river banks (delta), 2 major centers are Cairo and KhartoumDesert (dry)Water, fertile soils
12Tigiris-Euphrates River Valley Higher population density along the east side of the Tigris River, city of Bagdad has high population densityDesert (dry), semi-desertWater, fertile soils
13Persian GulfPopulation centers include Qatar, the east coast of Oman, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi is a large population centerDesert 9arid)Oil and natural gas
14SaharaSparse population throughout most of the region, large population concentration in Morocco, Libya, and Algeria, and Egypt along the Mediterranean SeaDesert (arid)Oil and natural gas
15Sahel Sparse population. Most people rely on a nomadic way of life. Desert (arid), semiaridGrasslands, small trees, farmland
16TodayComplete the last column of your chartFinish maps
17Homework Quiz BWhy are the Red Sea and Suez Canal of strategic value in the region?How did the presence of oil in the region change the region's importance in the global economy?Which resource do you believe is more important in Southwest Asia- water or oil?What agricultural products are raised in the coastal areas?How do the two types of deserts in the region differ from each other?
18Vocabulary Dead Sea Dome of the rock Oasis Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)Salt FlatDrip irrigationKurdsSunniDesalinizationShi’iteFossil WaterTalibanCrude OilStateless NationRefineryMeccaIslamMosqueTheocraticOPEC
20Major Religions of the Middle East IslamJudaismChristianity
21Judaism Followers known as Jews Currently 14 million people practice JudaismWorship God (called Yahweh) and follow his teachingsMain laws & practice is found in the TorahFirst 5 books of the Old Testament (Bible)Additional practices found in the Tenach and the 10 Commandments
22Basic History of Jewish Faith Divine covenant between God and Abraham in 2000 BCEProphet Moses led people to IsraelHoly city of JerusalemFounded by King DavidFirst temple built in Jerusalem but was destroyed in 70 CEIn 1948 the nation of Israel was created as a Jewish state
23Jewish Beliefs Services held in synagogues on Saturday Beliefs: Consider themselves to be God’s Chosen PeopleBelieve that the Messiah will arrive in the future to lead all followers to JerusalemStrict PracticesBar/Bat MitzvahFood restrictions
24Christianity Followers known as Christians Over 2.1 billion followersWorship God the Father (one God)Belief in the Holy TrinityGod, Son of God, Holy SpiritMain religious text is the Bible- the word of GodConsists of two parts: Old and New Testaments
25Christian History Break off of Jewish faith Leader was Jesus Christ- man believed to be the Son of God sent to save humanity from sinsJesus was crucified by the Roman government circa 33 C.E.After crucifixion, one of the 12 disciples, Paul of Tarsus, built the structure of the churchConstantine adopted Christianity for himselfEventually accepted as the official religion for Rome
26Christian Beliefs Services held in churches, mostly on Sunday Many different denominationsRoman CatholicOrthodox (Eastern, Greek, Russian)Protestants (include Baptists, Methodist, Lutheran, Amish, Anglican, etc.)Holy Cities- Jerusalem and BethlehemBeliefsFaith in Jesus (Messiah) will lead to salvation and life in heaven
27Islam Followers known as Muslims Worship Allah (the One True God) 1.5 billion practice IslamWorship Allah (the One True God)Believe that prophets have brought news from god, but reject the idea of a saviorReligious TextsQur’an- the words of AllahHadith- sayings from Muhammad
28History of Islam Muhammad the Prophet founded the religion in 622 CE Creation of Islamic city- MedinaOther Holy Cities- Mecca and JerusalemNo true successor to lead the religion splitting into two major denominationsSunni follows the teachings of the Umayyad leadersShi’a follow the teachings of Ali (closest male relative to Muhammad)Islam spread through Middle East, Northern Africa, Spain
29Islam- Beliefs Services are held on Friday at a mosque Five Pillars of IslamShahada- declaration of faithSalat- daily prayer routineZakat- tithe or alms (giving to the church)Sawm- period of fasting for purificationHajj- journey to MeccaFollow a strict code of lawShar’iaFood restrictionsInstructions on how to live life
31What landmark is this?Egyptian PyramidsWhere is it located?Egypt, specifically, Giza located outside of CairoWhich culture created it?Ancient EgyptiansWhy/when was this landmark created?BC, they were originally built to protect thebody of a dead PharaohWhat defining characteristics of this landmark standout to you?
32Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Centered around control of JerusalemLand has been constantly fought over because of the fact that it is a holy land for not only the Jewish faith but also IslamCity founded by Jewish King David in 1000 B.C.E.Muslim Arabic armies took control in 638 C.E.Nation of Palestine created and controlled by Islamic EmpiresCrusadesReligious wars during Middle Ages
33Israeli-Palestinian Conflict In 1948 the state of Israel was created by the United NationsLand taken from the nation of Palestine and split into two parts but kept under the control of one nationPalestinians feel like the land is rightfully theirs and refuse to recognize Jewish controlJews feel like it is their land and were willing to share with Muslims until violence ensued.
34Israeli-Palestinian Conflict West Bank is currently considered to belong to the Palestinians (not recognized as an independent nation)Peace Talks have been taking place as recently as 2012.
35Lebanon History Civil War 1975-1990 Hezbollah - the Party of God Christian vs MuslimSyria and USA sent in troopsSuicide attack on US embassy; another in October killed 241 US troops. US troops withdrawn in 1984.Hezbollah - the Party of Godpolitical and military organization in Lebanon made up mainly of Shia Muslims.
36LebanonTodayWar is being fought between Lebanon and Syria over border control and religionGovernment is currently controlled by a leader who was put in place by Syria after the Civil WarHas many Palestinian refugees
37Afghanistan 1979-1989 Soviet occupation Taliban Islamic religious students formed the group's main recruits1996 it captured Kabul and instituted a strict Islamic regimeGave Osama bin Laden (al Qaeda leader) safe haven2001 UN coalition attacked Taliban
38Afghanistan Today Elected President Hamid Karzai controls the nation US trying to help institute a democratic government
39Iran Government ruled by Supreme Leader History Theocratic leader US backed Shah Reza Pahlavi during 1950s and 1960sRevolution led by Ruhollah KhomeiniLed to Khomeini being named Ayatollah (Supreme Leader)Leader of Iran through Sharia law
40Iran Today Has a Presidential system of government President is under the lead of the Supreme LeaderRepairing from Iran-Iraq WarTensions with the UN over nuclear weaponsPoverty stricken and high unemployment rates set the stage for the nation’s economy
41Iraq History Ruled from 1958-2003 by military dictatorship Saddam Hussein fromWar between Iran and Iraq starting in 1980Most fighting occurred over religious beliefsSunni vs. ShiaIraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990
42Gulf Wars have resulted in oil issues IraqTodayGulf Wars have resulted in oil issuesUnited States and British invasion in 2003 resulted in overthrow of Saddam HusseinIssues with creation of a democratic government in Iraq
43Homework Quiz AWhy might water projects in Southwest Asia cause controversy?How has the presence of large deposits of oil changed the lives of the people of the Arabian peninsula?
45Homework quiz bWhy was the region of Southwest Asia important to colonial powers?What impact has technology had on the supply of oil and water in the region?
46Middle Eastern Culture Struggle between tradition and modernityIslam is often seen as both a religion and a lifestyleFocus on:Honor (self-respect to self-pride)Equal treatment regardless of wealth, position, or rank.Strong loyalty to extended family, friends, and localityExpectation of solidarity.Family – loyalty; respect for elders
47Sha’ria Law Code of law practiced in many Islamic nations Often just practiced regionally, not necessarily 100% in control with governmentGoverns not only legislative issues but also personal ways of livingSome examples:Rituals and worshipProperty and inheritanceContracts and tradePublic FinanceCrimeHygieneCriminal: breaking laws like alcohol, robbery, murder, etc. Punishments assigned accordinglyFinance: most do not include interest (earned on your own), money as shared wealthProperty: common property water, fire, pastures,
48Social Norms and Customs HygieneCleansing body before entering house of worshipUsing only right hand for eating and drinkingRespectDisplaying the sole of one’s foot or touching someone with a footTaking shoes off at homes, mosquesNo PDAGreeting elders before youngModest amount of personal spaceGreeting with statement of ‘Peace Be with You’
49Hospitality and Eating Accepting snacks/drinks when offeredHomes open at all times to guestsEating Etiquette:On groundWill use a common plate in some occasionsPass using right hand
50Eating Requirements Halal Eating Requirements: No: Pork or pork by-productsAnimals that were dead prior to slaughterBirds of preyAlcoholCarnivorous animalsNo animal fatAny animal that is slaughtered must be done in the name of Allah and face Mecca
51ClothingMenMust be covered from knees to waist in Islamic nationsMost wear turbans or head-covers for both religious purposes and to cover head from extreme heatWomenMany women are not required to wear head-coverings but choose to do so for modestyIn some Islamic countries, women are expected to be covered fully with exception of hands and faceStricter nations require everything to be coveredRationale is so women are not viewed in a sexual manner
52Types of VeilHijab- head-covering used as a symbol of womanhood and modesty. Mostly associated with religion.Khimar- long cape-like veil covers hair, neck, and shouldersChador- full body cloak worn in IranNiqab- veil attached to head-cover. Covers all but eyes.Burqa- covers entire face and body with mesh screen to seeSOURCE:The word hijab comes from the Arabic for veil and is used to describe the headscarves worn by Muslim women.These scarves, regarded by many Muslims as a symbol of both religion and womanhood, come in a myriad of styles and colours.The type most commonly worn in the West is a square scarf that covers the head and neck but leaves the face clear.The khimar is a long, cape-like veil that hangs down to just above the waist. It covers the hair, neck and shoulders completely, but leaves the face clear.The chador, worn by Iranian women when outside the house, is a full-body cloak. It is often accompanied by a smaller headscarf underneath.The niqab is a veil for the face that leaves the area around the eyes clear. However, this may be obscured by a separate eye veil. It is worn with an accompanying headscarf, such as a khimar.The burqa is the most concealing of all Islamic veils. It covers the entire face and body, leaving just a mesh screen to see through.
53Gender Relations Most societies are patriarchal Women expected to submit to both religion and menMen are considered the breadwinners and closer to religionWomen were expected to have an escort when in publicMany still prefer arranged marriagesDivorce is not normally allowedIn some nations today, women are allowed to ask for a divorceTradition said that all a man had to do was say a ‘divorce code’Men most of the time get the childrenEducational inequalities existMany women are not offered education of any sort
54Status of Women Women’s roles vary in different nations Persian Gulf states- most women do not work outside of home, if they do its in all women institutionsIn Egypt, women are allowed to file for divorce and travel overseas without approvalIn Turkey, women wear Western clothesIn Kuwait, women are allowed to voteIn Saudi Arabia, women eat separate from men in public and can attend female only universities
55Warm-up 3/9Watch the video to practice for your map quiz!