Presentation on theme: "UNIT 6 VOCABULARY WORDS: North Africa & Middle East."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 6 VOCABULARY WORDS: North Africa & Middle East
Southwest Asia – land bridge that connects Asia, Europe, and Africa *most of the population is located near water
Southwest Asia is known as the: 1)Arab World 2)Islamic World *Has a semi-arid climate (hot summers and mild winters) *Little precipitation – 16 inches per year
Nile River *Made civilization in Egypt possible *Longest river in the world *Major north flowing river in North Africa
Arabian Peninsula Largest and most distinct land form in Southwest Asia Most of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited for agriculture It has vast reserves of oil and natural gas It lies on a tectonic plate (Arabian Plate) Contains deserts and mountains
Saudi Arabia *Largest country in Southwest Asia *Population around 28.7 million *Known as “The Land of 2 Holy Mosques”
Saudi Arabia Facts: 1/5 size of the United States Government takes the form of an Islamic absolute monarchy World’s largest oil reserve World’s largest oil exporter 35% of its work force are foreign workers
Wadi – dry river bed except during the rainy season
Arabs – *Major ethnic group of Southwest Asia *Arabic language *Most Arabs are Muslims
Believe that God is one and incomparable Islam means “submission to God” 2 nd largest religion in the world One of the fastest growing religions in the world Muhammad was the last Prophet of Islam Follows the text (Quran) which is the word of God (Allah)
Islam is the major cultural and religious influence in North Africa.
Islam Faith Five Pillars Repeated expression of the basic creed Daily prayers Month of daytime fasting Almsgiving – giving money to charity Pilgrimage to MECCA 85% are Sunni – aren’t as strict followers of the Quran as the Shiites Shiites feel every decision should be based on what the Quran says
Holiest Islam site in the world Located in Saudi Arabia More than 13 million people visit MECCAannually Population of the city is 1.7 million
Medina 2 nd holiest city in Islam Known as the “radiant city” Home to 3 of the oldest mosques in Islam Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter into the city
Mosque - Islamic church *Place for prayer, information, education, and dispute settlement.
Dome of the Rock
Located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem Built over a sacred place – where Muslims believe Muhammad rose into Heaven Islamic shrine Built from The rock in known as the Foundation Stone It is not a mosque – it is a shrine
Monotheistic Religion – believing in 1 god Monotheistic Religions: *Christianity *Islam *Judaism
Muhammad *Born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia *Founding prophet of Islam *Followers believe when he was 40 Allah’s (God) words were revealed to him which became the Quran
Suez Canal- Connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea Opened in 1869
Suez Canal is 120 miles long, 79 feet deep, and 673 feet wide. It contains no locks and is owned by the Suez Canal Authority – Egypt.
Salt Flat – created by evaporation of moisture by the wind Salt Flat
Salt Flat – flat land made of chemical salts that remain after winds evaporate the moisture in the soil. Found in Iran.
Souk - marketplace
Bazaar – open air market place
Medina – where a Souk is located; old part of a city
Medina Narrow winding streets
Dead Sea *Lowest point on earth *World’s saltiest large body of water *Water only flows in – not out
Dead Sea Facts Name in Hebrew means “Killer Sea” 30% salt – 6 times saltier than the oceans Fed by the Jordan River Contains no fish or living creatures Surface of the sea is over 1,300 feet below sea level
Economy of North Africa Went from agriculture to cash crops then to oil. Agriculture – oranges, citrus fruits, barley, wheat, corn, tomatoes, olives, egg plant 40% of the population is below poverty level in Sudan Minerals – iron ore, copper, lead Textile industry is rapidly growing
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Founded in Baghdad Currently has 12 members Mission is to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum and consumers, and a steady income to producers.
Percentage of Economy Based on Exporting Oil Saudi Arabia – 81.7% Kuwait – 92.4% UAE – 45.7% Bahrain – 69.8% Qatar – 84.2% Oman – 77.2%
Crude Oil – pumped from the ground Refinery – converts crude oil to useful products
Guest Workers - Facts They are given fixed contracts Live in slave-like conditions away from the general population Local companies hire foreign workers because of lack of training and/or education in their country Saudi Arabia employs 5 million guest workers Kuwait employs 1.2 million guest workers
Kurds – *Ethnic group in Southwest Asia *Largest ethnic group without a country *Classified linguistically as Iranian *Located in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey *Live in a mountainous region – million Kurds live here
Stateless Society – People rely on family lineages to govern themselves rather than elected government or monarchy. -society without a centralized government Stateless Nation – nation of people without a land to legally occupy Ghana – war chief of the Soninke people of Ghana.
Theocratic – religious leaders control the government Infrastructure – things needed to support a growing economy Strategic Commodity – resource so important that nations will go to war to ensure a steady supply.
Patriarchal Society *Males are the decision makers and primary decision makers in the house *Fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. *Female subordination
Human Resources – the skills and talents of people
*Links Africa to Asia *Triangular in shape *23,500 square miles *Southern region is mountainous and the northern 2/3s is the Sinai Desert
Sahara Desert: Known to be the hottest desert in the world – during the winter the temperatures drop below freezing The overall area is as large as the United States The area contains sand dunes, stone plateaus, large gravel plains, dry valleys, and sand flats Reports indicate the Sahara Desert is growing
Oasis – are in the desert where vegetation and water is found.
Rub al-Khai *called Empty Quarter – place where no one comes out
*One of the largest sand deserts in the world *Covers most of southern 1/3 of the Arabian Peninsula
Bed Bedouins – desert nomads *Inhabitants of the desert *Found in Saudi Arabia, Syria, Nubia, and Sahara Desert
Mesopotamia Land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers – important rivers in Southwest Asia Land called the “Fertile Crescent” Also known as the “Cradle of Civilization ” – Cultural Hearth – where civilization began
Western Wall – Jerusalem – *Most holiest site for Jews *Site for Jewish prayer and pilgrimage
Zionism – goal is to create a homeland for Jews in Palestine
Golda Meir *4 th Prime Minister of Israel *Elected Prime Minister in 1969 *Israel’s 1 st woman to hold this office *Describe as the “Iron Lady” of Israeli politics
Methods of Water Development Desalinization – removal of salt from ocean water Water Treatment Drip Irrigation – small pipes that sweat water out Fossil Water – water pumped from underground aquifer
National Water Carrier Project
Planning phase known as the Jordan Project began in 1953 Completed in 1964 Supplies ½ of Israel’s drinking water Transfers water from the Sea of Galilee in the north to the populated areas of Israel Diverts water from Syria and Jordan It is 80 miles in length Largest water project in Israel
Areas of Problems in Israel Gaza Strip – territory along the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Israel West Bank – strip of land on the West Bank of the Jordan River near Jerusalem Golan Heights – area in northern Israel
Palestinians – former residents of the land of Palestine; now called Israel.
Right to Return – Palestinians have the right to return to their former homelands. Intifada – word means “uprising”
Jihad *A religious term that means “holy war” *An important religious duty for Muslims *
*Terrorist organization founded in 1964 *Goal was for the destruction of the state of Israel *Yasser Arafat became its leader
*Word means “Islamic Resistance Movement” *Palestinian Islamist political organization *Founded in 1987 for the purpose of Jihad to liberate Palestine from Israel
Resistance movement based in Lebanon Supported by Iran and Syria Regarded as a terrorist organization Came into existence after Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 Its goals include the obliteration of Israel and bringing Israelis to trial
Words means “students” Islamic political Muslim military group Most are traditionalists, follow strict social and cultural norms, and are made up of members belonging to Pashtun tribes Women are not allowed to work, be educated after the age of 8, and face public execution for violations of the Taliban’s laws. Reports indicate it is supported by the Pakistani military
Militant Islamist group founded between 1988 and 1989 Attacked civilian and military targets around the world, most notably the 9-11 attacks on New York City Characteristic techniques include suicide attacks and simultaneous bombings Members have take a pledge of loyalty to Osama Bin Laden Believe that the killing of bystanders and civilians is religiously justified in jihad
Osama bin Laden *Founder of Al-Qaeda *Lost his Saudi citizenship and was disowned by his wealthy Saudi Arabian family due to the 9-11 attacks *On the FBI’s list of 10 Most Wanted Fugitives *Believed to be hiding in Afghanistan and Pakistan
War in Iraq: *Began on March 20, 2003 *Also called the 2 nd Gulf War and Operation Iraqi Freedom
Iraq War – Oil refinery explosion
Why did we invade Iraq? 1)Possibility of Iraq having weapons of mass destruction 2)President Saddam Hussein harboring and supporting al-Qaeda 3)Iraq’s financial support for Palestinian suicide bombers 4)Human rights abuse
War in Iraq Facts: 2007 – 5 million Iraqi children reported were orphans 2008 – reported 4.7 million refugees Coalition Forces Killed: 4,746 Coalition Forces Wounded: 32,280 Coalition Forces Injured/diseased/other medical: 32,280 Contractors Killed: 1,764 Documented civilian deaths: 98, ,369
Objectives of the Coalition Forces End the Hussein regime Eliminate weapons of mass destruction Eliminate whatever Islamist militants that could be found Secure Iraq’s petroleum infrastructure Assist in creating a compliant government
War in Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan Facts: Began on October 7, 2001 in response to the September 11 attacks. War is a violent struggle against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban supports. The invasion was to find Osama bin Laden and other high ranking Al-Qaeda members and removing the safe haven to Al-Qaeda and its use of the Afghan territory. War has killed tens of thousands of people, the majority of whom have been civilians.
Since 2006, Afghanistan has experienced increased Taliban-led insurgent activity, record-high levels of illegal drug production, and a corrupt government. The Taliban can sustain itself indefinitely. Coalition casualties: 2,204 Taliban and Insurgent casualties: 38,000+ Civilian deaths: 14,000-34,000
Marrakech or Marrakesh in Morocco
Marrakech / Marrakesh Known as the “Red City” Located near the foothills of the Atlas Mountains Contains both old fortified city and modern city Largest traditional market in Morocco One of the busiest squares in Africa and the world