8Arabian PeninsulaLargest and most distinct land form in Southwest AsiaMost of the Arabian Peninsula is unsuited for agricultureIt has vast reserves of oil and natural gasIt lies on a tectonic plate (Arabian Plate)Contains deserts and mountains
9Saudi Arabia*Largest country in Southwest Asia*Population around 28.7 million*Known as “The Land of 2 Holy Mosques”
11Saudi Arabia Facts: 1/5 size of the United States Government takes the form of an Islamic absolute monarchyWorld’s largest oil reserveWorld’s largest oil exporter35% of its work force are foreign workers
12Wadi – dry river bed except during the rainy season
17Islam Believe that God is one and incomparable Islam means “submission to God”2nd largest religion in the worldOne of the fastest growing religions in the worldMuhammad was the last Prophet of IslamFollows the text (Quran) which is the word of God (Allah)
19Islam is the major cultural and religious influence in North Africa.
20Islam Faith Five Pillars Repeated expression of the basic creedDaily prayersMonth of daytime fastingAlmsgiving – giving money to charityPilgrimage to MECCA85% are Sunni – aren’t as strict followers of the Quran as the ShiitesShiites feel every decision should be based on what the Quran says
29Dome of the Rock Located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem Built over a sacred place – where Muslims believe Muhammad rose into HeavenIslamic shrineBuilt fromThe rock in known as the Foundation StoneIt is not a mosque – it is a shrine
30Monotheistic Religion – believing in 1 god Monotheistic Religions:*Christianity*Islam*Judaism
31Muhammad*Born in Mecca,Saudi Arabia*Founding prophetof Islam*Followers believewhen he was 40Allah’s (God) wordswere revealed tohim which becamethe Quran
32Suez Canal-Connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red SeaOpened in 1869
45Dead Sea Facts Name in Hebrew means “Killer Sea” 30% salt – 6 times saltier than the oceansFed by the Jordan RiverContains no fish or living creaturesSurface of the sea isover 1,300 feet belowsea level
47Economy of North Africa Went from agriculture to cash crops then to oil.Agriculture – oranges, citrus fruits, barley, wheat, corn, tomatoes, olives, egg plant40% of the population is below poverty level in SudanMinerals – iron ore, copper, leadTextile industry is rapidly growing
49OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Founded in Baghdad Currently has 12 membersMission is to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum and consumers, and a steady income to producers.
56Guest Workers - Facts They are given fixed contracts Live in slave-like conditions away from the general populationLocal companies hire foreign workers because of lack of training and/or education in their countrySaudi Arabia employs 5 million guest workersKuwait employs 1.2 million guest workers
57Kurds –*Ethnic group inSouthwest Asia*Largest ethnic groupwithout a country*Classified linguisticallyas Iranian*Located in Iran, Iraq,Syria, and Turkey*Live in a mountainousregion – millionKurds live here
60Stateless Society – People rely on family lineages to govern themselves rather than elected government or monarchy.-society without a centralized governmentStateless Nation – nation of people without a land to legally occupyGhana – war chief of the Soninke people of Ghana.
61Theocratic – religious leaders control the government Infrastructure – things needed to support a growing economyStrategic Commodity – resource so important that nations will go to war to ensure a steady supply.
62Patriarchal Society*Males are the decision makers andprimary decision makers in the house*Fathers hold authority over women,children, and property.*Female subordination
63Human Resources – the skills and talents of people
64*Links Africa to Asia*Triangular in shape*23,500 square miles*Southern region is mountainous and the northern 2/3s is the Sinai Desert
67Sahara Desert:Known to be the hottest desert in the world – during the winter the temperatures drop below freezingThe overall area is as large as the United StatesThe area contains sand dunes, stone plateaus, large gravel plains, dry valleys, and sand flatsReports indicate the Sahara Desert is growing
77MesopotamiaLand between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers – important rivers in Southwest AsiaLand called the “Fertile Crescent”Also known as the “Cradle of Civilization” – Cultural Hearth – where civilization began
78Western Wall – Jerusalem – *Most holiestsite for Jews*Site for Jewishprayer andpilgrimage
87National Water Carrier Project Planning phase known as the Jordan Project began in 1953Completed in 1964Supplies ½ of Israel’s drinking waterTransfers water from the Sea of Galilee in the north to the populated areas of IsraelDiverts water from Syria and JordanIt is 80 miles in lengthLargest water project in Israel
88Areas of Problems in Israel Gaza Strip – territory along the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest IsraelWest Bank – strip of land on the West Bank of the Jordan River near JerusalemGolan Heights – area in northern Israel
102Hezbollah Resistance movement based in Lebanon Supported by Iran and SyriaRegarded as a terrorist organizationCame into existence after Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982Its goals include the obliteration of Israel and bringing Israelis to trial
105Taliban Words means “students” Islamic political Muslim military group Most are traditionalists, follow strict social and cultural norms, and are made up of members belonging to Pashtun tribesWomen are not allowed to work, be educated after the age of 8, and face public execution for violations of the Taliban’s laws.Reports indicate it is supported by the Pakistani military
110Al-Qaeda Militant Islamist group founded between 1988 and 1989 Attacked civilian and military targets around the world, most notably the 9-11 attacks on New York CityCharacteristic techniques include suicide attacks and simultaneous bombingsMembers have take a pledge of loyalty to Osama Bin LadenBelieve that the killing of bystanders and civilians is religiously justified in jihad
111Osama bin Laden*Founder of Al-Qaeda*Lost his Saudi citizenship and was disowned by his wealthy Saudi Arabian family due to the 9-11 attacks*On the FBI’s list of 10 Most Wanted Fugitives*Believed to be hiding in Afghanistan and Pakistan
112War in Iraq:*Began on March 20, 2003*Also called the 2nd Gulf War and Operation Iraqi Freedom
114Why did we invade Iraq?Possibility of Iraq having weapons of mass destructionPresident Saddam Hussein harboring and supportingal-QaedaIraq’s financial support for Palestinian suicide bombersHuman rights abuse
115War in Iraq Facts:2007 – 5 million Iraqi children reported were orphans2008 – reported 4.7 million refugeesCoalition Forces Killed: 4,746Coalition Forces Wounded: 32,280Coalition Forces Injured/diseased/other medical: 32,280Contractors Killed: 1,764Documented civilian deaths: 98, ,369
116Objectives of the Coalition Forces End the Hussein regimeEliminate weapons of mass destructionEliminate whatever Islamist militants that could be foundSecure Iraq’s petroleum infrastructureAssist in creating a compliant government
119War in Afghanistan Facts: Began on October 7, 2001 in response to the September 11 attacks.War is a violent struggle against Al-Qaeda and the Taliban supports.The invasion was to find Osama bin Laden and other high ranking Al-Qaeda members and removing the safe haven to Al-Qaeda and its use of the Afghan territory.War has killed tens of thousands of people, the majority of whom have been civilians.
121Since 2006, Afghanistan has experienced increased Taliban-led insurgent activity, record-high levels of illegal drug production, and a corrupt government.The Taliban can sustain itself indefinitely.Coalition casualties: 2,204Taliban and Insurgent casualties: 38,000+Civilian deaths: 14,000-34,000
124Marrakech / Marrakesh Known as the “Red City” Located near the foothills of the Atlas MountainsContains both old fortified city and modern cityLargest traditional market in MoroccoOne of the busiest squares in Africa and the world