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© OECD/IEA 2014 Global Oil Market Update: Markets & Geopolitics Center on Global Energy Policy Columbia University July 17, 2014 Antoine Halff
© OECD/IEA 2014 The oil market at a junction Balances loosen up on paper but must be seen in perspective The unconventional supply revolution enters a new stage - matures into an increasingly global phenomenon, not just a US success story Political and social change in the MENA raises OPEC supply risk, partly offsetting the impact of higher non-OPEC supply The economic recovery buoys demand, but the dynamics of demand growth undergo a structural shift - efficiency gains and fuel switching increasingly balance income and population impacts Asia is by far the largest magnet for global crude exports as North America grows into a net oil exporter The refining industry faces a new round of restructuring and a potential glut of light products
© OECD/IEA 2014 Oil demand nears 100 mb/d by 2019, but peak oil demand growth is in sight Average 1.3%/yr growth on improving macroeconomic backdrop Growth gains momentum in some regions Overall growth slows on fuel switching and efficiency gains Global oil demand
© OECD/IEA 2014 Oil’s place in the energy mix is changing With a few exceptions, oil is being pushed out of the power generation and residential sectors More than 5 ½ in every 10 barrels of oil are used for transport, including 4 for road transport Non-energy use of oil – petrochemicals – rising steeply Relative share of transport use is global oil demand
© OECD/IEA 2014 Oil supply growth is bifurcated - robust in non-OPEC, facing headwinds in OPEC Total oil supply capacity grows by 9 mb/d to 105 mb/d Exceptionally strong non-OPEC growth, but slowing later in the forecast period Global oil supply capacity growth
© OECD/IEA 2014 MENA turmoil, weak investment climate weigh on OPEC capacity growth OPEC capacity seen growing by 2.1 mb/d to 37.1 mb/d in 2019 Iraq to supply 60% of growth Worsening political stability and security issues add major downside risk in Iraq, Libya, others Incremental OPEC crude production capacity 2013-19 (mb/d) OPEC crude production capacity
© OECD/IEA 2014 Iraq faces multi-pronged challenges in pursuit of targets Iraq capacity seen rising by 40% or 1.3 mb/d to 4.5 mb/d by 2019 Rising sectarian strife raises downside risks but there are other problems too Weak institutions have led to delays in contract awards for infrastructure plans that anchor projects Iraq crude production capacity growth Iraq crude oil production by region
© OECD/IEA 2014 The unconventional revolution comes of age N. America continues to lead non-OECD supply growth But growth slows in N. America and diversifies later in the period Annual non-OPEC supply growth
© OECD/IEA 2014 NGLs, field condensate account for growing share of global supply NGL capacity grows jumps 18% to 10.7 mb/d in 2019 OPEC NGLs rise by 13% to 7.12 mb/d, fuelled by quest for natural gas for utilities, water desalination and industry Iran accounts for ~40% of OPEC NGL growth, followed by Libya, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar World NGLs production OPEC NGLs production
© OECD/IEA 2014 In crude trade, all roads lead to Asia Asia imports surge 16% to more than 22 mb – 65% of the int’l crude market – as N. America swings to net oil exporter
© OECD/IEA 2014 Refinery capacity growth sets stage for new round of consolidation Almost all growth come from non-OECD, including half from Asia Plans are getting scaled back in the face of rising over-capacity To bring utilization rates up to levels of 2006-2008 (when margins were good), nearly 5 mb/d of capacity would have to be eliminated through plant closures, delays or cancellations CDU Expansions 2013-2019 by Region Refinery utilization rates
© OECD/IEA 2014 Europe faces growing import dependence for middle distillates… Europe’s middle distillate deficit balloons to 1.6 mb/d by 2019 Increased supplies coming from Middle East, N. America, Russia
© OECD/IEA 2014 …while North America faces a gasoline glut North America faces excess light distillate supply of 1.3 mb/d in 2019 – a by-product in search of outlets
© OECD/IEA 2014 On paper, oil market balance eases, but risks and challenges abound Nominal spare OPEC capacity to rise from 2013 But high risk remains Medium-term oil market balance
© OECD/IEA 2014 Thank you Further questions: OilMarketReport@iea.org
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Today oil supplies about 40% of the world’s energy and 96% of its transportation energy. Since the shift to oil, the world has consumed over 875 billion.
OPEC Founded in Baghdad, Iraq in 1960 Current members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, UAE, Algeria, Nigeria OPEC.
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