Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A Region is an area on the earth’s surface which is different to all areas around it. It has different characteristics e.g. physical (climate soils, rocks,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "A Region is an area on the earth’s surface which is different to all areas around it. It has different characteristics e.g. physical (climate soils, rocks,"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 A Region is an area on the earth’s surface which is different to all areas around it. It has different characteristics e.g. physical (climate soils, rocks, drainage), cultural, administrative, economic, human.

3

4 An area with similar climatic conditions (Temperatures, Rainfall etc) Cool Temperate Oceanic Climate Mediterranean Climate An area with similar landscape features, rocks or formation The Burren, Co. Clare Alps, Central Europe

5 World Climatic Regions

6 COOL TEMPERATE OCEANIC (Climatic Region) Where: Western Europe - From Northern Norway to North West Spain (including Ireland) Where: Western Europe - From Northern Norway to North West Spain (including Ireland) Temperatures: Summer average 15 (can go to 23) Degrees, lower averages along coasts, higher inland (South Westerlies=Trade winds / North Atlantic Drift=warm current). Winter average 6 Degrees - influences of S. Westerlies / North Atlantic Drift current. Temperatures: Summer average 15 (can go to 23) Degrees, lower averages along coasts, higher inland (South Westerlies=Trade winds / North Atlantic Drift=warm current). Winter average 6 Degrees - influences of S. Westerlies / North Atlantic Drift current. Precipitation: all year round - Cyclonic and Relief Rainfall but with Winter Maximum 8000mm (Rain Shadow Dublin)- 2,800mm (West) Precipitation: all year round - Cyclonic and Relief Rainfall but with Winter Maximum 8000mm (Rain Shadow Dublin)- 2,800mm (West) Effects: Positive (irrigation) and negative (leaching) effects of precipitation on soils Effects: Positive (irrigation) and negative (leaching) effects of precipitation on soils

7

8

9 PHYSICAL REGIONS CASE STUDY - THE BURREN  KARST LANDSCAPE: Exposed limestone on the surface Large expanses of Limestone Pavements (Clints & Grikes) containing Swallow Holes,terraces, Dolines and few surface streams Large expanses of Limestone Pavements (Clints & Grikes) containing Swallow Holes,terraces, Dolines and few surface streams Underground Passages and Caverns Underground Passages and Caverns Unique Flora and Fauna (Spring Gentian and Common Lizard) Unique Flora and Fauna (Spring Gentian and Common Lizard)

10

11

12

13 ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS CASE STUDIES IRELAND & FRANCE IRELAND - SINGLE TIER SYSTEM IRELAND - SINGLE TIER SYSTEM Central Government County Councils/City Councils/ Boroughs

14 Administrative Regions Dates back to Norman times 12th Century Dates back to Norman times 12th Century By mid 13th Century we had 8 counties By mid 13th Century we had 8 counties counties counties 1994 Dublin subdivided into 3 new counties - Dublin,Fingal, Dun Laoghaire - Rathdown 1994 Dublin subdivided into 3 new counties - Dublin,Fingal, Dun Laoghaire - Rathdown Many county boundaries are distinguished by natural physical boundaries eg River Slaney/ Wicklow Mountains Many county boundaries are distinguished by natural physical boundaries eg River Slaney/ Wicklow Mountains

15 Wexford

16 Local Authorities….such as County Councils or Corportations EU Administrative Regions……larger areas like The West of Ireland

17 FRANCE - ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM Multiple Tier System Central Government 22 Regional Governments 92 Departments

18 Cultural Regions These are regions with unique landguage or religion characteristics. Today we will look for key points on two Language Regions : 1. Gaeltacht (Ireland) 2. Belgium

19

20

21 Language Regions - Belgium (Independence 1830) Flanders (North) - Wallonia (South) - German Enclave Flanders Flanders Flemish speaking, culturally linked to Netherlands Flemish speaking, culturally linked to Netherlands Historically poor - Prospered since 1960’s attracting growth industries to places such as Antwerp Historically poor - Prospered since 1960’s attracting growth industries to places such as Antwerp Brussels is the capital of Belgium and located here but is Bilingual Brussels is the capital of Belgium and located here but is Bilingual Wallonia Mainly French speaking During 1800’s became prosperous based on coal & steel in Sambre-Meuse Valley Collapse of these industries in 1950’s led to massive decline - (Maladjusted Region) German Enclave Territory received from Germany after WW 1

22 Tensions Caused by Cultural Differences in Belgium Flanders has received much industrial investment but still feels under threat from the more dominant French language in the south Flanders has received much industrial investment but still feels under threat from the more dominant French language in the south Possible break up of Belgium has been averted many times Possible break up of Belgium has been averted many times This led to fundamental governmental reforms and the creation of a Federal Government which recognises all three regions - each has a certain amount of Autonomy This led to fundamental governmental reforms and the creation of a Federal Government which recognises all three regions - each has a certain amount of Autonomy Flemish display a defensive attitude over the spread of French and have created a new Pro Flemish political party - Vlaams Belang Flemish display a defensive attitude over the spread of French and have created a new Pro Flemish political party - Vlaams Belang

23 23 REGIONS IN IRELAND cCCC

24 CORE - PERIPHERY MODEL A model that helps explain differences in economic development A model that helps explain differences in economic development Economic development does not affect all areas in the same way. Economic development does not affect all areas in the same way. Some regions develop strongly because of a number or factors eg. Raw materials/strategic location for trade Some regions develop strongly because of a number or factors eg. Raw materials/strategic location for trade Other areas may not develop to the same extent because of poor resources/unfavourable environments/poor access to trade routes Other areas may not develop to the same extent because of poor resources/unfavourable environments/poor access to trade routes

25 CHARACTERISTICS OF A REGION All regions have different chacteristics but some characteristics are the same. AREA: Regions occupy an area of the earths surface that is different from all other areas around it. BOUNDARIES: Regions are separated by boundaries from surrounding regions. Some boundaries are clear e.g. mountain ranges, rivers. Some boundaries are not clear e.g. local government boundaries e.g. Mayo co. council v Castlebar Town Council. IMAGE: By naming a region people can conjure up an idea of a place e.g. France – Eiffel Tower, Garlic, USA – McDonalds, Disneyland, Gaeltacht – Aran sweaters, Thatched cottages. CHANGE: Regions change over time e.g. Dublin –Why? – Transport, Industry. Urban Sprawl, Satellite Towns, Suburbs, Commuter Belts.

26 REGIONAL DEFINITIONS CORE REGIONS - A core region is the wealthiest part of an area of land. It is the centre of economic,political and administrative life in a region e.g. Dublin, Paris Basin, Manchester-Milan-Berlin axis = core of EU. CORE REGIONS - A core region is the wealthiest part of an area of land. It is the centre of economic,political and administrative life in a region e.g. Dublin, Paris Basin, Manchester-Milan-Berlin axis = core of EU. Usually the capital of a country is in the core region. Usually the capital of a country is in the core region.

27 PERIPHERAL REGIONS A peripheral region is a region which is distant from the core and lacks economic, political and administrative investment e.g. BMW, Mezzogiorno, Greece, Scottish Highlands A peripheral region is a region which is distant from the core and lacks economic, political and administrative investment e.g. BMW, Mezzogiorno, Greece, Scottish Highlands Usually the poorest part of the country. Usually the poorest part of the country. Usually will have negative aspects to its physical geography eg drought, boggy soils Usually will have negative aspects to its physical geography eg drought, boggy soils

28 MALADJUSTED REGIONS REGIONS OF INDUSTRIAL DECLINE: These are regions which were once dependent on an industry or natural resource which is now in decline or has declined e.g. Sambre - Meuse (coal), Greater Cork Area

29

30 Core - Periphery Model Ireland CORE – The Greater Dublin Area CORE – The Greater Dublin Area Study under these headings Physical Processes Physical Processes Economic Processes Economic Processes Human Processes Human Processes Periphery – The West of Ireland Study under these headings Physical Processes Economic Processes Human Processes

31 Regional Contrasts in Ireland GDA v The West

32 Human Processes – Topics to Include in an Answer Migration – Causes and Consequences Migration – Causes and Consequences Birth Rates/Death Rates Birth Rates/Death Rates Rural Depopulation Rural Depopulation Urbanisation – Positives/Negatives Urbanisation – Positives/Negatives Openess to Change Openess to Change Education Opportunities Education Opportunities Employment Opportunities Employment Opportunities

33 BMW – Human Processes Population Decline since Famine Times – Migration Population Decline since Famine Times – Migration Aprx. 50% of total area but 27% of population Aprx. 50% of total area but 27% of population Few large urban areas – Galway 50,000 (Dominant Urban Area) Few large urban areas – Galway 50,000 (Dominant Urban Area) Lack of Education Facilities – One of the seven Universities – Most young students leave for education and do not come back Lack of Education Facilities – One of the seven Universities – Most young students leave for education and do not come back Low rates of natural increase due to low birth rates due to so few young people left – Ageing Population Low rates of natural increase due to low birth rates due to so few young people left – Ageing Population Gaeltacht areas find it very difficult to attract FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Gaeltacht areas find it very difficult to attract FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Some In migration during due to Celtic Tiger Economy Some In migration during due to Celtic Tiger Economy Population decrease = Decpletion of Infrastructure Population decrease = Decpletion of Infrastructure Tradition = Extensive Agriculture = Poor Development Tradition = Extensive Agriculture = Poor Development

34

35 CORE REGION - PARIS BASIN

36

37 PARIS BASIN – Human Processes Population of the City of Paris (Ile de France) doubled between to aprx. 12 Million but the Greater Urban area has a population of 22 Million- 1/3 of French population (Huge suburbs and New Towns – Evry/Marne-lá-Valée) Population of the City of Paris (Ile de France) doubled between to aprx. 12 Million but the Greater Urban area has a population of 22 Million- 1/3 of French population (Huge suburbs and New Towns – Evry/Marne-lá-Valée) Ile de France – High density/Birth Rate 15 per 1,000 – Death Rate 7 per 1,000- Natural Increase of 0.8% means an increase in population before migration is taken into account Ile de France – High density/Birth Rate 15 per 1,000 – Death Rate 7 per 1,000- Natural Increase of 0.8% means an increase in population before migration is taken into account Contrast with France in general- Birth Rate 12 per 1,000 and death rate of 9 per 1,000 Contrast with France in general- Birth Rate 12 per 1,000 and death rate of 9 per 1,000 Outskirts of the Paris Basin are experiencing net Emmigration while Ile de France is experiencing net Immigration Outskirts of the Paris Basin are experiencing net Emmigration while Ile de France is experiencing net Immigration 40% of all foreign migrants in France live in Paris Region 40% of all foreign migrants in France live in Paris Region 13% of the region's population are migrants – mostly from North and West Africa (Former Colonies) and Portugal 13% of the region's population are migrants – mostly from North and West Africa (Former Colonies) and Portugal

38 PARIS BASIN – Human Processes cntd. Lack of jobs and stricter migration control has slowed migration into the region in past ten years Lack of jobs and stricter migration control has slowed migration into the region in past ten years Many French people have left parts of the Ile de France and some of these areas have been replaced by migrant ghettos Many French people have left parts of the Ile de France and some of these areas have been replaced by migrant ghettos Unemployment has led to ethnic instability and Paris riots in early 2000's Unemployment has led to ethnic instability and Paris riots in early 2000's Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism – Dress codes in schools Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism – Dress codes in schools Overcrowding/High Cost of living/Inner city decline/de- industrialisation = Major Human problems Overcrowding/High Cost of living/Inner city decline/de- industrialisation = Major Human problems Urban Renewal projects have tried to improve parts of the city – Development of 8 Nodes (centres) in the greater Paris region (modern housing/employment opportunities/improved services) Example of one is Lá Defense Urban Renewal projects have tried to improve parts of the city – Development of 8 Nodes (centres) in the greater Paris region (modern housing/employment opportunities/improved services) Example of one is Lá Defense Also New Towns built outside the Ile de France with populations of over 100,000/good range of services and employment eg. Evry/Marne-le-Vallée) Also New Towns built outside the Ile de France with populations of over 100,000/good range of services and employment eg. Evry/Marne-le-Vallée)

39 REGIONS OF INDUSTRIAL DECLINE Ireland - Greater Cork Area Ireland - Greater Cork Area Belgium - Sambre-Meuse Valley Belgium - Sambre-Meuse Valley United Kingdom - South Wales United Kingdom - South Wales

40 Case Study 1. Sambre - Meuse Valley Core Region of Belgium has changed from Wallonia - Flanders Core Region of Belgium has changed from Wallonia - Flanders ’s major coal and steel/associated industries base around major coalfields of the area - Kampen/Liege/Sambre- Meuse ’s major coal and steel/associated industries base around major coalfields of the area - Kampen/Liege/Sambre- Meuse Engineering/chemicals/iron and steel Engineering/chemicals/iron and steel Decline due to new cheaper imports/decline in coal and steel/new cheaper sources of energy (oil/gas)/ new technologies = DEINDUSTRIALISATION Decline due to new cheaper imports/decline in coal and steel/new cheaper sources of energy (oil/gas)/ new technologies = DEINDUSTRIALISATION Flow of people to North/Loss of industry to North led to Flanders becoming the new core of Belgium Flow of people to North/Loss of industry to North led to Flanders becoming the new core of Belgium Wallonia became an Objective 2 Region - Attempts by government and EU to REINDUSTRIALISE the region eg. Charleroi Airport/Caterpillar Wallonia became an Objective 2 Region - Attempts by government and EU to REINDUSTRIALISE the region eg. Charleroi Airport/Caterpillar Since 1960 Flanders has experienced significant economic growth - Antwerp/Zelzate Since 1960 Flanders has experienced significant economic growth - Antwerp/Zelzate

41 Sambre-Meuse Valley - A Response to Industrial Decline? EU designated the area Objective 2 (Convergence Region) – Structural Funds from The Common Regional Policy EU designated the area Objective 2 (Convergence Region) – Structural Funds from The Common Regional Policy Investment in transport network -motorways to Randstad/Rhur/Paris Investment in transport network -motorways to Randstad/Rhur/Paris Development of new Industrial Estates near citiies such as Charleroi/La Louviere Development of new Industrial Estates near citiies such as Charleroi/La Louviere Upgrading of airports to International standard eg. Charleroi (Ryanair Hub) Upgrading of airports to International standard eg. Charleroi (Ryanair Hub) Cleaning up of derelict landscape to make it more attractive for investment Cleaning up of derelict landscape to make it more attractive for investment Jim Ryan SPC 41

42 Case Study 2 Greater Cork Area Ireland joined EEC - Began process of INDUSTRIALISATION Ireland joined EEC - Began process of INDUSTRIALISATION Verholme Shipyard/Oil Refinery/Ford/Dunlop/Irish Steel/Sunbeam Textiles added to traditional industries eg processing - Cork became a Growth Centre for the National Economy Verholme Shipyard/Oil Refinery/Ford/Dunlop/Irish Steel/Sunbeam Textiles added to traditional industries eg processing - Cork became a Growth Centre for the National Economy 1980’s Recession - Industrial decline hit the Cork area. Long established industries closed down. MNC’s eg. Ford & Dunlop closed the branch plants in Cork - DEINDUSTRIALISATION - Massive unemployment 1980’s Recession - Industrial decline hit the Cork area. Long established industries closed down. MNC’s eg. Ford & Dunlop closed the branch plants in Cork - DEINDUSTRIALISATION - Massive unemployment 1990’S - REINDUSTRIALISATION - due to booming world economy 1990’S - REINDUSTRIALISATION - due to booming world economy Lots of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) led by IDA Lots of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) led by IDA PFIZER/JOHNSON&JOHNSON/WYETH/APPLE/BOSTON SCIENTIFIC PFIZER/JOHNSON&JOHNSON/WYETH/APPLE/BOSTON SCIENTIFIC Unlike Wallonia Cork has recovered Unlike Wallonia Cork has recovered Jim Ryan SPC 42

43 Urban Regions - Case Study Dublin 60% of Irish people live in cities and towns - Dublin has by far the largest proportion - Primate City 60% of Irish people live in cities and towns - Dublin has by far the largest proportion - Primate City Ireland - One of least urbanised in Europe (European Average - 80%) Ireland - One of least urbanised in Europe (European Average - 80%) Dublin’s development traced back to Vikings - Site-Woodquay, Christchurch/ Lowest bridging point -Further developed by Normans and Plantations Dublin’s development traced back to Vikings - Site-Woodquay, Christchurch/ Lowest bridging point -Further developed by Normans and Plantations Situation - Deep sheltered bay on East Coast development of infrastructure focused here/Liffey Valley providing access to central lowlands/ Situation - Deep sheltered bay on East Coast development of infrastructure focused here/Liffey Valley providing access to central lowlands/ Agricultural Hinterland - Market City Agricultural Hinterland - Market City Large population - led to development of Industries and Services eg Guinness/Intel - IFSC/Transport system centralised in Dublin Large population - led to development of Industries and Services eg Guinness/Intel - IFSC/Transport system centralised in Dublin Urban Sprawl - Eastwards and Northwards and along coast but restricted by Irish Sea and Dublin/Wicklow mountains Urban Sprawl - Eastwards and Northwards and along coast but restricted by Irish Sea and Dublin/Wicklow mountains

44 PERIPHERAL REGION MEZZOGIORNO

45 Mezzogiorno/Gulf of Metapontino/Tarranto  2 Drainage Features Agri/Sinni Rivers flowing into Gulf of Metapontino

46 MEZZOGIORNO- Land of Midday Sun 40% of Italy's territory 40% of Italy's territory 36% of population 36% of population 25% of GDP 25% of GDP 50% of 50% of agricultural employment

47 THE MEZZOGIORNO Primary Activities Pre 1950's – most employed in Farming/Fishing Pre 1950's – most employed in Farming/Fishing Very Low incomes – 50% of average Very Low incomes – 50% of average Latifundia – Extensive Farming-Hiltops Latifundia – Extensive Farming-Hiltops Only1/4 owned own land Only1/4 owned own land 70% of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor land 70% of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor land Minifundia – overgrazing/overcultivatio n= soil erosion Minifundia – overgrazing/overcultivatio n= soil erosion Post 1950 land reform/Casa per il Mezzogiorno Land redistribution larger holdings 5-50 hectares Retraining = more Intensive farming-new machinery/new crops- citrus and olives/vines(cash crops) for large EU market- 2 seasons Irrigation eg Gulf of Metapontino(was malaria swamp)-5 rivers (coastal lowlans now the most successful area) Jim Ryan SPC 47

48 THE MEZZOGIORNO Primary Activities Pre 1950's – most employed in Farming/Fishing Pre 1950's – most employed in Farming/Fishing Very Low incomes – 50% of average Very Low incomes – 50% of average Latifundia – Extensive Farming-Hiltops Latifundia – Extensive Farming-Hiltops Only1/4 owned own land Only1/4 owned own land 70% of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor land 70% of holdings smaller than 3 Hectares of poor land Minifundia – overgrazing/overcultivatio n= soil erosion Minifundia – overgrazing/overcultivatio n= soil erosion Post 1950 land reform/Casa per il Mezzogiorno Land redistribution larger holdings 5-50 hectares Retraining = more Intensive farming-new machinery/new crops- citrus and olives/vines(cash crops) for large EU market- 2 seasons Irrigation eg Gulf of Metapontino(was malaria swamp)-5 rivers (coastal lowlans now the most successful area) Jim Ryan SPC 48

49 Mezzogiorno-Secondary Sector By 1950's only 17% of Italian workforce in Mezzogiorno By 1950's only 17% of Italian workforce in Mezzogiorno Government help-Casa per ilMezzogiorno/Grants/TaxRel ief Government help-Casa per ilMezzogiorno/Grants/TaxRel ief Infrastructure developed- Autostrada/Ports/Airports Infrastructure developed- Autostrada/Ports/Airports State companies 80% of new investment State companies 80% of new investment Development of Industrial Zones-Brindisi/Palermo/Bari/ Development of Industrial Zones-Brindisi/Palermo/Bari/ Naples Naples Between workforce almost tripled to 1.4ml/reduction on Primary sector dependance 75% 0f new jobs in Steel /Chemicals/Engineering – located on coast Inland areas remain depressed Most successful area= Bari/Brindisi/Taranto Deep water Taranto=Oil Refining/SteelMill Car Latina- Fronsione 16,000 workers Oil

50 Mezzogiorno Tertiary Sector Traditionally very poorly developed – Fascist regime of Mussolini and Mafia influence didn't help Traditionally very poorly developed – Fascist regime of Mussolini and Mafia influence didn't help Under Casa major investment in transport system – Autostrada del Sol running from Swiss Border to toe of Calabria. Also other large motorway connecting West to East of Mezzogiorno. Both help to connect it to the Core Under Casa major investment in transport system – Autostrada del Sol running from Swiss Border to toe of Calabria. Also other large motorway connecting West to East of Mezzogiorno. Both help to connect it to the Core Port developments in South West have improved accessibility – Taranto/Bari/Brindisi Port developments in South West have improved accessibility – Taranto/Bari/Brindisi Long hot dry summers thanks to anticyclone settling over the South has helped develop tourist numbers Long hot dry summers thanks to anticyclone settling over the South has helped develop tourist numbers Also the historical Roman sites, expansive underdeveloped beaches and coastal scenery have helped develop the tourist sector Also the historical Roman sites, expansive underdeveloped beaches and coastal scenery have helped develop the tourist sector Cheaper than other Italian holiday areas eg. The Northern Lakes and Amalfi coast Cheaper than other Italian holiday areas eg. The Northern Lakes and Amalfi coast

51 Mezzogiorno – Tertiary Sector cntd. Over 12 Million tourists now visit the Mezzogiorno annually Over 12 Million tourists now visit the Mezzogiorno annually 9 Million come from other parts of Italy – Need to further develop foreign tourists to help bring in further revenue 9 Million come from other parts of Italy – Need to further develop foreign tourists to help bring in further revenue Geomorphological sites are very popular eg. Mt Vesuvius near Naples and Mt. Etna in Sicily Geomorphological sites are very popular eg. Mt Vesuvius near Naples and Mt. Etna in Sicily Herculaneum and Pompeii and the Isle of Capri are hugely popular with tourists and bring valuable revenue to this area Herculaneum and Pompeii and the Isle of Capri are hugely popular with tourists and bring valuable revenue to this area The area is not overly commercialised unlike high profile tourist areas of Spain, Portugal and France so still has a natural feel to it The area is not overly commercialised unlike high profile tourist areas of Spain, Portugal and France so still has a natural feel to it The tourist season in the Mezzogiorno should be able to overcome seasonality which is a problem in other areas. This is due to warm weather for large parts of the year particularly in the East which also receives less rainfall due to the rain shadow of the Apennines The tourist season in the Mezzogiorno should be able to overcome seasonality which is a problem in other areas. This is due to warm weather for large parts of the year particularly in the East which also receives less rainfall due to the rain shadow of the Apennines

52 Subcontinental Region - India

53 India – A Sub Continental Region

54 India A Subcontinental Region - Physical

55 INDIA - BASIC STATISTICS Geographical Location: Between latitudes 8 0 4’ and ’ North and longitudes ’ and ’ East. Land Area: 3.29 Million Square Kilometers. Climate: Mainly tropical with temperatures ranging from 10 0 C – 40 0 C in most parts of the country. Capital: New Delhi. Population: Billion (estimated as at March 2008). Population growth rate: 1.606% per annum. Population density: 348 persons / square kilometer. (Population / land area in sqkm) Life expectancy at birth: years, male; years, female. Literacy rate: 65.47% (as per 2001 Census). Languages spoken: Eighteen principal languages; majority speak Hindi; business language: English. Major religions: Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism. International Airports: Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bangalore, Chennai, Dabolim, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Nagpur, New Delhi, Shrinagar and Thiruvananthapuram. Major Seaports: Chennai, Ennore, Haldia, Kandla, Kochi, Kolkata, Marmagao, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin and Vishakhapatnam.

56 India Physical Processes 3 Main Regions – Northern Mountains/Indus-Ganges Plain/ Southern Plateau 3 Main Regions – Northern Mountains/Indus-Ganges Plain/ Southern Plateau NORTHERN MOUNTAINS NORTHERN MOUNTAINS Extremely high and separate India from neighbours Extremely high and separate India from neighbours Extend from Hindu Kush in North West to Himalayas in North East containing Mt Everest and next 23 highest peaks in world Extend from Hindu Kush in North West to Himalayas in North East containing Mt Everest and next 23 highest peaks in world Formed by tectonic collision of Eurasian Plate (Continental) and Indian Plate (Oceanic) Formed by tectonic collision of Eurasian Plate (Continental) and Indian Plate (Oceanic) Collision caused uplifting at the convergent boundary and formed fold mts approx. 35 Million years ago (Alpine Fold System) Collision caused uplifting at the convergent boundary and formed fold mts approx. 35 Million years ago (Alpine Fold System)

57 India Physical Processes cntd. Indus-Ganges Plain Indus-Ganges Plain A huge depression formed south of the fold mts.. Follows the Indus river valley from Pakistan through Ganges valley and ends in Bangladesh as a double Delta – Ganges/Brahmaputra A huge depression formed south of the fold mts.. Follows the Indus river valley from Pakistan through Ganges valley and ends in Bangladesh as a double Delta – Ganges/Brahmaputra Covered in thousands of metres of rich Alluvial soils washed down by Indus Ganges and Brahmaputra which are swollen by summer meltwater from these rivers causing flooding of their floodplains Covered in thousands of metres of rich Alluvial soils washed down by Indus Ganges and Brahmaputra which are swollen by summer meltwater from these rivers causing flooding of their floodplains Flooding is positive from soil formation point of view but negative as valuable land can be destroyed Flooding is positive from soil formation point of view but negative as valuable land can be destroyed

58 India Physical Processes cntd. Southern Plateaux: Southern Plateaux: The south is made up of a number of plateaux The south is made up of a number of plateaux Largest is Deccan Plateau which tilts from West to East Largest is Deccan Plateau which tilts from West to East 2 mountain ranges – Western Ghats/Eastern Ghats, border narrow coastal ranges 2 mountain ranges – Western Ghats/Eastern Ghats, border narrow coastal ranges Both mountain ranges have an effect on onshore winds and the amount of rainfall falling on the peninsula area of India Both mountain ranges have an effect on onshore winds and the amount of rainfall falling on the peninsula area of India

59 INDIA - Climate

60 India Physical Processes cntd. CLIMATE CLIMATE Tropical Continental Monsoon – most of India is in the Tropics Tropical Continental Monsoon – most of India is in the Tropics Frost only happens in mountains of North and North West Frost only happens in mountains of North and North West Temperatures are generally high all year round but summer maximum inland can reach 40c+ Temperatures are generally high all year round but summer maximum inland can reach 40c+ 2 Seasons: Dry Monsoon/Wet Monsoon 2 Seasons: Dry Monsoon/Wet Monsoon DRY MONSOON DRY MONSOON October-February cool winds blow outwards from area of high pressure in centre of Asia. Dry winds bringing freezing temperatures and snow to North October-February cool winds blow outwards from area of high pressure in centre of Asia. Dry winds bringing freezing temperatures and snow to North March-June these winds become warmer and can bring temperatures up to 49c to Ganges Valley March-June these winds become warmer and can bring temperatures up to 49c to Ganges Valley

61 India Physical Processes cntd. WET MONSOON WET MONSOON Mid June-September warm ocean winds are sucked in to a low pressure area – 2 winds Mid June-September warm ocean winds are sucked in to a low pressure area – 2 winds First wind is a South-West monsoon from Arabian Sea. Air rises to come in over Western Ghats and falls as intense relief rain First wind is a South-West monsoon from Arabian Sea. Air rises to come in over Western Ghats and falls as intense relief rain Second wind blows from Bay of Bengal and goes northwards along Brahmaputra and Ganges river valleys – Can give up to 10,000mm over a six week period Second wind blows from Bay of Bengal and goes northwards along Brahmaputra and Ganges river valleys – Can give up to 10,000mm over a six week period The further west along the Ganges valley they go the lighter the rains become. By the time they get to extreme North West they have become dry and lead to Desert conditions The further west along the Ganges valley they go the lighter the rains become. By the time they get to extreme North West they have become dry and lead to Desert conditions Monsoons bring essential water supplies to India and if they are late or do not arrive at all can bring widespread famine to the country as crops fail Monsoons bring essential water supplies to India and if they are late or do not arrive at all can bring widespread famine to the country as crops fail

62 PRIMARY ACTIVITIES - Agriculture India has the same amount of cultivated land as in the whole of the EU India has the same amount of cultivated land as in the whole of the EU Cereal production is the main type of farming Cereal production is the main type of farming Holdings are small aprx. 0.5 Hectares – some have no land at all Holdings are small aprx. 0.5 Hectares – some have no land at all 2/3 of India's population depend directly on the land 2/3 of India's population depend directly on the land ¼ of agricultural land owned by less than 5% ¼ of agricultural land owned by less than 5% Intensive subsistence Intensive subsistence Rice is main crop – also wheat and millet in drier Northern areas Rice is main crop – also wheat and millet in drier Northern areas Very labour intensive – most done by hand Very labour intensive – most done by hand Double-Cropping is widespread. Rice grown in wet season and other cereals grown in dry season Double-Cropping is widespread. Rice grown in wet season and other cereals grown in dry season

63 PRIMARY ACTIVITIES Agriculture cntd. The population is ever increasing which means output also needs to increase – huge demand The population is ever increasing which means output also needs to increase – huge demand Genetically Modified varieties of rice/wheat giving high yields and resistant to disease/pests have been introduced - This is the 'Green Revolution' and has led India to become a net exporter of some foods Genetically Modified varieties of rice/wheat giving high yields and resistant to disease/pests have been introduced - This is the 'Green Revolution' and has led India to become a net exporter of some foods Largest livestock numbers in the world but of poor quality. Slaughter of cows is outlawed in many states of India due to religious beliefs (Hindu) Largest livestock numbers in the world but of poor quality. Slaughter of cows is outlawed in many states of India due to religious beliefs (Hindu) Most beef comes from malnourished cattle who have died of old age and is not very nutritious Most beef comes from malnourished cattle who have died of old age and is not very nutritious Agriculture totally dependent on the arrival of the 2 Monsoon periods Agriculture totally dependent on the arrival of the 2 Monsoon periods Jim Ryan SPC 63

64 PRIMARY ACTIVITIES - Mining Large reserves of Iron Ore and Copper Large reserves of Iron Ore and Copper Also Bauxite which makes Aluminium, Zinc/Gold/Silver Also Bauxite which makes Aluminium, Zinc/Gold/Silver Oil reserves in the Arabian Sea and brought to shore in Mumbai Oil reserves in the Arabian Sea and brought to shore in Mumbai Coal produced in West Bengal and Bihar Coal produced in West Bengal and Bihar Jim Ryan SPC 64

65 SECONDARY ACTIVITIES Independence achieved in 1947 and only 2% of labour force was employed in Industry at that time Independence achieved in 1947 and only 2% of labour force was employed in Industry at that time Most industry concentrated on main cities (colonial legacy) – Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai due to large cheap labour force/large home market and natural resources(coal & iron) Most industry concentrated on main cities (colonial legacy) – Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai due to large cheap labour force/large home market and natural resources(coal & iron) New Indian govt focused on: New Indian govt focused on: 1. Agri-Industry – Food Processing/Fertilisers 1. Agri-Industry – Food Processing/Fertilisers 2. Craft Industries – employing large amounts of people with traditional skills 2. Craft Industries – employing large amounts of people with traditional skills 3. Rural Community based projects to reduce migration from rural areas to cities 3. Rural Community based projects to reduce migration from rural areas to cities 4. High tech industries – Computers/Engineering – located mostly in Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai/Bangalore 4. High tech industries – Computers/Engineering – located mostly in Kolkata/Mumbai/Chennai/Bangalore

66 INDIA Secondary Sector New growth sectors include call centres in cities such as Mumbai and Bangalore

67 Jim Ryan SPC

68 SECONDARY ACTIVITIES cntd. New Capital City set up after independence – New Delhi- a new urban centre to attract economic development New Capital City set up after independence – New Delhi- a new urban centre to attract economic development Major growth areas were also developed in the established cities – shift focus from Industries developed during British occupation Major growth areas were also developed in the established cities – shift focus from Industries developed during British occupation MUMBAI: Electronics/Pharmaceuticals (to add to traditional industries such as food processing and textiles) MUMBAI: Electronics/Pharmaceuticals (to add to traditional industries such as food processing and textiles) CHENNAI: Computer Software (to add to textiles and light engineering) CHENNAI: Computer Software (to add to textiles and light engineering) KOLKATA: Cotton /Clothing/Jute/Heavy engineering had always been here(British) but it became enhanced with the development of the Indian owned TATA IRON AND STEEL COMPANY KOLKATA: Cotton /Clothing/Jute/Heavy engineering had always been here(British) but it became enhanced with the development of the Indian owned TATA IRON AND STEEL COMPANY

69 INDIA – Tertiary Activities Very poorly developed and typical of a poor population with little money to spend on services Very poorly developed and typical of a poor population with little money to spend on services 2 Types of Services: 2 Types of Services: 1. Regular Services for Wealthy members of society (5% of population) 1. Regular Services for Wealthy members of society (5% of population) 2. The Informal Sector (Black Market?) Unlicensed vendors/street traders/organised begging rackets/prostitution/drug dealing Transport Transport Very poor road infrastructure – most of rural India does not have access to tarred roads suitable for cars and other vehicles Very poor road infrastructure – most of rural India does not have access to tarred roads suitable for cars and other vehicles Many rural communities depend on dirt-tracks and cattle- drawn carts Many rural communities depend on dirt-tracks and cattle- drawn carts

70 INDIA – Tertiary Sector cntd. Tourism: India has such a vast and diverse landscape that it could offer much for potential tourists: India has such a vast and diverse landscape that it could offer much for potential tourists: Mountain Climbing/Trekking – Himalayas/Ghats Mountain Climbing/Trekking – Himalayas/Ghats Religious temples – Hindu/Buddhist/Sikh/Muslim Religious temples – Hindu/Buddhist/Sikh/Muslim Rivers – Transport/Adventure/Spirituality- Ganges/Brahmaputra/Indus Rivers – Transport/Adventure/Spirituality- Ganges/Brahmaputra/Indus Wide variety of wildlife Wide variety of wildlife The problem is that the poor development of the country's infrastructure and safety issues in cities along with racial/religious tensions in areas such as Kashmir restrict the potential of tourism The problem is that the poor development of the country's infrastructure and safety issues in cities along with racial/religious tensions in areas such as Kashmir restrict the potential of tourism Poverty and disease can be off putting for potential tourists Poverty and disease can be off putting for potential tourists

71 INDIA – Human Processes Population: 1.2 billion (1/4 of everyone on planet) Only a quarter of them have access to clean water Half are illiterate

72 INDIA – Human Processes Population cntd. Natural Increase – 1.6% per year -ie its population increases by aprx. 16 Million per year! This will continue as a trend as India's population is very young Natural Increase – 1.6% per year -ie its population increases by aprx. 16 Million per year! This will continue as a trend as India's population is very young Estimates suggest the Indian population could reach 2 Billion by 2040 Estimates suggest the Indian population could reach 2 Billion by 2040 Death Rates are quite high despite improvements in healthcare Death Rates are quite high despite improvements in healthcare Large rural families due to social reasons (looking after parents)/religious/cultural beliefs Large rural families due to social reasons (looking after parents)/religious/cultural beliefs Food supply is becoming a major challenge Food supply is becoming a major challenge Insufficient jobs for this population growth = further poverty Insufficient jobs for this population growth = further poverty Rural-Urban migration is almost out of control Rural-Urban migration is almost out of control India has only recently entered the third stage of the 'POPULATION CYCLE' India has only recently entered the third stage of the 'POPULATION CYCLE' Population distribution is uneven. High population densities in the Ganges river valley/coastal lowlands but low population densities in the interior regions – areas such as Thar Desert/Mountainous regions Population distribution is uneven. High population densities in the Ganges river valley/coastal lowlands but low population densities in the interior regions – areas such as Thar Desert/Mountainous regions

73 INDIA – Human Processes - Culture

74 INDIA - Culture  India's culture has been influenced by: Migration of Indo-Europeans Migration of Indo-Europeans Spread of Islam Spread of Islam British Colonialism British Colonialism India has over 1,600 languages and dialects (Disunity) India has over 1,600 languages and dialects (Disunity) Schools teach 58 different languages Schools teach 58 different languages National newspapers printed in 87 different languages National newspapers printed in 87 different languages These languages/dialects can be arranged into 2Main Groups: These languages/dialects can be arranged into 2Main Groups: 1. Indo-European 1. Indo-European 2. Dravidian 2. Dravidian Hindi is the official state language – resented by other language groups Hindi is the official state language – resented by other language groups

75 INDIA – Human Processes Religion  HINDUISM: Multi-layered CASTE system – Highest ranked such as priests (Brahmins) at the top. The bottom are the unclean (Untouchables) Multi-layered CASTE system – Highest ranked such as priests (Brahmins) at the top. The bottom are the unclean (Untouchables) It is frowned upon to socialise or marry outside your own caste – happening somewhat now in large urban centres It is frowned upon to socialise or marry outside your own caste – happening somewhat now in large urban centres Hindus regard cow as sacred Hindus regard cow as sacred The dominant religion The dominant religionISLAM: Introduced by traders Introduced by traders 200 Million muslims in India 200 Million muslims in India Most common in Indus/Ganges river basins Most common in Indus/Ganges river basins Not common in peninsular India Not common in peninsular India A growing religion – accepts converts disillusioned with other religions A growing religion – accepts converts disillusioned with other religions

76 INDIA – Human Processes Religion cntd.  Sikhism: Founded in 15 th century Founded in 15 th century No caste system No caste system Powerful cultural group Powerful cultural group Focal area is the Punjab region Focal area is the Punjab regionBuddhism: A minority religion in India Christianity:

77

78 Jim Ryan SPC 78

79

80 Conflict In Kashmir  1947 – Creation of the two countries  Secular, mostly Hindu India  Muslim nation of Pakistan  Conflict between Hindus and Muslims in Kashmir dates back to British rule before partition.  India and Pakistan are technically still waiting for a UN decision on where the final border between the two countries will be.  Civil war has erupted repeatedly and sporadic fighting continues along the boundary line. Both India and Pakistan have nuclear weapons.


Download ppt "A Region is an area on the earth’s surface which is different to all areas around it. It has different characteristics e.g. physical (climate soils, rocks,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google