1Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative Future Unleaded Aviation Gasoline National Warbird Operator Conference New Orleans, LA February 27, 2015
2Presenter Doug Macnair Vice President Government Relations Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA)
3Why Are We Discussing This? Tetra-Ethyl Lead NWOC 2011 – Pensacola , FLEAA presented the challenges to long-term leaded fuel availabilityPetitions and suits by environmental organizationsPending EPA regulationReduced ambient air quality standardsEndangerment findingMarket forcesSingle source of Tetra-ethyl leadLead phased out of most every other product
42011 Summation of Challenges Significant barriers exit to development and transitionLow production volume/broad geographic distributionLow incentive for investmentNo market for fuel without recertification of existing fleetNo one to invest in fleet-wide recertification effortNo drop-in replacement for 100LL (20+ year search)Unleaded fuel properties and chemistry will be dramatically different than 100LLImpact on fleet unknown in absence of proposed fuels and means of evaluationOctane only one of many necessary propertiesProduction ability and affordability as important as fuel properties
5Research, Development, Implementation and Transition Must Be a Collaborative Effort No one can do this aloneConsensus and the marketplace must drive the solution and yet the marketplace is broken/constrainedFuel must be affordable and satisfy the existing fleet to the greatest degree possible
62011 Punchline – “This is Not a Crisis” But it is an urgent and top priority issue that demands ongoing attention, resources, funding and management“Fuel is one of our top advocacy initiatives and is one of the key aviation issues of our time.” Rod Hightower, Former EAA President
7Since NWOC 2011?EAA stood by its word and has taken a leadership role coordinating and collaborating with a host of aviation/petroleum stakeholders and government to turn endless questions into a pathway for finding answers
8Funded by congress, FAA and industry in-kind support The Result?The industry/government collaborative effort known as the Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative (PAFI)Funded by congress, FAA and industry in-kind support
9Path To Unleaded Avgas201120122010Jan ARC Charter Signed by FAA AdministratorJuly 2010– Oshkosh, GA Coalition Asks FAA to take Leadership Role to Form Public-Private PartnershipFeb UAT ARC Final Report & Recommendations ReleasedARC DeliberationsImplementation of ARC Recommendations201320142012 FAA Fuels Prog Office AIR-202012 PAFI Steering Group (PSG)June 2013 FAA SIR Released2014 PAFI TEC & TAC ImplementedJuly 2014 Industry SIR Proposals forUL AVGAS2012 FAA Central Cert AIR-21Sept 2014 Phase I Test ProgramPAFI Work Begins
10PAFI Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative Where are we?Where are we going?How we will get there?
11Key Takeaways Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative (PAFI) Implemented, funded and in processFleet-wide approval is the primary goal9 fuels from 5 offerors entered the program July 2014FAA identified 4 fuels from 3 offerors to enter Phase 1 Sept. 2014Phase 2 to begin Jan. 2016Completion of PAFISupported and funded by Congress and FAAPAFI is not “picking” a fuel but rather qualifying the best fuels for useSupply of current leaded avgas remains stable
12PAFI Mission“The mission of PAFI is to evaluate candidate unleaded replacement fuels and identify those fuels best able to technically satisfy the needs of the existing aircraft fleet while also considering the production, distribution, cost, availability, environmental and health impacts of those fuels.”
13PAFI Mission Continued “PAFI was conceived and established to overcome the barriers to entry into the aviation fuel marketplace by creating a process that would evaluate all of the properties and conditions necessary for broad production, distribution and usage of a new unleaded aviation fuel, and expeditiously develop data necessary to support FAA approval of the majority of the existing fleet of piston aircraft to operate on that fuel.”
14PAFI OverviewPAFI is a robust joint government/industry initiative established at the request of a broad cross section of the aviation and petroleum industries and consumer representativesFormed pursuant to the recommendations of the UAT ARC Final ReportPath forward for the identification, evaluation and deployment of the most promising unleaded replacements for 100LL avgastechnically satisfy the needs of the existing aircraft fleetconsiders production, distribution, cost, availability, environmental and health impactsGoal is data to support FAA fleetwide approval and ASTM specification
15PAFI FundingPresident’s Budget Request Shows Full Funding for Unleaded Avgas Program through 2018Annual FY Budget Request Approximately $6 millionCongress has authorized $6 million in fiscal year 2015Funding supports the PAFI test program at the FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center and outside contractorsIndustry In-Kind SupportFuel development and supply for testing programTechnical expertise for qualification and testing methodsEquipment and services for test programProgram oversight and management
16PAFI Steering Group (PSG) PurposeFacilitates, coordinates, expedites, promotes, and oversees the PAFI program based upon the recommendations of the UAT ARC Final ReportCoordinates resources and support necessary to execute the programEngages industry stakeholders for allocation of manpower and resources to support working groups and the PAFI test programMembersAOPA – Aircraft Owners and Pilots AssociationAPI – American Petroleum InstituteEAA – Experimental Aircraft AssociationGAMA – General Aviation Manufacturers AssociationNATA – National Air Transportation AssociationNBAA – National Business Aircraft AssociationFAA - Federal Aviation Administration
17PAFI Steering Group Cont. ManagementFAA and Industry Co-LeadsFAA Co-Lead (Peter White)Manager of FAA Fuels Program Office AIR 20Serves as FAA program managerMonitors, directs, and coordinates overall government related PAFI activitiesIndustry Co-Lead (Ron Wilkinson)Reports to and compensated by the PSGServes as the industry Program ManagerInterfaces with Industry, FAA, and fuel developersSee following link for further information on PAFI
18PAFI Support GroupsTechnical Advisory Committee (TAC)Reports to PAFI Steering Group (PSG)Membership represents aviation product and fuel manufacturersVenue to provide industry “in-kind” support – technical and equipmentTechnical Evaluation Committee (TEC)Reports to FAA – FAA consultants and employees vetted for conflict of interest with areas of expertise to evaluate fuels to selection criteriaEvaluates fuel proposals furnished in response to the SIRResponsible for Phase I fuel selectionResponsible for Phase II fuel selectionDistinct and Separate Support Groups with NO interconnections
19Path To Unleaded Avgas 2018 2017 PAFI Phase I 2016 PAFI Phase II 2015 Select Phase I Fuels2014PAFI Phase IPhase I Test ProgramASTM Lab & Rig Tests20152016Select Phase II FuelsPAFI Phase II2017Phase II Engine & Aircraft Test ProgramFinal Reports / FAA Certification2018ASTM Research Report - Production Fuel SpecificationPAFI Program July 28, 2014
20PAFI SIR and Prescreening Phase FAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Pre-Screening SIR PhaseOfferorPre-Screening DataUnleaded AVGAS proposals received July 1, 2014(11 formulations/6 offerors)Afton Chemical CompanyAvgas LLCConsortium of BP, TOTAL, & HjelmcoShellSwift FuelsTOTAL
21Candidate Fuel Evaluation – Phase I Selection FAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Pre-Screening SIR PhaseOfferorPASSPre-Screening DataRejectedOTAFour formulations selected by the TEC - September 1, 2014Shell – 1 formulationSwift Fuels – 2 formulationsTOTAL – 1 formulation
22PAFI Phase I Test Program 390 gals of fuel eachFAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Pre-Screening SIR PhasePhase 1 (Fuel Testing)Testing at FAA Tech Center And Contract SitesSelected OfferorsOfferorPASSPre-Screening DataRejectedOTACooperative Research Agreements/International Research Contract – December 2014Delivery of Phase 1 Worst Case Formulations to FAA Tech Center – January 2015
23Think This Is Just About Octane? Octane requirement is just the tip of the icebergAvgas has many qualities necessary to control adverse outcomes in our aircraft and enginesEvaluating the impact of completely new fuel chemistry on the full history of aircraft production is an immensely complicated undertaking
24PAFI Test ProgramPhase I – Lab Tests, Emissions & Toxicology AssessmentsWork Product – Evaluation of candidate fuels for potentially show- stopping issuesChemical makeupPerformance propertiesEstablish credible and peer-reviewed test protocols for ascertaining necessary fit-for-purpose dataFit for purpose testing across the various ranges allowed by the fuel formulations (worse case formulations)Evaluate emissions and toxicology propertiesBaseline detonation testingData from Phase 1 will be used to evaluate the business case for candidate fuel production, distribution and availability to consumers
25What Does 390 Gallons of Test Fuel Do? EXAMPLE ONLYOverall Fuel Quantity (gals.)GCxGC MS Fuel Quantity (ml)FAA TC Lab Testing Fuel Qantity (gals)Dixie Services Lab Testing Fuel Quantity (gals)Rig Testing Fuel Quantity (gals)Material Comp Lab Fuel Quantity (gals)Detonation/ Emissions [emissions to be performed on worse case detonation fuel]Formulation #5010 ml455Materials Compatibility [corrosion impacts from soak tests using elastomers, sealants, and metals]130Rig No. 1 Low Temp Fuel Flow Ability (1 rig) [e.g. waxy buildup, viscosity changes, pumpability effects, and atomization impacts]3525Rig No. 2 Carburetor Icing (1 rig) [maximize heat of vaporization and density]301020Rig No. 3 Dynamic Fuel Sys (5 rigs)100Rig No. 4 Storage Stability (5 rigs)Rig No. 5 Cold Storage (5 rigs)Rig No. 6 Hot Surface Ignition (5 rigs)Overall Fuel Quantity390Final lists of laboratory tests per sample being finalized.
26Fuel Property Laboratory Testing Final agreed-to laboratory test methods for specific fuel property measurementsDixie Services Inc., Galena, Texas awarded two-year contract with FAA WJHTC for laboratory servicesIdentify traditional fuel properties for each candidate fuelDensityVapor PressureFreeze PointDistillation CurveCorrosivityFlash pointAnd many others
27Fit-for-Purpose Rig Testing PEGASAS FAA Center of Excellence Contract Awarded to Purdue University, Sept. 02, 2014Stage 1, Rig Design/Build – December 2014Stage 2, Rig Testing – March 2015Rig #1, Low Temperature Flow AbilityRig #2, Carburetor IcingRig #3, Dynamic Fuel SystemRig #4, Storage StabilityRig #5, Cold StorageRig #6, Hot Surface
28Rig #1, Low Temperature Flow Ability Evaluate performance changes in hardware due to cooling of the fuel.
29Rig #2, Carburetor IcingEvaluate any significant difference between a baseline 100 LL fuel and the candidate fuels regarding the formation of carburetor ice.Purdue University test stand. Test Method Development sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council Project No. AV-17-13
30Rig #3, Dynamic Fuel System Assessing that there is no unexpected or premature wear, a rig capable of flowing fuel in a cyclical manner through typical aircraft hardware.
31Rig #4, Storage Stability Evaluate the behavior of fuel in a tank over time. Storage in a 43 °C oven and storage in a tank under ambient conditions will be conducted.
32Rig #5, Cold StorageDetermine how the fuel will behave, especially with respect to separation as the fuel is cooled.
33Rig #6, Hot SurfaceEvaluate any propensity of the fuel to create build-up, for example on the engine manifold during shut down, due to fuel dropping on hot surfaces and to develop an understanding of the subset of hot surface ignition within the auto ignition regime.
34Materials Compatibility Testing Baere Aerospace via subcontractor to FAA WJHTCTest procedures and materials lists being finalizedNonmetallicsMetallicsFabricCompositesCoatingsDistribution network materialsIndustry in-kind support for donation of materials and components for materials compatibility and fuel system test rigsTextronLycomingContinentalCirrus
35Initial Engine Detonation Testing Limited in scopeTo be used for Phase 2 entrance evaluationTwo power settings: Takeoff and 75% powerBaseline 100LL includedLycoming IO-540-K EngineEngine model used in extensive CRC engine testing6 cylinder300 BHPCritical engine
36Engine Out Emissions/Ecological Assessment FAA WJH Technical Center exhaust engine-out emissions console.Total Hydrocarbons (THC)Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)Carbon Dioxide (CO2)Carbon Monoxide (CO)Oxygen (O2)ParticulatesLimited engine cycle:Low power, full-rich fuel mixture (e.g. idle and taxi)Mid power, full-rich and lean fuel mixture (e.g. approach)High Power, full-rich mixture (e.g. takeoff)Emissions/Toxicology Literature Search – An additional assessment identifying any issues in available literature and references for each of the major fuel components that differ from the community experience with 100LL, along with the experience regarding the use of components in additional modal transportation fuels will be summarized in a final white paper.Literature Search/ White Paper is similar to previous work presented at the 2013 North American Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Annual Meeting, November 17-21, 2013
37GCxGC - Mass Spectrometer Evaluate and verify the exact chemical makeup of each candidate fuelUsed to validate and establish baseline for all Phase I test resultsGCxGC testing is being performed in addition to the ASTM D6733 High Resolution GC, to evaluate the validity of the high resolution GC analysisPictures were accessed from SHIMADZU.com on 12/5/14.
38Evaluation of PAFI Phase I Test Data 390 gals of fuel eachFAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Phase 1 DataPre-Screening SIR PhasePhase 1 (Fuel Testing)Testing at FAA Tech Center and Contract SitesOfferorFAA Tech Evaluation Committee 1/2016PASSPre-Screening DataRejectedOTA
39PAFI Phase II Test Program 390 gals of fuel eachOTAFAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Phase 1 DataPre-Screening SIR PhasePhase 1 (Fuel Testing)Phase 2 (Full-Scale Testing)Testing at FAA Tech Center and Contract SitesOfferorSelected Offerors10,000 gals of fuel eachPASSPre-Screening DataRejectedFAA Tech Evaluation Committee 1/2016
40PAFI Test Program Phase II – Full Scale Engine & Aircraft Testing Work Product – Data packages from full scale engine & aircraft testing to support ASTM Research Reports and Standards & FAA Fleet Wide ApprovalFuels will be tested at the engine and aircraft level to evaluate their suitability across as much of the existing fleet as possibleConsists of an integrated engine and aircraft test program testing multiple fuels in multiple engines and multiple aircraftData collected from this testing will generate data that can be used to support the fleet wide approval of aircraft and engines including the orphaned fleet no longer supported by a manufacturer. This program is the most viable path to a fleet wide approval of new fuel formulationsData from the Phase I and Phase II testing will also be submitted for ASTM Production Specification, enabling the fuels to be accepted in the marketplace. FAA involvement in this step will ensure acceptance and adoption of the fuel by consumers and across the petroleum and aviation industry.
41PAFI Phase II Completion – Approval Data 390 gals of fuel eachOTAFAA Technical Evaluation Committee 2014Phase 1 DataPhase 2 DataPre-Screening SIR PhasePhase 1 (Fuel Testing)Phase 2 (Equipment Testing)Testing at FAA Tech Center and Contract SitesOfferorSelected Offerors10,000 gals of fuel eachPASSPre-Screening DataRejectedFAA Tech Evaluation Committee 1/2016
42“Fleet-Wide” Approval Fleet-wide authorization is the PRIMARY GOAL OF PAFIApproach will not result in classic engine/airframe specific approvals, as there will be no applicant, and no certificate issuedPlan to determine and publish eligibility lists of engines/aircraft that can utilize the new unleaded AVGAS formulation(s)FAA and industry are currently working with Congress to expand or creating new statutory authorization for fleet wide transitionApproach and implementation is fuel dependentFuel properties & compositionImpact on engine and aircraft modelsPlan to publish eligibility lists in the Federal Register
43Key Takeaways FAA/Industry Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative (PAFI) Purpose:Facilitate transition to unleaded replacement Avgas with least impact on existing fleetPrimary objective is FAA determination of aircraft and engine eligibility for replacement unleaded fuelsStatus & Milestones:5-Year Program Under Way and Funded by Congress & Industry ContributionsJuly 2014: 11 candidate fuels from 6 offerors entered the programSept. 2014: 4 fuels from 3 offerors accepted into Phase 1December November 2015 – Phase 1 test programJan. 2016: Qualified fuels to enter Phase 2 evaluationDec. 2018: Final fuel(s) complete PAFI testing to support fleet-wide “approval”PAFI is a robust industry-government collaborative initiativeCrucial to establishing viable marketplace for unleaded fuelProgram is on schedule and anticipated to stay that way
44Next Few Years PAFI working an aggressive and ambitious timeline EPA timing it’s regulatory actions in harmony with PAFI timelinesEndangerment Finding – NPRM 2017, Final Rule 2018Aircraft Lead Emissions Standard – 2018 or thereafterFAA to implement EPA emissions standard requiring use of unleaded fuelAnticipated 2019 or thereafterAvailability of leaded avgas remains stable and is projected to be so through the transitionIndustry working closely with existing lead supplier and fuel industry to coordinate orderly transition from leaded to unleaded fuel
46Background SlidesHistory and background of avgas and avgas regulation
47A Brief History of Gasoline Used for Aviation in the U.S. 100 Years in 200 Seconds
48S1903 – Wright Brothers fly using unleaded autogas (40-70 Octane estimated)1917 – U.S. Army adopts first avgas specification unleaded “Fighting Grade”1921 – Tetra-Ethyl Lead (TEL) discovered by General Motors to be perfect anti-knock compound1927 – Dark side learned with death of 17 refinery workers1930 – US Army Air Corps adopts first leaded avgas (3 ml/gal max TEL)1944 – avgas development peaks with Grade 115/145Highest octane aviation gasoline in large-scale production
491950’s – Six grades of avgas is production 73 (No Lead)80/87 (0.5 gr/gal TEL)*91/96 (2.0 gr/gal TEL)*100/130 (3.0 gr/gal TEL)*108/135 (4.0 gr/gal TEL)*115/145 (4.6 gr/gal TEL)**All lead contents reflect maximum TEL permissible under the specification1960’s – Demand for high octane avgas plummets with proliferation of turbine engines in commercial service
501970 – Clean Air Act signed into law 1960’s – GA engine manufacturers begin issuing service instructions limiting use of highest lead fuels in low-compression engines due to lead fouling and valve sticking/wear1970 – Clean Air Act signed into lawLead is one of the first targets1971 – Consolidation of multiple high octane grades to a single avgas – 100 Low Lead (2.0 gr/gal TEL) 50% reductionOver time eliminates grades:91/96100/130108/135115/145
511990 – EPA Clean Air Act Amendments Watershed Moment…Perceived to threaten elimination of lead in avgas by 1995 (non-road vehicles)Avgas found not to apply to 1995 deadline on a technicality found in Congressional Record (aircraft are not “non-road” vehicles)But…EPA found to hold authority to regulate lead in avgas at any time since 1970
521991 – “Fuel Crisis Conference” held in Washington, DC Brings together all concerned parties on the lead issue for the first timeOwners Associations and Type ClubsPetroleum Producers and ResellersEngine manufacturersAirframe manufacturersBegins 20 years of research to understand the technical complexities and limitations of trying to replace lead in high-octane aviation gasoline
53What is the difference between avgas and other gasolines? Everything! Only the name is the same…In simple terms:Autogas is a distillateFrom a barrel of oil one can distill different products in various ratios depending on the oil, refinery and temperature (heavy & light ends)Autogas is a relatively simple distillate which is why we can make so much of it so cheaply
54What is the difference between avgas and gasoline? Avgas is NOT a distillate; it is a specialty chemical blendNapthas made into iso-octane/iso-pentane or reformateHydrocracking, alkylation processesTolueneTetra-Ethyl Lead (TEL)Benzene (lead scavenger)
55Factors Affecting Long-Term Availability of 100LL EconomicThere is no assurance of long-term supply of leaded avgasShrinking number of producers (7 refineries in North America)Currently a single producer of tetra-ethyl lead (TEL)Innospec has indicated that they will continue to supply TEL as long as there is a market but that still leaves the fate of the industry hinging on a sole supplier
56Factors Affecting Long-Term Availability of 100LL Avgas Avgas is specialty chemical or niche fuelVery low volume - accounts for 0.1% of all transportation fuelU.S. Fuel Production 2008 Barrels Per Day
57Factors Affecting Long-Term Availability of 100LL U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Deliveries by Refiners(Thousand Gallons per Day)DecadeYear-0Year-1Year-2Year-3Year-4Year-5Year-6Year-7Year-8Year-9 1980's418.5316.5281.3251.7193.0225.9206.8 1990's207.0204.8210.6207.8222.9212.4169.3167.6154.0148.1 2000's166.1122.7110.1121.898.5106.188.6103.5144.3150.9
58Environmental Significant lead reductions by all other sources Aviation is now largest source (over 45%)2006 and 2014 petition by Friends of the Earth to regulate GA lead emissions under the Clean Air ActEPA regulatory actions on lead
59EPA Regulatory Actions on Lead Currently: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead10-fold reduction in allowable lead limit in 2010Requires monitoring near major sources (airports) and populated areasStates must meet new NAAQS for lead by 2017This is not a ban on 100LLMonitoring to date has not exceeded the new standards with two exceptions
60EPA Regulatory Actions on Lead Next Steps: Endangerment Finding on Lead from GA2010 Advance NPRM marked the beginning of the “endangerment finding process”EAA and a coalition of aviation and petroleum interests filed commentsEPA plans NPRM in 2017 and final rule in 2018An endangerment finding does not ban 100LLAdditional rulemaking would be required to implementEPA would set new emissions standards for leadFAA would have to implement the change to the fuel