Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry IndustrializationUnit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry
2 LEQ: Why was the United States successful at industrialization? Drill:What does a country need in order to be successful?
3 Industrial Revolution **Revolution - a drastic change**A period from the 18th to the 19th century (1700s-1800s) that is characterized by major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technologyA transition from manual labor and animal–based to machine-based manufacturingIt had a profound effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditionsBegan in Great Britain then spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.
4 Why was the United States successful at industrialization? abundance of raw materialsUnited States Becomes an Industrial Nation
5 Why was the United States successful at industrialization? abundance of raw materials; oil productionUnited States Becomes an Industrial Nationpopulation increasenew inventionsthe economic system :Free enterprise = laissez-faire
6 Lesson 1 Assignments:Read pages of the text and complete LEQ graphic organizerDefine the following terms: gross national product (GDP), laissez-faire, entrepreneur
7 LEQ: How did the railroad industry transform the nation? Drill:What importance does transportation have in our world today?How do modes of transportation effect society and our lives?
8 Transcontinental Railroad 1862 Pacific Railway Act gave the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad companies permission to build a transcontinental railroadBuilt to link the well developed railway network of the Eastern coast with rapidly growing Western coast (California)May 10th 1869 Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads meet in Promontory, Utah to complete the Transcontinental Railroad
10 Wealth Federal government gave land grants to railroad companies Companies sold the land to raise money for constructionGreat wealth was amassed by railroad entrepreneurs like Cornelius Vanderbilt – a shipping and railroad tycoon he was a self-made multi-millionaire of the 19th centuryWhen Vanderbilt died, he was worth more than $100 million.
11 Corruption: Credit Mobilier Scandal of 1872 Thomas Durant was vice-president of the Union Pacific and believed there was $$$ in constructing the railroadDurant created the Credit Mobilier of America, which just happened to win the contract to build 667 miles of Union Pacific railroadThe Credit Mobilier charged the railroad tens of millions of dollars more than the actual cost of constructionBy the time they were done, they'd cleared at least $23 million
12 How did the railroad industry transform the nation? Development of time zonesHow did the railroad industry transform the nation?Long distance travel is faster(days vs. months)United America’s regionsPromoted a national marketAmerican railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s. Each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people travelling by train (sometimes hundreds of miles in a day), according to the Library of Congress. Every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced on November 18, 1883. Ended Native American way of life in the West; greatly altered the environment
13 LEQ: Following the Civil War, how did corporations affect the business practices? Drill:What is a corporation?
14 Pop-Quiz A corporation is A) owned by a proprietor B) owned by two or more managersC) owned by stockholdersA loan is aA) fixed costB) operating costC) trust
15 Pop-Quiz A). Holding company B). Monopoly C). Economies of scale 3. When the cost of manufacturing is decreased by producing goods quickly in large quantitiesA). Holding companyB). MonopolyC). Economies of scaleOpened a steel-mill near Pittsburgh in 1875A). J.P. MorganB). Andrew CarnegieC). John D. Rockefeller
16 Pop-Quiz5. _____________ is the total control of a type of industry by one person or one company A). trust B). monopoly C). corporation 6. By 1900, retailers were spending over ____________ on advertising A). $90 million B). $80 million C). $70 million
17 Nature of a Corporation At its simplest, a corporation is an artificial personThe corporation has rights similar to that of a human beingA corporation can own property, pay taxes, exist for an indefinite period, sue, and be sued
18 Nature of a Corporation Corporations have a separate identity from the people who created themStockholders have limited liability = low risk investment (not personally responsible for the acts or obligations of the corporation)
19 Effects of Corporations Entrepreneurs and stockholders were able to amass great wealthMonopolies developed and controlled all aspects of a particular industry = destroys competitionA small group of individuals would completely take over a particular industry and dictate transportation, supply, and labor costs, while simultaneously wiping out all competitors.
20 Effects of Corporations New machines and technology improved productivity (the amount of goods a worker could turn out)Assembly line = allowed manufactures to reduce cost and lower pricesTrade expanded beyond national borders = international trade and increased wealth
21 Selling ProductsRetailers had to expand in size as a result increased manufacturing (more goods to sell)Advertising companies developed (N.W. Ayer and Son was the first)Began printing large advertisements in newspapersFirst department stores are created and the start of mail order catalogs (Sears)
22 The Men Who Built America Andrew CarnegieJohn D. RockefellerJ.P. MorganBought shares in iron mills and factoriesMade equipment & infrastructure for railroadsOpened Carnegie Steel in 1875Invested in an oil refinery in 1863Established Standard Oil Company in 1870Controlled 90% of U.S. oil refining industry by 1880Investment BankerBought Carnegie Steel and created U.S. SteelBasis for JPMorgan Chase & Co. todayPMorgan Chase & Co. is a leading global financial services firm and one of the largest banking institutions in the United States , with operations worldwide.
23 Following the Civil War, how did corporations affect the business practices? Corporations were able to force out competition and create monopolies. The businessmen who ran them and their stockholders amassed great wealth, power, and influence.Retailers were forced to expand and devise new methods of advertisement to attract customers.
24 How did corporations affect business practices? LEQ: In what ways did the Industrial Revolution change the way Americans worked?Drill:How did corporations affect business practices?(review your notes from Friday)
25 Working in the United States In the 1700s most manufacturing was done at home and the employer and employee worked side-by-sideThis working relationship began to change in the 1800s with the factory systemEmployers began to focus more on production and the cost of labor
26 Content VocabularyStandard of living – a level of subsistence (life) and comfort in daily life maintained by a community, class, or individualRecession - an extended decline in general business activityConsolidate - to unite into one system or whole; combine
27 LEQ: How did American industrial workers respond to their harsh work environments? Drill:Describe what a day of work in an 1850s steel mill might be like.
28 Workers wanted higher wages, less hours, and a better work environment UnionizationWorkers wanted higher wages, less hours, and a better work environmentCommon laborers had few skills and received low wagesLaborers began to unionize in order to have their demands metUnion - an organized group of workers who collectively use their strength to have a voice in their workplace
29 Opposition to UnionsEmployers often resented unions. There were no laws protecting or giving the workers the right to form unionsDetectives were hired to identify union organizers and place leaders on a listCompanies used lockouts to break up unions = locked workers out of the property and refused to pay themIf a union called a strike the employers would hire replacement workers “strikebreakers or “scabs”