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Unit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry

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1 Unit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry
Industrialization Unit 2: Lesson 1: The Rise of industry

2 LEQ: Why was the United States successful at industrialization?
Drill: What does a country need in order to be successful?

3 Industrial Revolution
**Revolution - a drastic change** A period from the 18th to the 19th century (1700s-1800s) that is characterized by major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology A transition from manual labor and animal–based to machine-based manufacturing It had a profound effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions Began in Great Britain then spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

4 Why was the United States successful at industrialization?
abundance of raw materials United States Becomes an Industrial Nation

5 Why was the United States successful at industrialization?
abundance of raw materials; oil production United States Becomes an Industrial Nation population increase new inventions the economic system : Free enterprise = laissez-faire

6 Lesson 1 Assignments: Read pages of the text and complete LEQ graphic organizer Define the following terms: gross national product (GDP), laissez-faire, entrepreneur

7 LEQ: How did the railroad industry transform the nation?
Drill: What importance does transportation have in our world today? How do modes of transportation effect society and our lives?

8 Transcontinental Railroad
1862 Pacific Railway Act gave the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad companies permission to build a transcontinental railroad Built to link the well developed railway network of the Eastern coast with rapidly growing Western coast (California) May 10th 1869 Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads meet in Promontory, Utah to complete the Transcontinental Railroad

9 Central Pacific Union Pacific

10 Wealth Federal government gave land grants to railroad companies
Companies sold the land to raise money for construction Great wealth was amassed by railroad entrepreneurs like Cornelius Vanderbilt – a shipping and railroad tycoon he was a self-made multi-millionaire of the 19th century When Vanderbilt died, he was worth more than $100 million.

11 Corruption: Credit Mobilier Scandal of 1872
 Thomas Durant was vice-president of the Union Pacific and believed there was $$$ in constructing the railroad Durant created the Credit Mobilier of America, which just happened to win the contract to build 667 miles of Union Pacific railroad The Credit Mobilier charged the railroad tens of millions of dollars more than the actual cost of construction By the time they were done, they'd cleared at least $23 million

12 How did the railroad industry transform the nation?
Development of time zones How did the railroad industry transform the nation? Long distance travel is faster (days vs. months) United America’s regions Promoted a national market American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s. Each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people travelling by train (sometimes hundreds of miles in a day), according to the Library of Congress. Every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced on November 18, 1883.  Ended Native American way of life in the West; greatly altered the environment

13 LEQ: Following the Civil War, how did corporations affect the business practices?
Drill: What is a corporation?

14 Pop-Quiz A corporation is A) owned by a proprietor
B) owned by two or more managers C) owned by stockholders A loan is a A) fixed cost B) operating cost C) trust

15 Pop-Quiz A). Holding company B). Monopoly C). Economies of scale
3. When the cost of manufacturing is decreased by producing goods quickly in large quantities A). Holding company B). Monopoly C). Economies of scale Opened a steel-mill near Pittsburgh in 1875 A). J.P. Morgan B). Andrew Carnegie C). John D. Rockefeller

16 Pop-Quiz 5. _____________ is the total control of a type of industry by one person or one company A). trust B). monopoly C). corporation 6. By 1900, retailers were spending over ____________ on advertising A). $90 million B). $80 million C). $70 million

17 Nature of a Corporation
At its simplest, a corporation is an artificial person The corporation has rights similar to that of a human being A corporation can own property, pay taxes, exist for an indefinite period, sue, and be sued

18 Nature of a Corporation
Corporations have a separate identity from the people who created them Stockholders have limited liability = low risk investment (not personally responsible for the acts or obligations of the corporation)

19 Effects of Corporations
Entrepreneurs and stockholders were able to amass great wealth Monopolies developed and controlled all aspects of a particular industry = destroys competition A small group of individuals would completely take over a particular industry and dictate transportation, supply, and labor costs, while simultaneously wiping out all competitors.

20 Effects of Corporations
New machines and technology improved productivity (the amount of goods a worker could turn out) Assembly line = allowed manufactures to reduce cost and lower prices Trade expanded beyond national borders = international trade and increased wealth

21 Selling Products Retailers had to expand in size as a result increased manufacturing (more goods to sell) Advertising companies developed (N.W. Ayer and Son was the first) Began printing large advertisements in newspapers First department stores are created and the start of mail order catalogs (Sears)

22 The Men Who Built America
Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller J.P. Morgan Bought shares in iron mills and factories Made equipment & infrastructure for railroads Opened Carnegie Steel in 1875 Invested in an oil refinery in 1863 Established Standard Oil Company in 1870 Controlled 90% of U.S. oil refining industry by 1880 Investment Banker Bought Carnegie Steel and created U.S. Steel Basis for JPMorgan Chase & Co. today PMorgan Chase & Co. is a leading global financial services firm and one of the largest banking institutions in the United States , with operations worldwide.

23 Following the Civil War, how did corporations affect the business practices?
Corporations were able to force out competition and create monopolies. The businessmen who ran them and their stockholders amassed great wealth, power, and influence. Retailers were forced to expand and devise new methods of advertisement to attract customers.

24 How did corporations affect business practices?
LEQ: In what ways did the Industrial Revolution change the way Americans worked? Drill: How did corporations affect business practices? (review your notes from Friday)

25 Working in the United States
In the 1700s most manufacturing was done at home and the employer and employee worked side-by-side This working relationship began to change in the 1800s with the factory system Employers began to focus more on production and the cost of labor

26 Content Vocabulary Standard of living – a level of subsistence (life) and comfort in daily life maintained by a community, class, or individual Recession - an extended decline in general business activity Consolidate - to unite into one system or whole; combine

27 LEQ: How did American industrial workers respond to their harsh work environments?
Drill: Describe what a day of work in an 1850s steel mill might be like.

28 Workers wanted higher wages, less hours, and a better work environment
Unionization Workers wanted higher wages, less hours, and a better work environment Common laborers had few skills and received low wages Laborers began to unionize in order to have their demands met Union - an organized group of workers who collectively use their strength to have a voice in their workplace

29 Opposition to Unions Employers often resented unions. There were no laws protecting or giving the workers the right to form unions Detectives were hired to identify union organizers and place leaders on a list Companies used lockouts to break up unions = locked workers out of the property and refused to pay them If a union called a strike the employers would hire replacement workers “strikebreakers or “scabs”

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