2Southwest Asia Also called the Middle East Is a land bridge that connects Asia, Africa, and Europe.The most distinctive land form is the Arabian peninsula. The Anatolian peninsula which is occupied by the country of Turkey is another important landform.
3Southwest Asia and North Africa Satellite Images at night
4WadiIs a riverbed that remains dry except during the rainy season.
5Hindu KushAre very high mountains in Afghanistan. These mountains landlocked Afghanistan and made contact with the outside world very difficult.
6Zagros MountainsIsolate Iran from the rest of Southwest Asia.
7Elburz MountainsCut off east access to the Caspian Sea by Iran.
8Taurus MountainsSeparate Turkey from the rest of Southwest Asia.
9Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Are two of the regions most important rivers.They supported several ancient river valley civilizations in an area called the Fertile Crescent. Today it flows through Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. The valley of these rivers are fertile and are good for agriculture.
10Jordan RiverStarts at Mount Hermon and then forms the natural border between Jordan and Israel.
11Dead SeaIs a landlocked salt lake. It is so salty that nothing but bacteria can live in its water. It is also 1349 feet below sea level making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth.
13Colonial PowersMuch of Southwest Asia fell under the control of Britain and France.The region was valuable to colonial powers because of the Suez Canal, a link between Asia and Europe, and because oil was discovered there after 1932.
14Oil *The most abundant resource in Southwest Asia. One-half of the worlds oil reserves are located in Southwest Asia.These large reserves have made the region important because so many countries like the U.S., depend on its oil.
15OPEC The organization of Petroleum exporting countries, known as OPEC. The purpose of OPEC is to help members control worldwide oil prices.
16*The most powerful factor in defining the Middle East and North Africa is RELIGION. Religion has led to many conflicts in the region.
17The three main religions in the region are Islam, Christianity and Judaism. All three religions consider Jerusalem to be a holy city.*The holy book of Islam is the Qur’an. The holy book of Judaism is the Torah. The holy book of Christianity is the Bible.*Islamic fundamentalists are trying to remove Western influences and other religions from the region.
18ChristianityChristianity is the most popular religion in the world with over 2 billion adherents. 42 million Britons see themselves as nominally Christian, and there are 6 million who are actively practising.Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah promised in the Old Testament.Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.The Christian holy book is the Bible, and consists of the Old and New Testaments.Christians believe that God sent his Son to earth to save humanity from the consequences of its sins.One of the most important concepts in Christianity is that of Jesus giving his life on the Cross (the Crucifixion) and rising from the dead on the third day (the Resurrection).Christians believe that there is only one God, but that there are three elements to this one God:God the FatherGod the SonThe Holy Spirit
19JudaismJudaism is the original of the three Abrahamic faiths, which also includes Christianity and Islamthere were around 13.1 million Jewish people in the world in 2007, most residing in the USA and IsraelJudaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years agoJudaism was founded by Moses, although Jews trace their history back to Abraham.Jews believe that there is only one God with whom they have a covenant.Judaism has a rich history of religious text, but the central and most important religious document is the Torah.Spiritual leaders are called Rabbis.Jews worship in Synagogues
20Prophet MuhammadFounder of Islam.MeccaMuhammad lived part ofhis life in the city of Mecca.Mecca located in Saudi Arabia is the holiest city of Islam.
21The 5 pillars of IslamThere are certain rules that all Muslims are required to follow: they are the 5 Pillars1. Faith2. Prayer five times a day3. Charity4. fasting5. hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca
22IslamAdherents to the Islamic religion make up around 20% of the world’s population (1 billion). It is the world’s second largest religion.It is interesting to note that the four nations with the largest number of Muslims are outside the Middle East:Indonesia – approx. 165 million (88%)Pakistan – approx. 110 million (97%)Bangladesh – approx. 97 million (85%)India – approx. 90 million (10%)
24Theocratic This means religious leaders controll the government. Rulers relied on religious law for running the country.Today Iran is ruled by religious leaders.
25Change To Urban Life*Population growth, overuse of land and water resources has led millions of people to abandon villages and moving to the cities (Urbanization).Technical skills are needed for many jobs today. Foreign workers are brought in to fill those jobs.
26Religious Duties Women cover their heads, hair, and sometimes faces. Women’s roles have expanded in some countries.Muslims are expected to perform religious duties.
27Arabic Culture*Arab culture refers to the culture in Arab countries of West Asia and North Africa, from Morocco to the Persian Gulf.ExamplesLanguage, literature, art, architecture, music, spirituality, philosophy, Loyalty to family
37*Israel treats women more as equals to men than any other country in the region. *Many countries like Saudi Arabia (Mecca) require that women wear clothing that covers their faces because of their Islamic believes.*Israel also has more ethnic diversity than any other country in the Middle East because of immigration from around the world.
38HostilitiesIn 1948, Arab countries invaded Israel and Jewish troops fought back.The 1948 war was the beginning of hostilities that continue today.
39One of the conflicts in Southwest Asia is setting the boundary between Israel and Palestine. *Some of the problems are Jewish settlements, control of Jerusalem, and the location of aquifers.
40*Many different groups of people have controlled Jerusalem including the Romans, Hebrews, and Muslims.
41Gaza StripAnother area of Palestinians is the Gaza Strip. This is a territory along the Mediterranean Sea, just northeast of the Sinai Peninsula. Israel has occupied it since 1967.
42PLOThe land designated for the Palestinian Muslims was under Israeli control.In the 1960s the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was formed to regain the land for the Palestinian Arabs.
43Yasser ArafatWas chairman of the PLO from 1969 until his death in 2004.
44Palestinian RefugeesThe creation of Israel produced large numbers of Palestinian refugees.Refugees struggle to find food and shelter.Providing education and services for them is difficult for many poor countries like Jordan.
45Civil WarsCivil wars in Lebanon and Cyprus have caused huge economic problems.Lebanon, a more developed nation, was hit hard by a civil war that lasted from 1975 to The conflict widened to include other nations, and in 1982 Israel invaded Lebanon. Some Israeli troops remained until 2000.
46Modern Infrastructure This region has great potential for development. They have a good climate and are well located for connections to international markets.What many countries lack is infrastructure that would support a growing economy.
48Mesopotamia “Land between two rivers” (Tigris and Euphrates) Several of the world’s ancient civilizations were in this region.They grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Babylon, Assyria and Chaldea, all built empires in Mesopotamia, the land between the Rivers.Is largely corresponded with modern day Iraq, and portions of Syria, Turkey, and Iran
50KurdsThe Kurds are a stateless nation. They live in areas of Iraq, Iran and Turkey. They have been in conflict with all these countries and because of this conflict it prevents them from getting a homeland.
51There are two main branches of the Islamic religion, Shia and Sunni *There are two main branches of the Islamic religion, Shia and Sunni. 85% of Muslims are Sunni and can be found in countries like Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Shia Muslims are found mainly in Iran and parts of Iraq.
52SunniAfter the death of the prophet Muhammad, Muslims split into two groups Sunni and Shi’ite.About 85% of all Muslims are Sunni.Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet's companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job.
53Shi’ite Most Iranian are Shi’ites. Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad's death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law Ali (the father of his grandsons Hasan ibn Ali and Hussein ibn Ali)Ali was married to Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter.
55Reforming EconomiesTurkey and Iran are making progress in modernizing their economies.Turkey wants to be a member of the European Union but they have been reluctant to accept them because of their human rights record and fights with Greece over territory.Major obstacles are political problems and devastating wars.
56*The Gulf War of 1991 was the result of Iraq attacking Kuwait because of oil that they take from the same reserve pool.
57Afghanistan has had many conflicts since the 1970’s Afghanistan has had many conflicts since the 1970’s. This led to Taliban, extremist Sunni Muslims, coming to power. Their interpretation of Islam meant that women were excluded from civil rights and were treated poorly.
58TalibanThe Taliban in Afghanistan wanted to preserve traditional ways.They imposed rigid rules on society.The rules included restrictions on clothing, appearance of women in public and listening to music or T.V.In 2002, troops led by the U.S. toppled the Taliban regime.
59KurdistanKurds are an ethnic group that has not historically had a country of their own. The Kurds have people in the countries of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria.
73Water *The most valuable resource in the region. *Most influential in the pattern of human settlement.In some areas water is so scarce that it must be guarded and carefully used.Efforts to conserve water have been part of the culture of the region for thousands of years.
74DesertDeserts spread across the region. The most famous desert is Rub al-Khali. Known as the empty quarter. It is called this because it is said that no one comes out of it. It covers much of the Arabian peninsula.
75OasisAn area of the desert where vegetation is found because water is available.
76Negev DesertLocated in Israel. It produces crops through extensive irrigation.
77Salt FlatsIn Iran, high mountains block the rain, and dry winds increase the evaporation. Winds evaporate the moisture in the salty soil. As a result chemical salts remain, that create a salt flat.
78Semiarid LandsThese are located on the edge of the desert and have a semi-arid climate. They have warm to hot summers but receive enough rain to support grass and low growing shrubs.
79Well Watered Coast Lands Along the Mediterranean coast and across most of Turkey, hot summers and rainy winters create a good climate for growing fruits, olives and vegetables.
81Dams in TurkeyTurkey is building dams and a man-made lake on the upper Euphrates River.The dams will provide water and hydroelectric power.*Countries downstream ( ex..Iraq) will lose the use of water for irrigation or hydroelectric power.
82The National Water Carrier Project Carries water from northern Israel to sites in the center and south.Water is used for irrigation in the Negev Desert, and some drinking water.Because the water sources flow through several countries and access to the water is restricted the project is a source of conflict.
83Drip irrigationThis is used by several of the countries in the region. This is a practice of using small pipes that slowly drip water just above the ground. The water drips just at the root zone. Evaporation is reduced and water is conserved.
84*DesalinizationIs the process of removing salt from ocean water. This water cannot be used for irrigation because it is still too salty.*This process allows countries to be able to survive extreme droughts ex..Israel.The water is used in sewage systems.
85Fossil WaterThis is the water pumped from aquifers. Since it has been in the aquifers for a long period of time. Fossil water has little chance on being replaced. The region receives too little rainfall to fill the aquifers. Water in the aquifers will only last years.
86Crude OilThe oil fields of Southwest Asia contain two thirds of the world’s petroleum reserves. Petroleum that has not been processed is called crude oil.
87RefineryCrude oil pumped from the ground must be moved to a refinery. A refinery converts the crude oil into useful products.
89The Suez Canal*The Suez Canal is an artificial waterway in Egypt extending from Port Said to Suez and connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. It is one of the world's most important waterwaysThe geographical position of the Suez Canal makes it the shortest route between East and West
90Golan HeightsThere is a small plateau in southwest Syria called the Golan Heights. It overlooks the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee. This has been the site of conflict between the Arabs and Israelis.
91Elevation*The valleys, mountains, and upland plateaus are a result of tectonic forces.
92*Water resources are the most important reason for settlement patterns in the Middle East and North Africa.
93At 4,184 miles long it is the longest river in the world *The Nile river is responsible for Egypt's population living in 3% of the land area.
94*Water, climate, oil resources, and transportation routes are all responsible for the location of cities.
95*Oil has helped to modernize the major oil producing countries and has given them political clout.
96*The Aswan High Dam was built in Egypt to help regulate flooding on the Nile River. This has led to many positives like flood control and some negatives like loss of fertility in the soil.
97Positive effects of Dam Prevents floodingControls irrigationCan plant 3 crops instead of only 1 a yearCreates Hydroelectric power- supplies Egypt with 40% of its electricityAmount of farmland has increased by 2.9 million acres
98Negative Effects of Dam New layer of fertile soil no longer deposited by annual flood, must use fertilizersVery expensiveRun off pollutes river, pollution kills fishNew soil not added to Delta, which causes erosion
99*Turkey has built a network of dams and irrigation ditches on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers which has led to resentment from Iraq. Why?
100Two of the common characteristics that make the Middle East and North Africa a formal region are religion and the Arab language.
101Lebanon was once covered by forest but because of shipbuilding, over farming, and herding the land is almost completely deforested.
102*Most of the land in the region is used for the activity of subsistence agriculture.
103*Libya is a country that relies heavily on oil wealth for its economy.
104*One of the ways that countries try to survive water scarcity is by using desalinization plants. These plants remove salt from water.
105*In North Africa most people live along the coast in the areas that have a Mediterranean climate (due to expansion of Sahara Desert). This area is more productive for farming.*People that live in the arid and semiarid areas mainly live a nomadic herding lifestyle.