Presentation on theme: "RESULTS OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY DURING THE INDUSTRIAL AGE The Bessemer Process, and use of the internal combustion engine Invention of the telephone and."— Presentation transcript:
RESULTS OF IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY DURING THE INDUSTRIAL AGE The Bessemer Process, and use of the internal combustion engine Invention of the telephone and telegraph Commercial use of electricity and use of electric appliances Expansion and growth of railroads
Using photographs in historical investigations – “An Urban Tenement” Identify the picture: – 1. Who took the photograph and when? _________________________________________________ – 2. Who was the intended audience?____________________________________________________ – 3. Why was it taken?_______________________________________________________________ Examine the picture: – 1. Divide the photo into several parts and make a list of objects pictured. Examine the background, individuals, groups, or objects. _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ – 2. Describe the action or the subject of the photo. _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Evaluate the picture: – 1. Based on what you see in the photo, what facts are likely to be true?______________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ – 2. What questions do you have about this photo?________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ – 3. In what ways might this photograph be misleading? _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________
Two successful entrepreneurs Andrew Carnegie – worked his way up from a penniless Scottish immigrant to one of America’s riches and most powerful men. As a boy, he worked in a cotton mill and later became a telegraph operator for the railroad. He became friends with the president of the railroad, who promoted him and advised him on investments. – After the Civil War, Carnegie invested in ironworks and build a steel mill in Pittsburgh. With profits made from selling iron to the railroad, he bought other mills and founded the Carnegie Steel Corporation in 1892. He undercut the competition, bought ore fields, mines, and ships so he could mine his own ore and ship it to his mills. He paid workers low wages and required them to work long hours, while crushing their attempts to for labor unions. – He spent his later life in acts of philanthropy, giving away $350 million to build libraries and endow universities John D. Rockefeller – made his fortune in the oil industry. He started a successful company selling produce and used his profits to build an early oil refinery in Cleveland, OH. Oil in his day was mainly used to make kerosene to burn in lamps in place of whale oil. Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Company in 1870, and by 1779 controlled 90% of the oil refining in the U.S. By 1882, his company became a “trust” in which he controlled the largest proportion of shares. – His company continued to grow and became a virtual monopoly. He forced railroads to give him special, secret rates for shipping – In 1892, the government forced Rockefeller to dissolve Standard Oil, which was divided into 20 smaller companies. Despite the breakup, the leaders of Standard Oil remained the main shareholders of the new companies. Rockefeller also gave millions of his fortune away to education and science, such as the University of Chicago and Rockefeller Foundation.
ASSIGNMENT After reading the excerpts about Carnegie and Rockefeller on the front of this page, discuss with your group rather you would call each a “Captain of Industry” or “robber baron”. Jot down your reasons for each in the space below and be prepared to defend your choice in class. Place this completed page in your interactive notebook.
ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN The Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Section 1: “Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the states is declared to be illegal. Every person who shall engage in any combination or conspiracy declared to be illegal shall be deemed guilty of a felony [a serious crime].” Do you think this legislation helped or hindered the American economy? Explain your answer with logical reasoning and historical evidence. You may discuss it with your group, but each person must have his or her own answer. Be prepared to share your answer with the class, and place this completed page in your interactive notebook.
The Pros and Cons of Big Business PROS – Large business are more efficient, leading to lower prices – They can hire large numbers of workers – They can produce goods in large quantities – They have the resources to support expensive research and invent new items CONS – They have an unfair competitive advantage against smaller businesses – They sometimes exploit workers. – They are less concerned with where they do business and pollute the area – They have an unfair influence over gov’t. policies affecting them
Assignment Create a concept map for the rise of Big Business