Acronyms CAE – Computer Aided Engineering CAD – Computer Aided Design FEA – Finite Element Analysis CFD – Computational Fluid Dynamics RCFA – Root Cause Failure Analysis LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas FCC – Fluid Catalytic Cracking, an oil refinery process DCU – Delayed Coker Unit, an oil refinery process S&T – Shell-and-Tube, type of heat exchanger P&F – Plate-and-Frame, type of heat exchanger NDE – Non-Destructive Examination
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING in the oil-and-gas industry is exclusively responsible for all large machinery and process equipment, within a project or industrial facility. Other industries may have different scopes of responsibility. Usually, plant piping and pipelines are looked after by the Piping Engineer or Pipeline Engineer – not the Mechanical Engineer. Many of these equipment needs collaboration and shared responsibilities with the Process Engineer and Controls Engineer. Two broad classifications of machinery in oil-and-gas: A) Rotating Equipment (Dynamic) B) Stationary Equipment (Static)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Usual entry-level positions: Mechanical Design Engineer Mechanical Equipment Engineer Rotating Equipment Engineer Stationary Equipment Engineer Minimum Skill Sets for a Junior Mechanical Engineer: Undergraduate degree in Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, or related sub-discipline. Basic knowledge of Fluid Dynamics, Thermodynamics, Heat- Mass Transfer, Structural Mechanics, Strength of Materials, and Machine Elements Design. Supplemental knowledge in Materials Science, Turbo-Machinery Dynamics, Chemical Processes, and Welding Technology.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Important Deliverables: Equipment Data Sheets…..all rotating and stationary equipment, including vendor drawings and diagrams. Sizing Calculations……fluid flow, heat loss, heat transfer, pressure containment, combustion/stoichiometry, structural supports, nozzle reinforcement, dynamic loading, FEA/CFD analysis, emissions control, and materials selection. Procurement & Delivery Support……initial requisitioning, technical evaluation, bids review, and purchase orders. Also includes written certifications (metallurgy, casting/forging, welding WPS/PQR, coating, transport/packaging) and shop tests (NDE, specimen failure, water/air leak-strength, performance).
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ROTATING EQUIPMENT
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Pumps Centrifugal pump, horizontal, single stage….most common rotating equipment Positive-displacement (reciprocating) pump Centrifugal pump, vertical, multi-stage
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Pump Jacks, an industry icon Or “donkey heads”, are special positive-displacement pumps Cross-section of sucker rod assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Compressors, Reciprocating Reciprocating compressor, multi-stage, on skid with auxiliaries Detail of double-acting piston head assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Compressors, Centrifugal Cutaway of centrifugal compressor, single-stage Cutaway of centrifugal compressor, multi-stage
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Compressors, Axial and Screw Type Axial compressor with casing opened, showing rotating and stationary blades Screw (lobe) type compressor
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Gas Turbines, Compressor-Turbine Unit Gas turbine and auxiliaries on self-contained module Cross-section of an industrial gas turbine assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Steam Turbines Cutaway of typical steam turbine prime mover, multi-stage Steam turbine operating principle, with rotating and stationary blades
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Miscellaneous Rotating Machinery Diesel engine prime mover set Turbo-Expander assembly Centrifugal Fan assembly Axial fan assembly
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STATIONARY EQUIPMENT
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Pressure Vessels, for temporary storage of liquid or gas Horizontal pressure vessels Vertical pressure vessels Spherical pressure vessels
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Process Reactors, FCC (Catalytic, Exothermic) Cyclone internals of reactor vessel Catalytic cracker and regenerator Vessels, part of FCC process unit
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fired Heaters (Fire Tube, Water Tube, Process Furnaces) Packaged boiler (water tube) Catalytic furnace for Reformer process unit Cutaway of heater (fire tube)
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Storage Tanks (crude oil, liquid products, liquefied vapor) Cutaway of a typical floating roof tank Fixed (cone) roof tanks
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Storage Tanks, LNG refrigerated tank Cross-section of LNG tank, showing special construction and low-temp insulation LNG tanker with cryogenic sphere tanks
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment Absorption Refrigeration Unit Box-Type Cooling Tower Ejector Assembly, mainly for creating vacuum
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Miscellaneous Stationary Equipment, Flare Stack Detail of alloy steel tip with auxiliary piping Emergency flaring at upset conditions
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Mechanical Engineering and Beyond: Advances in Equipment Reliability Prediction……PC-based computer assistance leads to greater accuracies in Root Cause Failure (RCF) results, statistical data gathering, parts metallurgy, and virtual machinery testing. Emphasis on Equipment Efficiency and Environmental Friendliness…….use of low- impact feedstock/fuels, by-products reduction, emissions control, waste recovery, and high-speed balancing precision. More Inter-Disciplinary Collaboration…….gone were the days of stand-alone engineering practice. To perform his/her task, it’s unavoidable for the next- generation Mechanical Engineer not to interface with the Process Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Chief Metallurgist, and/or Civil Engineer. FEA/CFD Multi-Physics to the Mainstream……with stunning 3D graphics, highly interactive results, and more powerful simulation capabilities, engineering calculations can now be performed simultaneously e.g. structural, fluid flow, vibration, combustion, heat loss/heat transfer, and non-linear transients. Highly Specialized Sub-Disciplines because Mechanical Engineering has broad coverage, one can choose to become a Pressure Vessel Engineer, Heat Transfer Engineer, Pump Engineer, Tank Engineer, or Compressor Engineer.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Failure Prediction & Machine Component Analysis Failure analysis and deformation of large machinery skid Failure analysis of fan blade assembly Predictive collapse of pressure vessel subjected to vacuum
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CFD & Multi-Physics Analysis Predictive conditions (fluid flow + thermal) of gas ejector Multi-physics analysis (fluid flow + thermal) of shell-and-tube exchanger Forced air impingement (fluid flow + thermal) on tube of fin-fan cooler