Siting of feedstock production related to GHG regulations… Possibly others. Siting of bioenergy factory related to siting of feedstocks… Energy density. Relationship to Fossil Fuels? Relationship to Wind and Solar?
Investors want stable supply and markets Mill residues vary based on wood product markets Smaller scale, distributed, or portable facilities? Competition from emerging markets Climate impacts? (Campbell, Sloan, Snyder, et al., In Prep)
Transport distance vs. Economy of scale Seasonal supply (for some feedstocks) requires storage or conversion plant downtime Many forest feedstocks too remote Preference for 50-100 mile distance Densification needs more work Current CA model is import of corn
Campbell, J. E., et al. (2009), Greater Transportation Energy and GHG Offsets from Bioelectricity Than Ethanol, Science, 324(5930), 1055-1057. Fargione, J., et al. (2008), Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt, Science, 219(1235), 1235 - 1238. Fox, J. F., and J. E. Campbell (2010), Terrestrial carbon disturbance from mountaintop mining increases lifecycle emissions for clean coal, Environmental Science & Technology(doi:10.1021/es903301j). NRC (2007), Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, 86 pp, Committee on Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States, National Research Council, Washington DC. Searchinger, T., et al. (2008), Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change, Science, 319(5867), 1238-1240. Searchinger, T. D., et al. (2009), Fixing a Critical Climate Accounting Error, Science, 326(5952), 527-528. Tilman, D., et al. (2006), Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high- diversity grassland biomass, Science, 314(5805), 1598-1600.
Executive Order S-06-06: Bioelectricity: Biomass and biogas for 20 percent of the established state goals for renewable electricity in 2010 and 2020 (ARB/RPS) Liquid Biofuels: 20 percent of biofuels for transportation within California by 2010, 40 percent by 2020, and 75 percent by 2050 (ARB/LCFS) But losing ground from 2006 to present
Many California air districts are nonattainment for ozone and particulate matter California law and federal Clean Air Act require Best Available Control Technology (BACT) Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) Emission reduction credits (ERCs) New biomass feedstocks require new emissions testing
The cost of meeting air quality standards for small projects. The lack of policy and regulatory coordination among local and state agencies. Biogas quality standards and pipeline interconnection. Utility interconnection rules and net metering contracts that show preference for solar and wind technologies. Proposed U.S. EPA Maximum Available Control Technology requirements. U.S. EPA Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule.
Web-Based Portal for Permitting Guidance and Information Address Interconnection Challenges for Bioenergy-Based Distributed Generation (CPUC) Funding for New Fuel Source Testing (ARB) AB 1318 – Wildfire Emissions Offset Credits for PM (ARB) Revisit Restrictions on the Injection of Biomethane Derived from Landfill Gas (CEC)
Only private (non-federal) Land cleared prior to EISA (December 2007) Planted crops and planted trees Forest slash Ag and forest residues Separated food and yard waste Biomass from areas near structures at risk
Cellulosic biofuel mandate of 16 billion gallons by 2022 Future ethanol refinery siting driven by location of cost-effective feedstocks Applications of EPA siting analysis?
Assumptions: Excess of feedstock Mixed feedstocks Capacity 100 MGY ≤ 100 mile transport Feedstocks: Forest – USFS Ag Residue – USDA MSW – EPA Crops – Campbell Criteria: Refinery-gate cost of biomass Capital cost of refinery
Residues: Logging, Primary mill residue, Timberland thinnings and other removals Southeast, the far Northeast and the Northwest Caveat: double counting the logging residue and timberland thinnings EISA excludes national forests and unused mill residue Based on current forestry industry which is small (insufficient demand and low prices)
Location next to existing facilities for shared resources (e.g. heat/electricity) Water constraints Environmental justice Permit availability Sufficient personnel State-level incentives (demand and supply!) Volatility of feedstock supply relative to long-term contracts Volatility of state regulations Siting relative to intermittent renwables Siting with fossil fuels
Original rule treats biomass the same as fossil fuels But, put 3 year deferral on biomass for further study Massachusetts Commissions Manomet report… NYT headlines “Biomass worse than coal” Proposed rule to eliminate most current bioelectricty in state
Establishment/ annual payments Sources Federal land: preventative/restorative material, no higher value products Non-federal: No Title I crops, algae, animal waste, food/yard waste, MSW First BCAP announced May 2011 Missouri and Kansas Mixed native grassses For power and heat generation (e.g. pellets)
Feedstocks Any purpose grown feedstock NOT MSW, landfill gas, or paper that could otherwise be recycled non‐merchantable forest material NEPA Review Required: Water consumption, Water/Air emissions, Waste disposal
Converting Brazilian residue to electricity has greater GHG benefits than conversion to ethanol Residue-based ethanol has small impact on US energy security but electricity would have massive impact on Brazilian energy security (Campbell & Block, ES&T, 2010)