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X-Ray for Agricultural Applications Dave Utrata Iowa State University Center for NDE IPRT Company Assistance – NDE Group Alexandra Black, Brett Barnes.

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Presentation on theme: "X-Ray for Agricultural Applications Dave Utrata Iowa State University Center for NDE IPRT Company Assistance – NDE Group Alexandra Black, Brett Barnes."— Presentation transcript:

1 X-Ray for Agricultural Applications Dave Utrata Iowa State University Center for NDE IPRT Company Assistance – NDE Group Alexandra Black, Brett Barnes Iowa State University Three Rivers Technical Conference Elk River, MN August 3-4, 2010

2 Presentation Outline Background of Company Assistance program ◦ Current efforts, interests Review of progress in three areas ◦ Detection of frost damage in maize seeds ◦ Distinguishing between haploid/hybrid condition in corn seeds ◦ Imaging of root development Summary ◦ Applications, potential, challenges Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

3 IPRT Company Assistance  Technology Commercialization - accelerate commercialization of ISU and company-developed technology through research and development assistance. nondestructive evaluation  Technical Assistance - provide short-term, no-cost technical assistance to Iowa companies in materials and nondestructive evaluation. Iowa State University – Institute for Physical Research and Testing Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

4 Operational Guide – NDE Group  Explain & demonstrate the principles of various inspection methods  Perform feasibility studies to determine which NDE method will work best for your application  Develop inspection protocol for new designs or evaluate current inspection procedures  Provide information on sources of equipment, testing laboratories Help manufacturers become educated consumers of NDE Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

5 Beyond the usual suspects of fabricated metal, joining operations, current NDT practitioners… “Round up the usual suspects” Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

6 Nontraditional applications of NDE Detection of frost damage in maize (corn) seed – Seed Science Institute, ISU Distinguishing between haploid v. hybrid conditions in corn – Agronomy Dept. ISU Visualizing root growth – North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

7 Detection of frost damage in seed Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

8 Brief background of some work in field X-ray used to look into potential for characterizing seeds ◦ Often adapted from medical systems, very often restricted to film ◦ “Soft” x-rays Feasibility of digital high speed evaluation demonstrated using industrial system with pattern recognition for sorting Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

9 Detection of frost damage in corn seed Can x-ray methodologies provide useful assessment of seed structure, viability? ◦ Use modern industrial equipment: microfocus X-ray tube, all digital imaging ◦ Differentiate between control group (no frost damage) and damaged maize seeds (artificial frost cycle)  B37 inbred line, male parent IRF311, hybrid 3  Moisture content at harvest 50% ◦ Provide more rapid alternative to current sectioning & staining (tetrazolium) test Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

10 Results Using Flat Panel ◦ Seven samples from both control and frost damaged groups were examined Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

11 Control seeds Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

12 Frost damaged seeds Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

13 Qualitative difference apparent between groups – loss of internal structure Next: quantitative analysis of images to remove subjective evaluation Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

14 X-ray Luminance Profiles of Maize Seeds Method Line profile used to see if there is a numerical difference in the luminance profiles between a control corn seed and a frost damaged seed Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

15 Trends In general, the luminance profile of a good seed with no frost damage is more erratic then the smoother bad seed’s profile This trend presumably reveals frost damage to internal seed structure Frost Damage Control Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

16 Further analyses of maize seed X-rays The luminance profiles were exported to spreadsheets Two methods were used to numerically separate the control from the frost damaged seeds ◦ Large Difference ◦ Large Slope Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

17 Analysis : Large Difference In the profile shown here, there are 4 differences in the “valid” region (internal seed features) that are larger then the threshold. Total Range Large Difference Threshold = (Scale Factor)*(Total Range) Large Difference Threshold 1 2 3 4 Valid Region Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

18 Analysis : Large Slope For example, the profile of this seed has 5 Large Slopes in the valid region. Valid Region 1 2 5 3 4 6 Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

19 Results : Large Difference There are typically more “large differences” within radiographs of control seeds than for frost damaged seeds. Large Difference Data Sample Control Frost Damage 1101 2123 3 0 470 541 604 7112 Avg81.5 Scale Factor = 0.055 Frost Damage Control Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

20 Results : Large Slope There are more “large slopes” on average within radiographs of control seeds than for frost damaged seeds Large Slope Data SampleControl Frost Damage 14020 22718 34310 42118 5139 61940 74227 Avg29.220.3 Slope Threshold = 10 Frost Damage Control Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

21 Conclusions The internal structure of maize seeds may be revealed using standard industrial radiographic equipment The adverse effects of frost damage were observable in this small study, independent of seed knowledge or significant manipulation of test conditions Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

22 Problems with analysis The threshold multiplier has to be adjusted to maximize the divergence in counts/core counts between averaged results for good and bad learning sets ◦.055 used initially,.038 probably better Similarly, the large derivative threshold is chosen to maximize this difference ◦ 10 used initially, 12 probably better The “valid” region of interest was subjectively chosen Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

23 Positive modification (attempts) Change source to detector distance ◦ Magnified image  Structural variation seen in more detail over greater pixel count ◦ Work at lower voltage (40 kV  25 kV)  Strive for contrast variation afforded by lower energies More automated line profile placement ◦ Remove subjective analysis Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

24 New Seed Radiographs ControlFrost Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

25 Frost – Saturday Radiograph with Equator, Automatic & Manual Profiles Highlighted Line Profiles Auto 1Auto 2Auto 3Man. Large Difference Counts 11226241261 Large Slope Counts 1511 Auto 1 Equator Manual Auto 3 Auto 2 Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

26 Large Difference Results Summary Large Difference Count Table Auto 1Auto 2Auto 3Manual Ctrl-Sun216228250233 Ctrl-Mon12149214 Ctrl-Tues7152825 Frost-Thur - 13.51615176129 Frost-Thur - 1136414835 Frost-Fri8024027699 Frost-Sat11226241261 Difference is not as clear as was earlier believed; faulty logic due to magnified image? Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

27 Large Slope Results Summary Large Slope Count Table Auto 1Auto 2Auto 3Manual Ctrl-Sun1111 Ctrl-Mon4111 Ctrl-Tues1112 Frost-Thur - 13.51111 Frost-Thur - 111112 Frost-Fri1111 Frost-Sat1511 Difference is not as clear as was earlier believed; faulty logic due to magnified image? Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

28 Radiographic detection of frost damage Differentiation is certainly possible ◦ To what degree?  50% moisture at frost is no big challenge Algorithm/logic needs to be refined ◦ Slope/difference thresholds need account for morphology changes over higher pixel count Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

29 Haploid & hybrid seeds The inducing of haploid corn from which to generate more vigorous hybrid lines is desired ◦ Currently takes six to eight generations of corn, or 3-4 years, to produce the inbred lines to cross for hybridization Effective method for inducing haploids would reduce this time to one or two generations ◦ Allow for the faster production of hybrid lines ◦ Greater freedom to experiment with other seed attributes Distinguishing between stained and unstained seeds (current method) takes a trained eye and much time CT scans on seeds were performed ◦ Embryos of the haploid seeds were ~7% smaller by volume than the hybrid seeds Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

30 Comparison of Hybrid & Haploid Collections Haploid Hybrid Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

31 Data Analysis Procedure A section of the radiograph was selected and a histogram of that luminance data was generated Two sections were analyzed for each sample: ◦ 600 pixel diameter circle (not adequate) ◦ Oval with 900 & 600 pixel major and minor radii Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

32 Haploid – Saturday – 600 x 900 pixel oval Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

33 Luminance profiles of Haploid and Hybrid Seeds Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010 Do lower luminance values reflect smaller embryos?

34 Results not definitive Scatter in data may prove analysis to be hopelessly clumsy Is data showing density/volumetric info of interest? Placement/size of measurement area still problematic Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

35 Interest in observing root structure Commercial system prohibitively expensive What can be done? Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

36 Styrofoam Holder Configured for two plants Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

37 30 kV Energy: 30 kV Current: 250 µA Spot Size: Small FPS: 1 Window Average: 10 Source to Detector Distance: 26” Source to Sample Distance: ~ 24” Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

38 40 kV Energy: 40 kV Current: 250 µA Spot Size: Small FPS: 1 Window Average: 10 Source to Detector Distance: 26” Source to Sample Distance: 20” Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

39 50 kV Energy: 50 kV Current: 200 µA Spot Size: Small FPS: 1 Window Average: 10 Source to Detector Distance: 26” Source to Sample Distance: 20” Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

40 Images of “Sprout & Grow” with Bean & Pea plants Energy: 25 kV Current: 250 µA Spot Size: Small Window Average: 10 Source to Detector Distance: 24” Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

41 Sprout & Grow Holder – Front View A pea and bean seed grown in water and Styrofoam beads in half of the container. Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

42 Sprout & Grow Holder – Rear View Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

43 Sprout & Grow Holder – Front View X-Ray Image Optical Image Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

44 Sprout & Grow Holder – Rear View X-Ray Image Optical Image Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

45 Conclusions X-ray imaging of roots quite possible ◦ Use Styrofoam beads, not standard growing media Scale of imaging important ◦ Subtle initial growth or large developed network Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

46 Overall conclusions Digital radiography is powerful tool for nontraditional applications Communication of needs, tradeoffs necessary ◦ Content revealed v. inspection rate Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010

47 Thank you Three Rivers Tech Conf - 3-4 Aug 2010


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