Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Endodontics"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Endodontics Mr. caputoUnit #2 Lesson #1
2Today’s Class Driving Question: What is endodontics? Learning Intentions: We will be able to identify the causes of pulpal damage.Anchor: Explain the purpose of dental cast.
3This UnitThis unit provides information on the dental specialty that is involved in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the pulpal portion of the tooth. Endodontic treatment is most often referred to as a “root canal.” A root canal provides treatment for a tooth that may otherwise need to be extracted. Endodontics may be performed by a general dentist or by a specialist known as an endodontist. Following the completion of endodontic treatment, a final restorative restoration will be placed to complete the process.
4This UnitThis lesson focuses on the identification of pulpal damage and the signs and symptoms experienced by individuals with pulpal damage. Additional information is included on the various tests that can be utilized to diagnose diseased endodontic tissues. Regardless of the signs and symptoms that a patient may be experiencing, pulpal nerve damage may be clinically evident or may be undetectable from a visual inspection. The dentist needs to use various diagnostic tests to determine the presence as well as extent of pulpal nerve damage prior to implementing treatment. Emphasis in this lesson is placed on the dental assistant’s responsibilities in the preparation of the endodontic setup as well as duties during endodontic treatment.
5EndodonticsSpecialty involving treatment of tooth pulp and periapical tissuesPulp infection from root apex can travel to periapical area and then spread to periradicular tissuesIf not treated, infection can spread to bone and next to oral soft tissues
6Endodontist Click here for a question to consider Specialist in root canal treatmentEndodontic specialist completes dental school and attends advanced training in endodontics for an additional two yearsGeneral dentists refer difficult-to-treat cases to an endodontic specialistClick here for a question to consider
7Question to ConsiderCan there be a relationship between a brain infection and a tooth infection?Read the story of a Maryland boywho died of brain infection by clicking here or visitingarticle/2007/02/27/AR html
8Causes of Pulpal Damage Aggressive tooth decay reaching the pulp chamberTrauma to tooth due to a physical blow separating tooth from nerve supply, either recently or in the pastTrauma to tooth due to complete or incomplete fracture
9Causes of Pulpal Damage Microbial irritation—caused by destructive tooth decay that allows harmful bacteria to enter the pulpal chamber.Mechanical and thermal irritation from tooth preparationChemical irritation when restorative materials are placed too close to pulp
10Symptoms of Pulpal Damage Oversensitivity of tooth to hot or cold food and beveragesPain or discomfort from tooth when chewing or bitingFacial swelling due to periapical abscessAching of tooth without definable reason, possibly keeping patient awake at nightSometimes there are no obvious symptoms
11Pulpal Tissue Inflammation A toothache may develop with sharp and throbbing pain, which is generally an acute condition, or the patient may experience mild to dull pain, which indicates a chronic condition of inflammation of the pulpal tissue. Pulpitis is inflammation of the tooth pulp that may be reversible or irreversible, or the pulp may already be dead.
12Pulpal Tissue Inflammation A periapical abscess is an infection from within the tooth that spreads out through the tooth’s apex and into the surrounding bone. A vital pulp has reactions to cold and other stimuli.
13Reversible PulpitisIf tooth is able to respond to treatment and symptoms of inflammation subsideProcedure involves:removing cariesplacing medicated sedative temporary fillingallowing symptoms to subsideplacing sedative filling with calcium hydroxide to provide tooth a chance to produce reparative dentin and heal itself
14Irreversible Pulpitis When tooth is unable to respond to treatment and patient’s symptoms of pain continueNo visual changes on periapical radiograph may be seenEndodontic treatment is indicatedOnly alternative to root canal therapy is extraction of tooth
15Pulpal NecrosisNecrotic pulp is nonvital pulp that is infected and deadNecrotic pulp has been deprived of its blood and nerve supply and is no longer composed of living tissueNonvital tooth will not respond to heat, cold, or electrical stimulationNonvital pulp may range from being asymptomatic to being very sensitive
17Periapical AbscessResults from an infection of pulpal tissue causing pulp to diePus and fluid accumulate and form in the bone surrounding toothFistulous tract is formedImage courtesy Instructional Materials for the Dental Team, Lex. KY