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What parts of the body is the Central Nervous System comprised of?

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1 What parts of the body is the Central Nervous System comprised of?
IFA What parts of the body is the Central Nervous System comprised of?

2 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
New technology and advances in science have led to a better understanding of the relationship of the brain, biological basis of behavior, and mental disorders

3 Student Objective I can identify parts and functions of the Central Nervous System (CNS)

4 Cells of the Nervous System
The cells are known as Neurons. Neurons- the basic building block of the nervous system that specialize in transmitting information throughout the body Unusual shape Nerve fibers extend from body cell (soma) Dendrites- branched fibers that receive neural impulses Axons- transmits neural messages from cell body towards another neuron


6 Two principal divisions of the nervous system
Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

7 Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord Serve as control center for entire organism Integrated incoming information and determines appropriate responses

8 Peripheral Nervous System
Made up of nerves outside of CNS Acts a communication lines to and from CNS Made up of sense organs- eyes, ears, taste buds, olfactory receptors, and touch receptors

9 Mental Health Link Understanding of mental disorders most often involves understanding the structure and function of the CNS

10 The picture above is a representation of what system of the body?
IFA The picture above is a representation of what system of the body?

11 Cerebral Cortex Thin outer surface of the forbrain
Largely made up of cell bodies which are gray Most highly evolved portion of the brain

12 Cerebrum Forebrain The largest most anterior part of the human brain
Control motor activities and interprets sensations

13 Lobes of the Cerebrum Frontal Temporal Parietal Occipital

14 Frontal Lobe Motor cortex-control skeletal muscles
Broca’s speech area-formation of words Responsible for personality Damage can cause a change in personality

15 Temporal Lobe Auditory area Language memory and speech capacity
Damage can result in aphasia Aphasia: partial or total inability to produce and understand speech as a a result of brain damage cause by injury or disease

16 Parietal Lobe Sensory association area- impulses from skin such as pain and temperature are interpreted Area for estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes

17 Occipital Lobe Primary visual area Trauma can result in blindness
Lesions can cause visual hallucinations

18 IFA The picture below is of the brain...what lobe of the brain is the area located and what is the area called?

19 Pituitary Gland Master Gland
Its secretions control timing and amount of hormone secretions by other endocrine glands Thyroid Adrenal Glands Ovaries Testes

20 Cerebellum Responsible for coordination of movements
Makes movements smooth Helps maintain muscle tone Helps maintain equilibrium

21 Pons Visual Pons Forms a bulge on anterior surface of brain stem
The link (bridge) that connects various parts of the brain Pons Visual

22 Medulla Oblongata Most anterior portion of the brain stem
Vital centers of medulla Cardiac center: control heart rate Vasomotor center: helps regulate blood pressure Respiratory center: initiate and regulate breathing Center for reflex actions: (vomiting, sneezzing, coughing, and swallowing)

23 IFA List the four centers of the Medulla Oblongata. Provide a description of each center.

24 The Brain Part II Neurophysiology-Chemical Events at the Synapse
Each structure and each chemical produced and used by the brain has a specific function. Disease may cause alteration in the function of the brain. An understanding of the chemical events occurring at the synapse is fundamental to biological psychology. Objective: Student will identify the neurotransmitters and name disorders that can result when there is neurotransmitter dysfunction.

25 Neurons Nerve cells that make up the brain and peripheral nerves
Communicate with each other at the synapses Synapse is a functional (not physical) contact between to neurons About 100 billion neurons in human brain Each neuron has about 10,00 synaptic contacts with other neurons.

26 Parts of a Neuron Cell body or soma
Contains the nucleus of the cell (DNA) Soma constitutes “receiving” surface of the neuron If the soma is damages, a neuron will not recover

27 Parts of a Neuron Dendrite Multiple branches come off the coma
Branches receive nerve impulses from other neurons Dendrite branching is influences by environment during development, both pre and post natal The more branches, the more receiving sites for a neuron Dendrites are few and sparsely branched in certain conditions such as Downs Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Lab animals who have received stimulations as infants shoe more dendritic branching

28 Axon Single fiber that is thicker and longer than dendrites
Axon may have many branches at it end Axons may be very short (1 micron) to very long (1 meter) depending on their destinations in the nervous system Damaged neurons may show sprouting of new terminals to fill in spaces vacated by damaged axons Mature neurons may not have an axon Axon terminals in brain may be represented by these organizations

29 Myelin Sheath The lipid and protein sheath surrounding the axon
Purpose to insulate neuron The more heavily mylinated the neuron the faster the electrical pulse can travel down the axon to other neurons Multiple Sclerosis (MS) condition where the myelin of the brain and spinal cord degenerate Nerve impulses unable to travel smoothly and efficiently

30 The Synapse A dynamic region between neurons consisting of:
Axon terminal (carries electrical impulses away from soma) Synaptic cleft (a space between terminal axon and receiving neuron) Dendrite (or adjacent neuron body) REMEMBER that both SOMA and DENDRITES constitutes the RECEIVING surface of a neuron Synapse Graphic

31 Neurotransmitters: The Chemical Messengers
Chemicals (hormones) that are made in soma and stored in small synaptic vesicles (“packages”) at the tip of the axon As electrical pulses travel from soma to axon, neurotransmitters are released into synapse Neurotransmitters stick to receptors proteins in neighboring dendrite and trigger nerve impulse that travel down dendrite, across soma, down axon, etc. Our behavior is consequence of millions of cells “talking” to each other via these electrochemical processes Neurotransmitter Graphic

32 Inactivation of Neurotransmitters
The action of neurotransmitters can be stopped by four different mechanisms: Diffusion: the neurotransmitter drifts away, out of the synaptic cleft where it can no longer act on a receptor. Enzymatic degradation (deactivation): a specific enzyme changes the structure of the neurotransmitter so it is not recognized by the receptor. For example, acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that breaks acetylcholine into choline and acetate. Neurotransmitter Graphic

33 Inactivation of Neurotransmitters
Glial cells: astrocytes remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft Reuptake: the whole neurotransmitter molecule is taken back into the axon terminal that released it. This is a common way the action of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin is stopped...these neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft so they cannot bind to receptors

34 Some of the Well Known Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine (Ach) Dopamine (DA) Serotonin and Norepinephrine Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)\ Endorphines (“endegenous morphine)

35 Acetylcholine (Ach) Contributes to movement, learning, memory processes and REM sleep Only transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles EXCESS: muscle paralysis or convulsions, sometimes death DEFICIT: memory impairment (Alzheimer’s disease)

36 Dopamine (DA) Used by neurons control voluntary movement
Also used by neurons that are important for learning, attention, thought, and emotion EXCESS: irrational thought, delusion, and/or hallucinations (Schizophrenia) DEFICIT: tremors, muscular rigidity (Parkinson’s disease)

37 Serotonin and Norepinephrine
Serotonin play prominent role in regulation of mood, sleep impulsivity, aggression, and appetite. Norepinephrine plays role in eating, sleep, and mood Lower level of activity in serotonin and norephinephrine is related to depression DEFICIT serotonin: may lead to increased aggressive behavior and suicide Some antidepressants drugs act to block reuptake of serotonin or norepinephrine

38 What is the synapse composed of?
IFA What is the synapse composed of?

39 Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
i. Appears to have inhibitory effects at synapses ii. contributes to regulation of anxiety iii. lower levels of activity related to anxiety iv. antianxiety drugs (tranquilizers such as Valium) facilitate GABA synapses and thereby reduce anxiety v. abnormality in GABA neurons may cause epilepsy

40 Endorphins (“endogenous morphine”)
opiate-like substances produced in the body provide relief from pain and produce feelings of pleasure and well-being drugs such as opium, morphine, and heroin bind with receptors for endorphins endorphins may explain “runners-high” experienced by long-distance runners

41 Imaging of the Brain I. Key Terms
A. neuro – root for brain and/or nervous system B. imaging – procedure which records a picture or “image” of a body part C. tome – Greek word that means “slice” sometimes referred to as a “cut” of body tissue a. in neuroimaging, tome refers to cross-sectional images that demonstrate multiple “slices” of human anatomy b. orientation of cross-sectional images depends on the body plane along which the image was recorded D. –graphy – suffix that means a process of recording (an image)

42 Imaging of the Brain II. Body Planes – imaginary planes that pass through the body dividing it into sections; these planes provide the orientation for cross-sectional images in neuroimaging A. transverse plane – imaginary plane that cuts across the body or body part and divides body or its part into upper and lower parts. B. sagittal plane – imaginary plane that cuts the body into right and left sections a. midsagittal plane (also called median plane) – imaginary plane that cuts body into equal right and left halves C. coronal plane (also called frontal plane) – imaginary plane that divides the body or its parts into front and back sections



45 Traditional Types of Neuroimaging
A. Skull Radiograph (takes about 5 to 10 minutes) a. description: one-dimensional x-ray of skull i. generally requires at least three separate x-ray images from different angles to better determine tissue abnormality 1. image from the front (AP x-ray) 2. image from the side (lateral x-ray) 3. image with head turned 45 degrees (oblique x-ray)

46 Skull Radiograph: Advantages/Disadvantages
b. advantages: i. relative inexpensive ii. fast iii. demonstrates bony structures and fractures c. disadvantages: i. radiographic projections are one-dimensional and cannot accurately demonstrate depth and location of lesion ii. does not image soft-tissue as well as bone

47 Lateral Projection

48 Traditional Types of Neuroimaging
Cerebral Angiography (takes about 60+ minutes) a. description: traditional skull radiographs taken during injection of radiopaque contrast medium (“dye”) into the carotid arteries i. visualization of blood flow via the carotid arteries to the brain ii. helps diagnose patency of vessels, intracranial aneurysms, & tumor masses, which are shown by displacement of normal vessels

49 Cerebral Angiography: Disadvantages/Advantages
i. uses bolus of iodine-based dye for visualization of vessels 1. may produce allergic reaction in some patients 2. could dislodge vascular plaque and cause a stroke

50 Cerebral Angiography


52 Neuroimaging of the Late 20th-Century
Computerized Axial Tomography –CAT scan (also called CT Scan) (takes 10 to 30 minutes) c. description: involves passing a narrow beam of traditional x-rays through brain of a person lying in a large, donut-shaped x-ray machine called a scanner; provides transverse slices of the head i. beam of x-rays sent out by x-ray tube that rotates around patient’s head ii. whole series of x-rays are taken at every angle around the head and then combined in a computer to reconstruct an image of transaxial slice of the head

53 Computerized Axial Tomography –CAT scan: Disadvantages/Advantages
i. imaging method of choice for examining skull fractures ii. one of the least expensive modalities (other than skull x-rays) e. disadvantages: i. difficult to see brain tissue, therefore, does not serve as specific test for mental disorders ii. sometimes dye (called contrast media) must be given as a shot in a vein to help get a clear picture; some people are allergic to this dye iii. underestimation of brain atrophy iv. inability to image in sagittal and coronal planes v. one CT scan delivers radiation equivalent to many traditional x-rays (this limits the total number of scans that can be performed safely within an individual)

54 CT scan images

55 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (takes 30 to 90 minutes)
a. description: uses magnetic fields and radio waves to obtain a mathematically reconstructed image b. how it works: i. certain nuclei in the body are magnetic (those having odd numbers of protons or neutrons) ii. when under the influence of a magnetic field, those nuclei oscillate and reemit radio waves that are picked up by MRI receiver and sent to a computer iii. radio waves are then reconstructed by the computer into an image of the brain

56 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
advantages: i. allows for clear distinctions between cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter ii. can show minor brain injuries and close-up pictures of base of brain iii. intrinsically 3-dimensional, acquiring multiple images in any plane (transverse, sagittal, and/or coronal) iv. does not involve radiation d. disadvantages: i. noisy (patient ‘s usually given pair of headphones or earplugs ii. must lie flat on back inside small “tunnel” of scanner (makes many patients feel claustrophobic) iii. must remove all metal objects & jewelry iv. tests often take a long time (30 to 90 minutes) v. more expensive than CT scans


58 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) & Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
a. description: both are noninvasive imaging techniques that scan radioactive material that was injected into a peripheral vessel of the patient b. advantages: i. unlike conventional radiography which demonstrates the structure (anatomy) of organs, PET & SPECT are able to measure particular aspects of human physiology (which is determined from scanner’s measurement of neurotransmitter radioactivity) ii. unlike other studies that use toxic contrast medium (“dye”) to visualize vessels, the small amount of radioactive pharmaceuticals used in PET & SPECT studies are similar to body’s own biochemical constituents c. note that SPECT studies are much more cost effective than PET exams


60 Clinical Applications of PET & SPECT
Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia a. SPECT studies have shown decreased size of hippocampus and metabolic disturbances in early stages of Alzheimer’s B. Mood Disorders a. SPECT & PET studies consistently found reduced global cerebral blood flow—particularly in unipolar patients i. decreased activity in prefrontal cortex seen in depressed patients C. Schizophrenia a. PET studies demonstrate a decrease of activity in frontal lobe and an increase of activity in the subcortical regions

61 Clinical Applications of PET & SPECT
Anxiety Disorders a. panic attacks: PET scans demonstrate area of hyperactivity in right parahippocampal gyrus b. general anxiety disorder: PET studies show increase in glucose metabolism in thalamus c. obsessive-compulsive disorder: SPECT studies show increased metabolic activity in frontal lobes and basal ganglia E. Personality and Eating Disorders a. bulimia: PET images show cortical asymmetry in metabolic rate for glucose b. schizotypal personality disorder: abnormalities found in frontal and temporal

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