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Directional Terms Chapter 1

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Presentation on theme: "Directional Terms Chapter 1"— Presentation transcript:

1 Directional Terms Chapter 1

2 Anatomical Position and Regional Terms

3 Anatomical Position Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from the body Right and left always refers to the sides belonging to the person or specimen being viewed – never to the viewer Note: four legged animals have a different anatomical position than humans Their ventral is on the inferior side and dorsal in on the superior side In humans ventral and anterior is the same and so is dorsal and posterior

4 Directional Terms Refers to the body in anatomical position:
Superior (cranial, cephalic) / Inferior (caudal) Anterior (ventral) / Posterior (dorsal) Medial / Lateral Superficial (external) / Deep (internal) Proximal / Distal Ipsilateral / Contralateral

5 Directional Terms

6 Body Planes and Sections
Planes divide the body: Frontal (coronal) Sagittal (para or mid) Transverse Obliques Sections: cuts made along a plane Figure 1.4

7 Planes and sections through different parts of the brain

8 Dorsal and Ventral Body Cavities and their subdivisions
Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body Vertebral spinal cord) Superior mediastinum Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Pleural Abdomino- pelvic Ventral body (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view (b) Anterior view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Figure 1.6

9 Body Cavities and Membranes
Serous cavities: slit-like space lined by a serous membrane (serosa) Pleura, Pericardium, Peritoneum Parietal serosa: lines the outer wall of the cavity Visceral serosa: covers the visceral organs Serous Fluid: lubricant secreted by both serous membranes

10 Pericardial, Pleural, Peritoneal
Figure 1.7

11 Other Cavities Oral, Nasal, Orbital, Middle ear, and Synovial (joint) cavities Figure 1.11

12 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
To facilitate its study, the abdominopelvic region can be divided into regions and quadrants Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into nine regions Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants: right and left upper / lower quadrants

13 Abdominal Regions Figure 1.8a, b Epigastric region Umbilical Right
lumbar Left hypochondriac Hypogastric (pubic) Right iliac (inguinal) Left iliac (a) Nine regions delineated by four planes Liver Diaphragm Spleen Gallbladder Stomach Ascending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Small intestine Descending colon of large intestine Cecum Initial part of sigmoid colon Appendix Urinary bladder (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs Figure 1.8a, b

14 Organs Located in Abdominal Regions
R. Hypochondriac - right, upper 1/3; gallbladder, liver, r. kidney Epigastric - Upper, central 1/3; liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum L. Hypochondriac - left, upper 1/3; spleen, colon, liver, l. kidney, small intestine R. Lumbar - right, lateral 1/3; cecum, ascending colon, liver, r. kidney, small intestine Umbilical - center; umbilicus (navel) is located here; jejunum, ileum, duodenum, colon, kidneys, major abdominal vessels L. Lumbar - left, lateral 1/3; descending colon, l. kidney, small intestine R. Iliac (inguinal) - right, lower 1/3; appendix, cecum, small intestine Hypogastric (pubic) - lower, center 1/3; urinary bladder, small intestine, sigmoid colon, female reproductive organs L. Iliac (inguinal) - left, lower 1/3; small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon

15 Abdominal Quadrants Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant
(LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) (c) The four abdominopelvic quadrants Figure 1.8c

16 Disorder: abnormality of structure and/or function
Disease: illness characterized by a set of symptoms and signs Symptoms: subjective changes in body functions not apparent to an observant Signs: objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure Diagnosis: science of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another Human Body and Disease Copyright 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 Microscopy: used to investigate small structures of organs, tissues, and cells
Histology: study of tissue and their cells (cytology) Light microscopy illuminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification) Electron microscopy uses beams of electrons (higher magnification) Specialized cells form different types of tissues, thus different tissues do not look or function in the same way Illness or physiological problems experienced in the body occur at the cellular level Microscopic Anatomy

18 Light and Electron Microscopic Anatomy
(a) Light micrograph (330) (b) Transmission electron micrograph, artificially colored (870) Cytoplasm Extracellular material Cell nuclei (c) Scanning electron micrograph, artificially colored (2900) Figure 1.9a–c

19 Preparing Human Tissue
Specimen is fixed (preserved) and sectioned Specimen is stained to distinguish anatomical structures Light microscopy: acidic (negative charged dye molecules) and basic (positive charged dye molecules) stains Electron microscopy: heavy-metal salt stains (deflects electrons) Artifacts: distortions of preserved tissues Not exactly like living tissues and organs Preparing Human Tissue

20 Clinical Anatomy: An Introduction to Medical Imaging Techniqes
Traditional more non-invasive method of diagnosis X-rays (electromagnetic waves) directed at the body Some x-rays are absorbed: amount of absorption depends on the density of matter encountered Radiograph image: negative Darker exposed areas represent soft organs (easily penetrated) Light, unexposed areas correspond to denser structures such as bones Contrast medium: solution with heavy elements (i.e. barium) Used to view soft tissue organs Advanced X-Ray techniques use computer-assisted imaging technologies

21 Radiography X ray: electromagnetic waves of very short length
Best for visualizing bones and abnormal dense structures Heart (a) Radiograph of the chest (b) Mammogram (cancerous tumor at arrow) Clavicles (collarbones) Air in lungs (black) Ribs Diaphragm Radiography Figure 1.10

22 Advanced Medical Imaging: Computed (Axial) Tomography (CT or CAT)
Takes successive X rays around a person’s circumference Translates recorded information into a detailed picture of the section Inferior vena cava Right Left Liver Colon Stomach Aorta Spleen kidney Thoracic vertebra View

23 Contrast X-rays Contrast media make hollow or fluid-filled structures visible Media can be introduced by injection, orally, or rectally Depends on the structure imaged Barium contrast x-ray showing a cancer of the ascending colon (arrow)

24 Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
A contrast medium given: images taken ‘before’ and ‘after’ Computer processes the x-ray images and subtracts the differences Eliminates all traces of body structures that obscure the vessel Identify blockages of arteries that supply the heart or brain Figure 1.12

25 PET (Positron Emission Tomography): accesses functional flow of blood to the heart & brain
Produces images by detecting radioactive isotopes injected into the body Decaying isotopes emits gamma rays Detected by sensors, translated into impulses and sent to a computer Active areas receiving more blood light up Figure 1.13

26 Sonography (Ultrasound Imaging)
Figure 1.14 Pulses of high frequency (ultrasonic) sound waves reflect (echo) off tissue Computer analyzes the echoes to construct sectional images Inexpensive/safer technique but not used for viewing air-filled structures or structures surrounded by bone

27 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
High-energy magnetic field causes protons (H+) in tissues and fluids to align in relation to the field Pulse of radio waves emitted to misalign H+ As they realign with the magnet a radio wave is again emitted Sensors ‘read’ these ion patterns, computerized signals produce detailed images of soft tissues Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

28 Endoscopy Endoscope: lighted instrument with lenses
Used for visual examination of the inside of body organs or cavities Colonoscopy: interior of the colon Arthroscopy: interior of a joint Laparoscopy: interior of abdominopelvic organs Interior view of the colon as shown by colonoscopy

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