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Presentation on theme: "DIRECTIONAL TERMS CHAPTER 1. ANATOMICAL POSITION AND REGIONAL TERMS."— Presentation transcript:



3 ANATOMICAL POSITION  Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward  Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from the body  Right and left always refers to the sides belonging to the person or specimen being viewed – never to the viewer  Note: four legged animals have a different anatomical position than humans  Their ventral is on the inferior side and dorsal in on the superior side  In humans ventral and anterior is the same and so is dorsal and posterior

4 DIRECTIONAL TERMS Refers to the body in anatomical position:  Superior (cranial, cephalic) / Inferior (caudal)  Anterior (ventral) / Posterior (dorsal)  Medial / Lateral  Superficial (external) / Deep (internal)  Proximal / Distal  Ipsilateral / Contralateral


6 BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS  Planes divide the body:  Frontal (coronal)  Sagittal (para or mid)  Transverse  Obliques  Sections: cuts made along a plane Figure 1.4


8 DORSAL AND VENTRAL BODY CAVITIES AND THEIR SUBDIVISIONS Cranial cavity (contains brain) Dorsal body cavity Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) Cranial cavity Superior mediastinum Pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Pleural cavity Vertebral cavity Abdomino- pelvic cavity Ventral body cavity (thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities) Abdominal cavity (contains digestive viscera) Diaphragm Pelvic cavity (contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum) Thoracic cavity (contains heart and lungs) (a) Lateral view(b) Anterior view Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity Figure 1.6

9 BODY CAVITIES AND MEMBRANES  Serous cavities: slit-like space lined by a serous membrane (serosa)  Pleura, Pericardium, Peritoneum  Parietal serosa: lines the outer wall of the cavity  Visceral serosa: covers the visceral organs  Serous Fluid: lubricant secreted by both serous membranes


11 Figure 1.11 OTHER CAVITIES  Oral, Nasal, Orbital, Middle ear, and Synovial (joint) cavities

12 ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS AND QUADRANTS  To facilitate its study, the abdominopelvic region can be divided into regions and quadrants  Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into nine regions  Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants: right and left upper / lower quadrants

13 ABDOMINAL REGIONS Figure 1.8a, b Epigastric region Umbilical region Right lumbar region Left lumbar region Right hypochondriac region Left hypochondriac region Hypogastric (pubic) region Right iliac (inguinal) region Left iliac (inguinal) region (a) Nine regions delineated by four planes Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Appendix Cecum Diaphragm Stomach Descending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs Spleen

14 ORGANS LOCATED IN ABDOMINAL REGIONS  R. Hypochondriac - right, upper 1/3; gallbladder, liver, r. kidney  Epigastric - Upper, central 1/3; liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum  L. Hypochondriac - left, upper 1/3; spleen, colon, liver, l. kidney, small intestine  R. Lumbar - right, lateral 1/3; cecum, ascending colon, liver, r. kidney, small intestine  Umbilical - center; umbilicus (navel) is located here; jejunum, ileum, duodenum, colon, kidneys, major abdominal vessels  L. Lumbar - left, lateral 1/3; descending colon, l. kidney, small intestine  R. Iliac (inguinal) - right, lower 1/3; appendix, cecum, small intestine  Hypogastric (pubic) - lower, center 1/3; urinary bladder, small intestine, sigmoid colon, female reproductive organs  L. Iliac (inguinal) - left, lower 1/3; small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon

15 Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) (c) The four abdominopelvic quadrants ABDOMINAL QUADRANTS Figure 1.8c

16 HUMAN BODY AND DISEASE  Disorder: abnormality of structure and/or function  Disease: illness characterized by a set of symptoms and signs  Symptoms: subjective changes in body functions not apparent to an observant  Signs: objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure  Diagnosis: science of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another Copyright 2012, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY  Microscopy: used to investigate small structures of organs, tissues, and cells  Histology: study of tissue and their cells (cytology)  Light microscopy illuminates tissue with a beam of light (lower magnification)  Electron microscopy uses beams of electrons (higher magnification) Specialized cells form different types of tissues, thus different tissues do not look or function in the same way Illness or physiological problems experienced in the body occur at the cellular level

18 (a)Light micrograph (330  ) (b)Transmission electron micrograph, artificially colored (870  ) Cytoplasm Extracellular material Cell nuclei (c)Scanning electron micrograph, artificially colored (2900  ) LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY Figure 1.9a–c

19 PREPARING HUMAN TISSUE  Specimen is fixed (preserved) and sectioned  Specimen is stained to distinguish anatomical structures  Light microscopy: acidic (negative charged dye molecules) and basic (positive charged dye molecules) stains  Electron microscopy: heavy-metal salt stains (deflects electrons)  Artifacts: distortions of preserved tissues  Not exactly like living tissues and organs

20 CLINICAL ANATOMY: AN INTRODUCTION TO MEDICAL IMAGING TECHNIQES Traditional more non-invasive method of diagnosis  X-rays (electromagnetic waves) directed at the body  Some x-rays are absorbed: amount of absorption depends on the density of matter encountered  Radiograph image: negative  Darker exposed areas represent soft organs (easily penetrated)  Light, unexposed areas correspond to denser structures such as bones  Contrast medium: solution with heavy elements (i.e. barium)  Used to view soft tissue organs  Advanced X-Ray techniques use computer-assisted imaging technologies

21 Figure 1.10 RADIOGRAPHY  X ray: electromagnetic waves of very short length  Best for visualizing bones and abnormal dense structures Heart (a) Radiograph of the chest(b)Mammogram (cancerous tumor at arrow) Clavicles (collarbones) Air in lungs (black) Ribs Diaphragm

22 ADVANCED MEDICAL IMAGING: COMPUTED (AXIAL) TOMOGRAPHY (CT OR CAT)  Takes successive X rays around a person’s circumference  Translates recorded information into a detailed picture of the section Inferior vena cava RightLeft Liver Colon Stomach Aorta Spleen Left kidney Thoracic vertebra View

23 Barium contrast x-ray showing a cancer of the ascending colon (arrow) CONTRAST X-RAYS  Contrast media make hollow or fluid-filled structures visible  Media can be introduced by injection, orally, or rectally  Depends on the structure imaged

24 Figure 1.12 DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY (DSA)  A contrast medium given: images taken ‘before’ and ‘after’  Computer processes the x-ray images and subtracts the differences  Eliminates all traces of body structures that obscure the vessel  Identify blockages of arteries that supply the heart or brain

25 Figure 1.13 Produces images by detecting radioactive isotopes injected into the body Decaying isotopes emits gamma rays Detected by sensors, translated into impulses and sent to a computer Active areas receiving more blood light up PET (POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY): ACCESSES FUNCTIONAL FLOW OF BLOOD TO THE HEART & BRAIN

26 Figure 1.14 SONOGRAPHY (ULTRASOUND IMAGING)  Pulses of high frequency (ultrasonic) sound waves reflect (echo) off tissue  Computer analyzes the echoes to construct sectional images  Inexpensive/safer technique but not used for viewing air-filled structures or structures surrounded by bone

27 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)  High-energy magnetic field causes protons (H + ) in tissues and fluids to align in relation to the field  Pulse of radio waves emitted to misalign H +  As they realign with the magnet a radio wave is again emitted  Sensors ‘read’ these ion patterns, computerized signals produce detailed images of soft tissues

28 Interior view of the colon as shown by colonoscopy ENDOSCOPY  Endoscope: lighted instrument with lenses  Used for visual examination of the inside of body organs or cavities  Colonoscopy: interior of the colon  Arthroscopy: interior of a joint  Laparoscopy: interior of abdominopelvic organs


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